Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Jul 25; 17(14): 5461–5476.
PMCID: PMC318170

Chloroplast-like transfer RNA genes expressed in wheat mitochondria.


In the course of a systematic survey of wheat mitochondrial tRNA genes, we have sequenced chloroplast-like serine (trnS-GGA), phenylalanine (trnF-GAA) and cysteine (trnC-GCA) tRNA genes and their flanking regions. These genes are remnants of 'promiscuous' chloroplast DNA that has been incorporated into wheat mtDNA in the course of its evolution. Each gene differs by one or a few nucleotides from the authentic chloroplast homolog previously characterized in wheat or other plants, and each could potentially encode a functional tRNA whose secondary structure shows no deviations from the generalized model. To determine whether these chloroplast-like tRNA genes are actually expressed, wheat mitochondrial tRNAs were resolved by a series of polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses, after being specifically end-labeled in vitro by 3'-CCA addition mediated by wheat tRNA nucleotidyltransferase. Subsequent direct RNA sequence analysis identified prominent tRNA species corresponding to the mitochondrial and not the chloroplast trnS, trnF and trnC genes. This analysis also revealed chloroplast-like elongator methionine, asparagine and tryptophan tRNAs. Our results suggest that at least some chloroplast-like tRNA genes in wheat mtDNA are transcribed, with transcripts undergoing processing, post-transcriptional modification and 3'-CCA addition, to produce mature tRNAs that may participate in mitochondrial protein synthesis.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Sederoff RR. Structural variation in mitochondrial DNA. Adv Genet. 1984;22:1–108. [PubMed]
  • Parks TD, Dougherty WG, Levings CS, Timothy DH. Identification of two methionine transfer RNA genes in the maize mitochondrial genome. Plant Physiol. 1984 Dec;76(4):1079–1082. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Parks TD, Dougherty WG, Levings CS, 3rd, Timothy DH. Identification of an aspartate transfer RNA gene in maize mitochondrial DNA. Curr Genet. 1985;9(6):517–519. [PubMed]
  • Bartnik E, Borsuk P. A glycine tRNA gene from lupine mitochondria. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Mar 11;14(5):2407–2407. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Borsuk P, Sirko A, Bartnik E. A methionine tRNA gene from lupine mitochondria. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Sep 25;14(18):7508–7508. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Grabau EA. Cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene is adjacent to an initiator methionine tRNA gene in soybean mitochondrial DNA. Curr Genet. 1987;11(4):287–293. [PubMed]
  • Wintz H, Chen HC, Pillay DT. Nucleotide sequence of a soybean mitochondria tRNA Glu (TTC) gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Dec 23;15(24):10588–10588. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Joyce PB, Gray MW. Nucleotide sequence of a wheat mitochondrial glutamine tRNA gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Feb 11;16(3):1210–1210. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wintz H, Grienenberger JM, Weil JH, Lonsdale DM. Location and nucleotide sequence of two tRNA genes and a tRNA pseudo-gene in the maize mitochondrial genome: evidence for the transcription of a chloroplast gene in mitochondria. Curr Genet. 1988 Mar;13(3):247–254. [PubMed]
  • Izuchi S, Sugita M. Nucleotide sequence of a tomato mitochondrial tRNA(Cvs) (GCA) gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Feb 11;17(3):1248–1248. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gray MW, Doolittle WF. Has the endosymbiont hypothesis been proven? Microbiol Rev. 1982 Mar;46(1):1–42. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dron M, Hartmann C, Rode A, Sevignac M. Gene conversion as a mechanism for divergence of a chloroplast tRNA gene inserted in the mitochondrial genome of Brassica oleracea. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Dec 9;13(23):8603–8610. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marechal L, Runeberg-Roos P, Grienenberger JM, Colin J, Weil JH, Lejeune B, Quetier F, Lonsdale DM. Homology in the region containing a tRNA(Trp) gene and a (complete or partial) tRNA(Pro) gene in wheat mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Curr Genet. 1987;12(2):91–98. [PubMed]
  • Schuster W, Brennicke A. Plastid, nuclear and reverse transcriptase sequences in the mitochondrial genome of Oenothera: is genetic information transferred between organelles via RNA? EMBO J. 1987 Oct;6(10):2857–2863. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Karpińska B, Augustyniak H. An asparagine tRNA gene from lupin mitochondria. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Jul 11;16(13):6239–6239. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wintz H, Chen HC, Pillay DT. Presence of a chloroplast-like elongator tRNAMet gene in the mitochondrial genomes of soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana. Curr Genet. 1988 Mar;13(3):255–260. [PubMed]
  • Ellis J. Promiscuous DNA--chloroplast genes inside plant mitochondria. Nature. 1982 Oct 21;299(5885):678–679. [PubMed]
  • Stern DB, Lonsdale DM. Mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of maize have a 12-kilobase DNA sequence in common. Nature. 1982 Oct 21;299(5885):698–702. [PubMed]
  • Stern DB, Palmer JD. Extensive and widespread homologies between mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Apr;81(7):1946–1950. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maréchal L, Guillemaut P, Grienenberger JM, Jeannin G, Weil JH. Sequence and codon recognition of bean mitochondria and chloroplast tRNAsTrp: evidence for a high degree of homology. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Jun 25;13(12):4411–4416. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bonen L, Gray MW. Organization and expression of the mitochondrial genome of plants I. The genes for wheat mitochondrial ribosomal and transfer RNA: evidence for an unusual arrangement. Nucleic Acids Res. 1980 Jan 25;8(2):319–335. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bookjans G, Stummann BM, Henningsen KW. Preparation of chloroplast DNA from pea plastids isolated in a medium of high ionic strength. Anal Biochem. 1984 Aug 15;141(1):244–247. [PubMed]
  • Yanisch-Perron C, Vieira J, Messing J. Improved M13 phage cloning vectors and host strains: nucleotide sequences of the M13mp18 and pUC19 vectors. Gene. 1985;33(1):103–119. [PubMed]
  • Dale RM, McClure BA, Houchins JP. A rapid single-stranded cloning strategy for producing a sequential series of overlapping clones for use in DNA sequencing: application to sequencing the corn mitochondrial 18 S rDNA. Plasmid. 1985 Jan;13(1):31–40. [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tabor S, Richardson CC. DNA sequence analysis with a modified bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Jul;84(14):4767–4771. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peattie DA. Direct chemical method for sequencing RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Apr;76(4):1760–1764. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schnare MN, Heinonen TY, Young PG, Gray MW. Phenylalanine and tyrosine transfer RNAs encoded by Tetrahymena pyriformis mitochondrial DNA: primary sequence, post-transcriptional modifications, and gene localization. Curr Genet. 1985;9(5):389–393. [PubMed]
  • Fradin A, Gruhl H, Feldmann H. Mapping of yeast tRNAs by two-dimensional electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels. FEBS Lett. 1975 Feb 1;50(2):185–189. [PubMed]
  • Schnare MN, Spencer DF, Gray MW. Primary structures of four novel small ribosomal RNAs from Crithidia fasciculata. Can J Biochem Cell Biol. 1983 Jan;61(1):38–45. [PubMed]
  • Winter G, Brownlee GG. 3'End labelling of RNA with 32P suitable for rapid gel sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 1978 Sep;5(9):3129–3139. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Steinmetz AA, Krebbers ET, Schwarz Z, Gubbins EJ, Bogorad L. Nucleotide sequences of five maize chloroplast transfer RNA genes and their flanking regions. J Biol Chem. 1983 May 10;258(9):5503–5511. [PubMed]
  • Spencer DF, Bonen L, Gray MW. Primary sequence of wheat mitochondrial 5S ribosomal ribonucleic acid: functional and evolutionary implications. Biochemistry. 1981 Jul 7;20(14):4022–4029. [PubMed]
  • Schnare MN, Gray MW. 3'-Terminal sequence of wheat mitochondrial 18S ribosomal RNA: further evidence of a eubacterial evolutionary origin. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Jul 10;10(13):3921–3932. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boer PH, Gray MW. Transfer RNA genes and the genetic code in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondria. Curr Genet. 1988 Dec;14(6):583–590. [PubMed]
  • Maréchal-Drouard L, Weil JH, Guillemaut P. Import of several tRNAs from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria in bean Phaseolus vulgaris. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Jun 10;16(11):4777–4788. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...