• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
Nucleic Acids Res. Mar 25, 1991; 19(6): 1305–1310.
PMCID: PMC333858

Cis and trans-acting elements involved in the activation of Arabidopsis thaliana A1 gene encoding the translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha.


In A. thaliana the translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha is encoded by a small multigenic family of four members (A1-A4). The A1 gene promoter has been dissected and examined in a transient expression system using the GUS reporter gene. Deletion analysis has shown that several elements are involved in the activation process. One cis-acting domain, the TEF 1 box, has been accurately mapped 100 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. This domain is the target for trans-acting factors identified in nuclear extracts prepared from A. thaliana. Homologies are found between the TEF 1 box and sequences present at the same location within the A2, A3 and A4 promoters. This observation, together with those obtained from gel retardation assays performed using DNA fragments from the A4 promoter, suggest that the activation process mediated by the TEF 1 element is conserved among the A. thaliana EF-1 alpha genes. Analysis of nearly full length cDNA clones has shown that in addition to a single intron located within the coding region, the A1 gene contains a second intron located within the 5' non coding region. Such an intron is also present within the A2, A3 and A4 genes. This 5' intervening sequence appears to be essential to obtain a maximum GUS activity driven by the A1 gene promoter.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Leer RJ, Van Raamsdonk-Duin MM, Mager WH, Planta RJ. Conserved sequences upstream of yeast ribosomal protein genes. Curr Genet. 1985;9(4):273–277. [PubMed]
  • Huet J, Cottrelle P, Cool M, Vignais ML, Thiele D, Marck C, Buhler JM, Sentenac A, Fromageot P. A general upstream binding factor for genes of the yeast translational apparatus. EMBO J. 1985 Dec 16;4(13A):3539–3547. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shepherd JC, Walldorf U, Hug P, Gehring WJ. Fruit flies with additional expression of the elongation factor EF-1 alpha live longer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Oct;86(19):7520–7521. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cottrelle P, Thiele D, Price VL, Memet S, Micouin JY, Marck C, Buhler JM, Sentenac A, Fromageot P. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of one of two genes coding for yeast elongation factor 1 alpha. J Biol Chem. 1985 Mar 10;260(5):3090–3096. [PubMed]
  • Linz JE, Katayama C, Sypherd PS. Three genes for the elongation factor EF-1 alpha in Mucor racemosus. Mol Cell Biol. 1986 Feb;6(2):593–600. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lenstra JA, Van Vliet A, Arnberg AC, Van Hemert FJ, Möller W. Genes coding for the elongation factor EF-1 alpha in Artemia. Eur J Biochem. 1986 Mar 17;155(3):475–483. [PubMed]
  • Brands JH, Maassen JA, van Hemert FJ, Amons R, Möller W. The primary structure of the alpha subunit of human elongation factor 1. Structural aspects of guanine-nucleotide-binding sites. Eur J Biochem. 1986 Feb 17;155(1):167–171. [PubMed]
  • Rao TR, Slobin LI. Structure of the amino-terminal end of mammalian elongation factor Tu. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Mar 11;14(5):2409–2409. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hovemann B, Richter S, Walldorf U, Cziepluch C. Two genes encode related cytoplasmic elongation factors 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) in Drosophila melanogaster with continuous and stage specific expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Apr 25;16(8):3175–3194. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pokalsky AR, Hiatt WR, Ridge N, Rasmussen R, Houck CM, Shewmaker CK. Structure and expression of elongation factor 1 alpha in tomato. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Jun 26;17(12):4661–4673. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Linz JE, Sypherd PS. Expression of three genes for elongation factor 1 alpha during morphogenesis of Mucor racemosus. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 May;7(5):1925–1932. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Benfey PN, Ren L, Chua NH. The CaMV 35S enhancer contains at least two domains which can confer different developmental and tissue-specific expression patterns. EMBO J. 1989 Aug;8(8):2195–2202. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Liboz T, Bardet C, Le Van Thai A, Axelos M, Lescure B. The four members of the gene family encoding the Arabidopsis thaliana translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha are actively transcribed. Plant Mol Biol. 1990 Jan;14(1):107–110. [PubMed]
  • Axelos M, Bardet C, Liboz T, Le Van Thai A, Curie C, Lescure B. The gene family encoding the Arabidopsis thaliana translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha: molecular cloning, characterization and expression. Mol Gen Genet. 1989 Oct;219(1-2):106–112. [PubMed]
  • Murphy G, Kavanagh T. Speeding-up the sequencing of double-stranded DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Jun 10;16(11):5198–5198. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jefferson RA, Kavanagh TA, Bevan MW. GUS fusions: beta-glucuronidase as a sensitive and versatile gene fusion marker in higher plants. EMBO J. 1987 Dec 20;6(13):3901–3907. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuwabara MD, Sigman DS. Footprinting DNA-protein complexes in situ following gel retardation assays using 1,10-phenanthroline-copper ion: Escherichia coli RNA polymerase-lac promoter complexes. Biochemistry. 1987 Nov 17;26(23):7234–7238. [PubMed]
  • Richards EJ, Ausubel FM. Isolation of a higher eukaryotic telomere from Arabidopsis thaliana. Cell. 1988 Apr 8;53(1):127–136. [PubMed]
  • Garner MM, Revzin A. A gel electrophoresis method for quantifying the binding of proteins to specific DNA regions: application to components of the Escherichia coli lactose operon regulatory system. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Jul 10;9(13):3047–3060. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Arcangioli B, Lescure B. Identification of proteins involved in the regulation of yeast iso- 1-cytochrome C expression by oxygen. EMBO J. 1985 Oct;4(10):2627–2633. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Arndt KT, Styles C, Fink GR. Multiple global regulators control HIS4 transcription in yeast. Science. 1987 Aug 21;237(4817):874–880. [PubMed]
  • Pfeifer K, Arcangioli B, Guarente L. Yeast HAP1 activator competes with the factor RC2 for binding to the upstream activation site UAS1 of the CYC1 gene. Cell. 1987 Apr 10;49(1):9–18. [PubMed]
  • Giniger E, Ptashne M. Transcription in yeast activated by a putative amphipathic alpha helix linked to a DNA binding unit. Nature. 1987 Dec 17;330(6149):670–672. [PubMed]
  • Monaci P, Nicosia A, Cortese R. Two different liver-specific factors stimulate in vitro transcription from the human alpha 1-antitrypsin promoter. EMBO J. 1988 Jul;7(7):2075–2087. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Buchman AR, Kimmerly WJ, Rine J, Kornberg RD. Two DNA-binding factors recognize specific sequences at silencers, upstream activating sequences, autonomously replicating sequences, and telomeres in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Jan;8(1):210–225. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stief A, Winter DM, Strätling WH, Sippel AE. A nuclear DNA attachment element mediates elevated and position-independent gene activity. Nature. 1989 Sep 28;341(6240):343–345. [PubMed]
  • Hofmann JF, Laroche T, Brand AH, Gasser SM. RAP-1 factor is necessary for DNA loop formation in vitro at the silent mating type locus HML. Cell. 1989 Jun 2;57(5):725–737. [PubMed]
  • Gruss P, Lai CJ, Dhar R, Khoury G. Splicing as a requirement for biogenesis of functional 16S mRNA of simian virus 40. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Sep;76(9):4317–4321. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hamer DH, Leder P. Splicing and the formation of stable RNA. Cell. 1979 Dec;18(4):1299–1302. [PubMed]
  • Gillies SD, Morrison SL, Oi VT, Tonegawa S. A tissue-specific transcription enhancer element is located in the major intron of a rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Cell. 1983 Jul;33(3):717–728. [PubMed]
  • Neuberger MS, Williams GT. The intron requirement for immunoglobulin gene expression is dependent upon the promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Jul 25;16(14B):6713–6724. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Itoh N, Ohta K, Ohta M, Kawasaki T, Yamashina I. The nucleotide sequence of a gene for a putative ribosomal protein S31 of Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Mar 11;17(5):2121–2121. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Callis J, Fromm M, Walbot V. Introns increase gene expression in cultured maize cells. Genes Dev. 1987 Dec;1(10):1183–1200. [PubMed]
  • Bruhat A, Tourmente S, Chapel S, Sobrier ML, Couderc JL, Dastugue B. Regulatory elements in the first intron contribute to transcriptional regulation of the beta 3 tubulin gene by 20-hydroxyecdysone in Drosophila Kc cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 May 25;18(10):2861–2867. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...