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Unstimulated water intake with food available after intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (0.9% saline), GLP-1 (500 μg/kg), exendin-4 (3 μg/kg), or liraglutide (100 μg/kg). A: noncumulative 24-h water intake collapsed into 4-h bins. Both exendin-4 and liraglutide had a robust suppressive effect on water intake during the first 12 h of testing (dark phase). a,bBars with different letters, and within the same bin, are significantly different (P < 0.05). B: cumulative 24-h water intake. Cumulative analysis illustrates that the initial hypodipsia after exendin-4 or liraglutide administration was not compensated for during the testing period. *Significant differences from vehicle (P < 0.05). C: dark-phase water intake. Exendin-4 or liraglutide suppressed water intake over the dark phase, with liraglutide administration causing the greatest suppression. a,b,cBars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05). D: noncumulative water intake in 1-h bins. Examination of shorter bins revealed an immediate, but transient, effect of GLP-1 on water intake. *Significant differences from controls within a given bin (P < 0.05; data from the whole 24-h test were analyzed, but for clarity, only the first 4 bins are shown in the figure). Data are shown as means ± SE.

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