• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jmlaJournal informationSubscribeSubmissions on the Publisher web siteCurrent issue of JMLA in PMCAlso see BMLA journal in PMC
J Med Libr Assoc. Jan 2004; 92(1): 34–42.
PMCID: PMC314101

Research on the value of medical library services: does it make an impact in the health care literature?*

Pamela J. Sherwill-Navarro, M.A.L.I.S., AHIP, College of Nursing Librarian1 and Addajane L. Wallace, M.A.L.I.S., AHIP, Medical Librarian2

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the impact in the health care literature of research articles that provided evidence of the value of library services (including MEDLINE) as an element of quality health care.

Data Sources/Selection: Four research articles on the relationship between use of library services and quality health care were selected as “primary articles” from a MEDLINE search using appropriate Medical Subject Heading. Primary articles met the following criteria: written in English, reported research, related to clinical care, and published before 1995.

Data Extraction: The technique of citation analysis was used to measure the impact of the primary articles on the subsequent literature. The number, authorship, type, and publication venue of articles citing the primary articles were determined using ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE, other electronic resources, and the citing articles themselves. For the 146 English-language citing articles, the article type (i.e., advocacy, instructional, research) was noted; and, for those that reported research, the use to which the author put the cited material was determined.

Results: The primary articles were cited more often than the average articles published that year in the same journals. At the time of the study each article had been cited almost every year since publication. Of the 146 citing articles written in English, 43% were written by librarians, 38% by physicians, 12% by librarians with physicians. The majority were published in medical journals, followed in order of decreasing frequency by the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, information science journals, and health administration journals.

Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that published research on the value of medical library services has an impact on the literature. These articles are read and cited and continue to be of value.

INTRODUCTION

The current shortage of health care dollars challenges all areas of health care, including medical librarianship, to prove their value to the provision of quality patient care. Managers are expected to provide qualitative and quantitative evidence of their value. This is not a new scenario for hospital librarians. In the mid-1980s, David King published a seminal paper on the contribution of hospital library information services to clinical care [1]. The findings of this study provided the impetus for further research in the area. However, to be of value, these research results must be disseminated and articles reporting the research must reach a wide readership and be referenced in other publications.

We decided to determine if articles related to research on the value of medical library services are meeting these criteria. An initial MEDLINE search was done to identify articles beyond the King study. The search was limited to MEDLINE because of its almost universal availability for medical librarians and to investigate its utility or limitations in identifying this type of study.

We used citation analysis to determine how often this research was cited by other articles. We reviewed the articles that cited this research to determine who used the research, where they published, and how they used the information in the articles. The results of this study raise interesting questions for future research and add to our knowledge of publication patterns for medical librarians.

METHODS

Data selection

The search to identify articles began with the analysis of the MeSH terms associated with the King article. Articles retrieved using these terms were again analyzed to develop the search strategy. The search performed in MEDLINE (May 2001) used the simple (no explosion) MeSH terms “MEDLINE/utilization or libraries, hospital/utilization or information services/utilization” combined (AND) with the simple (no explosion) MeSH terms “quality of health care” or “decision making” or “treatment outcome” or “hospital costs.” We limited the search to English-language articles and selected for inclusion only those that (1) reported research, (2) were related to clinical care, and (3) had been published at least five years previous to the date of the search. The third criterion was considered necessary to allow time for the publication of subsequent articles citing the primary articles.

Using ISI's Web of Science database, we generated a list of articles that cited at least one of the primary articles. This list included the article citation, data type, and language of each “citing article.” We obtained country of publication of each of the journals containing the citing articles via MEDLINE or other electronic resources, and the author's profession and country of affiliation using the same electronic resources or the articles themselves, when necessary.

Data analysis

We transferred the data to ProCite and Excel databases. For our analysis of these data, we relied on the technique of citation analysis. Pioneered by Eugene Garfield and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), this technique involves counting the number of times an article has been cited in the literature (citation frequency) to determine that article's impact [2]. Garfield and others have identified this impact measure as an indication of an article's value [3] and its impact and influence on the field [4–6]. Further, a review of the annual citation frequencies for an article can reveal the speed at which a paper becomes influential and provide an estimate of its future potential [7]. The lag between an article's date of publication and the time at which it begins to demonstrate a significant citation frequency can reflect how long it took others in the field to learn about the article and incorporate it in their work. Articles that are cited frequently over long periods of time may qualify as classics [8].

According to Garfield, however, citation analysis should not consist of mere citation counting. He suggests the need for content and context analysis as well [9]. In the current study, in addition to calculating citation frequencies, we used the following categories, derived in part from Zachert [10], to characterize the purpose of the English-language citing articles.

  • Advocacy: articles discussing or arguing for the importance of health sciences libraries
  • Instructional: how-to articles that explain such things as how to use the Internet, search the medical literature, or understand evidence-based medicine.
  • Research: any inquiry, including case reports, that is carried out, at least in part, by a systematic method with the purpose of eliciting some new data, facts, concepts, or ideas.

We further examined research articles to determine the use to which the authors put the information gleaned from the primary article(s) cited. The following categories were developed:

  • Mention: mentions primary article, usually in introduction or discussion.
  • Design: used elements of experimental design similar to those in the primary study or studies.
  • Comparison: used similar elements of experimental design and compared results of reported study to results of the primary study or studies.

We also categorized the type of journals in which the citing articles were published and the profession of the articles' authors. The journal categories were

  • Bulletin of the Medical Library Association (BMLA): Because of the large number of citing articles appearing in this journal, it was treated as a separate category.
  • Health administration: journals directed to health administrators other than librarians or physicians.
  • Information science: journals directed to librarians or computer scientists not necessarily in the field of health care.
  • Medical: journals directed to physicians and dentists. This category includes medical informatics journals and computer-related journals with the words “Medical,” “Medicine,” or “MD” in the title.

The authors were placed in one of three categories by profession:

  • Librarian: affiliated with a hospital, government or university library, school of library science, or library association
  • Physician: has M.D., D.D.S., or D.O. degree, regardless of place of employment
  • Other: none of the above, most often a Ph.D. medical school faculty member, but also includes authors who are nurses, medical students, or work in information systems.

RESULTS

Four articles met the search criteria and became primary articles in this study:

  • King DN. The contribution of hospital library information services to clinical care: a study in eight hospitals. Bull Med Libr Assoc 1987 Oct;75(4):291–330.
  • Marshall JG. The impact of the hospital library on clinical decision making: the Rochester study. Bull Med Libr Assoc 1992 Apr;80(2):169–78.
  • Lindberg DA, Siegel ER, Rapp BA, Wallingford KT, Wilson SR. Use of MEDLINE by physicians for clinical problem solving. JAMA 1993 Jun 23–30;269(24):3124–9.
  • Klein MS, Ross FV, Adams DL, Gilbert CM. Effect of online literature searching on length of stay and patient care costs. Acad Med 1994 Jun;69(6):489–95.

The King and Marshall articles report on surveys of library users in Chicago and Rochester, New York, respectively. Lindberg and colleagues report the results of a study commissioned by the National Library of Medicine that used the critical incident techniques as the framework for interviews of 552 MEDLINE users throughout the United States. Klein and colleagues collected the data for their study by reviewing the medical records of medical and surgical inpatients in two Detroit hospitals.

Two of the articles were published in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. The other articles were published in Academic Medicine, which is targeted to medical educators, and JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, which is widely read by physicians, health care administrators, and policy makers. These journals have highly divergent publication patterns (quarterly, monthly, and weekly), distribution patterns, and impact.

The ISI Web of Science search retrieved 154 publications that cited one or more of these articles. (See the appendix for a list of these articles.) Of these, 19% cited the King article, 29% the Marshall article, 33% the Lindberg article, and 19% the Klein article; 31% of the citing articles cited more than one of the primary articles. We noted only five instances of self-citation: two by Klein, two by Lindberg, and one by Marshall. Data types included articles (74%), reviews (10%), editorials (7%), letters (7%), a note (1%), and a correction (1%).

The primary articles evidenced a high impact in that they were cited at a greater frequency than both the average library science article published the same year and the average article published in the same journal that year. The citation frequencies for both the King and the Marshall articles were more than ten times the average frequency for an article published the same year in the BMLA (12.9 and 10.6 times, respectively). Klein et al. was cited 8.6 times more often than the average article published in the 1994 volume of Academic Medicine, and Lindberg et al. was cited 1.7 times more often than the average article published in JAMA in 1993 [11] (Figure 1). Each primary article, with the exception of King's, was cited every year following its year of publication through 2000. The first article citing King appeared two years after publication; King has been continually cited from 1989 through 2001, though less often since 1998 (Figure 2).

Figure 1
Citation frequencies of primary articles compared to other library science articles published the same year or other articles published in the same journal that year
Figure 2
Number of citing articles published by year for each selected article

The citing articles appeared in 69 different journals published in 10 countries in 4 languages (English, French, German, and Spanish). Over half of the citing articles (57%) were published in medical journals, 29% in BMLA, 12% in information science journals, and 2% in health administration journals. All of the foreign language articles appeared in medical journals. One or more of the primary articles were cited in articles in both medical journals and the BMLA each year from 1989 through 2000. It may not be surprising that over half the articles citing either Lindberg or Klein appeared in medical journals since the original articles were published in medical journals. More interesting is that almost half of the articles citing Marshall, which was published in BMLA, appeared in medical journals. It was only with articles citing King that the majority were published in BMLA. This finding attests to the impact of these articles outside the field of medical librarianship (Table 1).

Table thumbnail
Table 1 Type of journal publishing citing articles

Authors of the citing articles represented seventeen countries; the majority of the articles appeared in journals published in the authors' home countries. Librarians authored 42% of the articles; physicians 31%; others 8%; librarians and physicians or librarians, physicians, and others as coauthor were responsible for 11%; the remaining 8% were authored by combinations of the remaining groups. Articles authored or coauthored by librarians most often cited King or Marshall. The only articles authored by physicians that cited King were those coauthored with a librarian, but almost 20% of the articles authored only by physicians cited Marshall (Table 2).

Table thumbnail
Table 2 Professional background of authors of citing articles

Of the citing articles authored only by librarians, 51% appeared in BMLA, 23% in medical journals, and 26% in information science journals. Physicians published almost exclusively in medical journals (96%), with only 1 article appearing in BMLA and one in an information science journal. Of the articles authored by those in the category “other,” 58% were published in medical journals, 25% in BMLA, and 1 each in an information science and a health administration journal. Of the articles coauthored by combinations of the various groups, 67% appeared in medical journals, 27% in BMLA, and 7% in health administration journals.

Of the 146 English-language citing articles, 27% cited King, 42% cited Marshall, 49% cited Lindberg et al., and 27% cited Klein et al. There was a total of 212 relevant citations in the articles, as some papers cited more than one of the primary studies. The majority of the citing articles reported research. The remainder discussed or argued for the importance of health science libraries (advocacy) or provided how-to or instructional information. Advocacy articles cited Marshall more frequently than they cited the other primary articles (40%). Lindberg was cited most often in both instructional and research articles. Research articles made up the largest percentage of citing articles for each primary article (see Table 3).

Table thumbnail
Table 3 Types of articles that cited the four references

The advocacy articles were almost equally divided between BMLA and medical journals (37% and 40%, respectively), with the remainder in information science (16%) and health administration (7%) journals. A similar pattern was true of research articles: 43% appeared in BMLA, 46% in medical journals, 11% in information science journals, and none in health administration journals. No instructional article citing the primary articles appeared in BMLA; most were in medical journals (84%), with 13% in information science journals and 3% in health administration journals.

Librarians authored the majority (60%) of the advocacy articles, followed by physicians (17%), librarians and physicians as coauthors (13%), and physicians and others or others (10%). The majority of the instructional articles were written by physicians or physicians and other nonlibrarians (60%), with librarians authoring 24%, librarians and physicians 5%, and others 11%. Research articles showed the greatest diversity in authorship: librarians wrote 44% of the articles; physicians, 29%; librarians and physicians, 10%; physicians and other nonlibrarians, 6%; others, 6%; librarians, physicians, and others, 4%; and librarians and others, 1%.

The seventy-nine articles reporting research (containing 114 citations) were further reviewed to determine how the citing authors used the referenced information from the primary articles. The majority (56%) merely cited the articles as examples of studies that showed the value of library services; 33% used elements of the research design from the primary articles in their studies; of these, 11% also compared their results to those of the primary articles. Klein et al. was cited in 22% of the research articles, but none of the authors attempted to replicate elements of their study. Though 36% of the research studies relied on King, Marshall, or Lindberg et al. for elements of their experimental design, hardly more than a quarter of them (26%) also compared their results with those of these previous studies. Of those that did make comparisons, 33% looked at results from King, 45% from Marshall, and 22% from both. One of the King citations was in a paper published in 1990, before the publication of Marshall (Table 4).

Table thumbnail
Table 4 Use of the information in the primary article by authors of research articles

DISCUSSION

The results of this study may have been limited by the methods used for data selection and extraction. MEDLINE, though vast in coverage, does not contain articles published in the Bibliotheca Medica Canadiana, the publication of the Canadian Health Libraries, and has only recently begun indexing Health Information and Libraries Journal from the Library Association–Health Libraries Group from the United Kingdom. Likewise, the ISI Web of Science may not retrieve all articles citing the selected research; for instance, an article in the health administration journal Hospital Topics [12] that relied heavily on data from the King article was not included in the ISI Web of Science retrieval. Finally, though the Web of Science appears to include nursing literature, it found no articles citing the primary articles in nursing journals. The study also failed to show that the primary articles influenced the health administration literature. This may point out that the ISI Web of Science is a poor source for references in the health administration literature, or it may be an accurate indication of the state of the literature. This apparent lack of references to articles on the value of library services in both the nursing and health administration literature is something that could be explored in future studies.

Further, our search strategy may not have been sufficient to uncover all articles indexed in MEDLINE that are related to the value of library services to clinical care. For example, a report on the Value project by Urquhart and Hepworth [13] meets the criteria used for selecting the primary articles but was not retrieved by the search. To maintain methodological integrity, we did not include this article in the evaluation.

It might also be argued that the impact of the articles by King and Marshall was artificially influenced by the actions of the Medical Library Association. These papers were the subject of an MLA publicity campaign that included the publication of a Fact Sheet shortly after the publication of the Marshall paper, the text of which is still available on the MLA Website. The papers are the number 1 (Marshall) and 2 (King) most cited articles published in BMLA in the last thirty years [14], supporting the suggestion that the MLA did in fact work to create “hot papers” for its publication [15]. Of course, these same efforts may also be responsible for the twenty-three published research studies and the untold number of unpublished repetitions that were developed using methodology influenced by the King and Marshall articles. Perhaps to have a real impact, the results of research about the value of medical library services must receive wider dissemination than simple publication in a journal, and MLA should be encouraged to publicize such results wherever they are published.

According to our findings, the impact of the primary articles was very far reaching, with authors publishing outside of the United States and outside of the medical library profession using the information in some way. Librarians as sole authors were responsible for less than half the articles. As the librarian group contained both health science librarians and academic or other librarians, it might be expected that the articles would appear equally in both the BMLA and other information science journals. Most interesting, however, is that nearly one-fourth of the articles appeared in medical journals. Librarians coauthored seventeen (11%) of the articles with physicians. Though this may appear to be a small percentage, it does show that collaboration is taking place.

The finding that most advocacy articles were written by librarians was not unexpected. However, it is satisfying that 40% of such articles appeared in medical journals. Less satisfying is the fact that almost twice the numbers of instructional articles were written by physicians (16) than by librarians (9). While end-user searching is a goal of many librarians and health care professionals, does this finding indicate that we mean to abdicate our responsibility to ensure the quality of instruction? Or is it merely a reflection of the greater publication rate of physicians? Evidence exists that the medical literature will support articles on instruction. We would argue that librarians should be authoring the majority of these.

CONCLUSION

Does writing on the value of medical library services make an impact? Does anyone read articles on this topic? Should we continue to write them? Should we encourage others to research and write on this topic? Based upon this study, the answer to all of those questions is an unequivocal “yes.” Such research does have an impact.

In our research we looked at how other authors cited these four specific articles and the various characteristics of the articles that cited them. Our question focuses upon whether research on the value of library services to clinical care is noticed and used by other authors and researchers. We have attempted to evaluate the efficacy of citation analysis for this purpose. The subtle goal of this research is to encourage further research into the value of medical library services to clinical care and decision making. We encourage this because authors writing in a variety of disciplines and countries use the material; these articles are cited longer and more often than other articles published in the same journals in the same year.

These findings have implications for future authors and researchers. We recommend that the area of health administration and nursing be investigated to determine if the failure to locate articles in these areas was a limitation of the tools used. If that is not the case then medical librarians should consider publication in these venues.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge with thanks the support and assistance of Simone Brodeur, Halifax Medical Center; Nancy Bayers, Research Services Group, ISI, Philadelphia; and Marnie Wiss, University of Florida.

APPENDIX

Citing articles listed by reference article(s) cited

King only

  • Alonso FR. Library-services and clinical decisions. Medicina Clinica. 1994;103:258–259.
  • Angier JJ, Beck SL, Eyre HJ. Use of the PDQ System in a Clinical Setting. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1990;78:15–22.
  • Blythe J, Royle JA. Assessing Nurses' Information Needs in the Work-Environment. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1993;81:433–435.
  • Brandon AN, Hill DR. Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1989;77:139–169.
  • Burton JE. The Impact of Medical Libraries and Literature on Patient Care in New-Zealand. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1995;83:425–430.
  • Cheng GYT, Lam LMC. Information Seeking Behavior of Health Professionals in Hong Kong: A Survey of Thirty-Seven Hospitals. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1996;84:32–40.
  • Dalrymple PW. CD-Rom MEDLINE Use and Users—Information Transfer in the Clinical Setting. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1990;78:224–232.
  • Dee C, Blazek R. Information Needs of the Rural Physician: A Descriptive Study. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1993;81:259–264.
  • Gilbert CM, Leroy HL. Challenges in Health-Care Information-Transfer: The Role of Hospital Libraries. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1991;79:405–408.
  • Holst R. Hospital Libraries in Perspective. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1991;79:1–9.
  • Klein MS, Ross FV, Adams DL, Gilbert CM. Effect of Online Literature Searching on Length of Stay and Patient-Care Costs. Academic Medicine. 1994;69:489–495.
  • Kuller AB, Wessel CB, Ginn DS, Martin TP. Quality Filtering of the Clinical Literature by Librarians and Physicians. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1993;81:38–43.
  • Leist JC, Kristofco RE. The Changing Paradigm for Continuing Medical-Education: Impact of Information on the Teachable Moment. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1990;78:173–179.
  • Lewis RA, Urquhart CJ, Rolinson J. Health Professionals' Attitudes towards Evidence-Based Medicine and the Role of the Information Professional in Exploitation of the Research Evidence. Journal of Information Science. 1998;24:281–290.
  • Marshall JG. The Impact of the Hospital Library on Clinical Decision-Making: The Rochester Study. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1992;80:169–178.
  • Oldershaw J. Accessing the Literature. British Journal of Hospital Medicine. 1992;47:433–437.
  • Ortiz CPV, Sola GP. A Basic Collection of Periodic Publications for Hospital Libraries. Medicina Clinica. 1997;108:744–749.
  • Royal M, Grizzle WE, Algermissen V, Mowry RW. The Success of a Clinical Librarian Program in an Academic Autopsy Pathology Service. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1993;99:576–581.
  • Short MW. CD-ROM Use by Rural Physicians. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1999;87:206–210.
  • Tilley CB. Medical Databases and Health Information-Systems. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. 1990;25:313–382.
  • Wakeley PJ, Foster EC. A Survey of Health-Sciences Libraries in Hospitals: Implications for the 1990s. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1993;81:123–128.

King, Klein

  • Schott MJ. The Informationist. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2001;134:252.

King, Klein, Lindberg, Marshall

  • Nagle E. The New Knowledge Environment: Quality Initiatives in Health Sciences Libraries. Library Trends. 1996;44:657–674.
  • Urquhart CJ, Hepworth JB. Comparing and Using Assessments of the Value of Information to Clinical Decision-Making. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1996;84:482–489.

King, Klein, Marshall

  • Colaianni LA. Hospital Librarians and the Medical Library Association. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1998;86:217–222.
  • Dalrymple PW, Scherrer CS. Tools for Improvement: A Systematic Analysis and Guide to Accreditation by the JCAHO. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1998;86:10–16.
  • Klein MS. Untitled. Health Care Management Review. 1997;22:6–7.
  • Klein MS, Ross F. End-User Searching: Impetus for an Expanding Information Management and Technology Role for the Hospital Librarian. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1997;85:260–268.

King, Lindberg, Marshall

  • Martin MRD. Hospital Libraries in Spain and the Need for Information by the Health Care Professionals. Medicina Clinica. 1998;110:543–547.

King, Marshall

  • Fischer WW, Reel LB. Total Quality Management (TQM) in a Hospital Library: Identifying Service Benchmarks. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1992;80:347–352.
  • Fuller SS. Enabling, Empowering, Inspiring: Research and Mentorship through the Years. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 2000;88:1–10.
  • Heller-Ross H. Information Needs of the Rural Physician [Response]. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1994;82:223–224.
  • Holtum E, Zollo SA. The Healthnet Project: Extending Online Information Resources to End Users in Rural Hospitals. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1998;86:569–575.
  • Johnson M. The Library as a Resource for Decision-Making in Mental-Health-Care. Psychiatric Services. 1995;46:493–495.
  • Kuhlthau CC. The Concept of a Zone of Intervention for Identifying the Role of Intermediaries in the Information Search Process. Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting. 1996;33:91–94.
  • Macias-Chapula CA. A Descriptive Study of 92 Hospital Libraries in Mexico. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1995;83:66–70.
  • Marshall JG. Issues in Clinical Information Delivery. Library Trends. 1993;42:83–107.
  • Mathis YL, Huisman LK, Swanson SE, Griswold MI, Salzwedel BA, Watson M. Mediated Literature Searches. Academic Medicine. 1994;69:360.
  • Pifalo V, Hollander S, Henderson CL, DeSalvo P, Gill GP. The Impact of Consumer Health Information Provided by Libraries: The Delaware Experience. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1997;85:16–22.
  • Rankin JA, Sayre JW. The Educational Role of Health Sciences Librarians. Library Trends. 1993;42:45–61.
  • Silverstein JL. Strengthening the Links between Health Sciences Information Users and Providers. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1995;83:407–417.
  • Urquhart C. Personal Knowledge: A Clinical Perspective from the Value and Evidence Projects in Health Library and Information Services. Journal of Documentation. 1998;54:420–442.

Klein only

  • Branger PJ, Duisterhout JS. Communication in Health-Care. Methods of Information in Medicine. 1995;34:244–252.
  • Connelly DP, Sielaff BH, Willard KE. A Clinician Workstation for Improving Laboratory Use—Integrated Display of Laboratory Results. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1995;104:243–252.
  • Graber MA, D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP, Bergus GR, Levy B, Ostrem SF. Usage Analysis of a Primary Care Medical Resource on the Internet. Computers in Biology and Medicine. 1998;28:581–588.
  • Haux R, Grothe W, Runkel M, et al. Knowledge Retrieval as One Type of Knowledge-Based Decision Support in Medicine: Results of an Evaluation Study. International Journal of Bio-Medical Computing. 1996;41:69–85.
  • Hersh W. A World of Knowledge at Your Fingertips: The Promise, Reality, and Future Directions of On-Line Information Retrieval. Academic Medicine. 1999;74:240–243.
  • Jennett PA, Premkumar K. Technology-Based Dissemination. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique. 1996;87:S34–S39.
  • Klein-Fedyshin MS, Ross F, Adams DL, Gilbert C. Mislabeled Study. Academic Medicine. 1999;74:943.
  • McCray JC, Maloney K. Improving Access to Knowledge-Based Health Sciences Information: Early Results From a Statewide Collaborative Effort. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1997;85:136–140.
  • Rosenberg WMC, Deeks J, Lusher A, Snowball R, Dooley G, Sackett D. Improving Searching Skills and Evidence Retrieval. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London. 1998;32:557–563.
  • Tuttle MS, Cole WG, Sherertz DD, Nelson SJ. Navigating to Knowledge. Methods of Information in Medicine. 1995;34:214–231.
  • Walz M, Brill C, Bolte R, et al. Teleradiology Requirements and Aims in Germany and Europe: Status at the Beginning of 2000. European Radiology. 2000;10:1472–1482.

Klein, Lindberg

  • Aveyard P, Chada N, Millard K, Mason B. The Use of MEDLINE in a Public Health Department. Journal of Public Health Medicine. 1996;18:373.
  • Kuchenbecker J, Schmitz K, Dick HB. The Use of Internet for Online Literature Search. Ophthalmologe. 2000;97:885–892.
  • Martin MG, Claret PL, Cavanillas AB, Vargas RG. The Clinic by Day: A Danger for the Patient. Medicina Clinica. 1995;105:622–627.
  • Smith RP. The Internet for Continuing Education. M D Computing. 1997;14:414–437[passim].
  • Stewart MG, Moore AS. Searching the Medical Literature. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. 1998;31:277–287.
  • Woods SE, Francis BW. MEDLINE as a Component of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination: The Next Step in Curriculum Integration. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1996;84:108–109.

Klein, Lindberg, Marshall

  • Brazier H, McCabe G. Making the Most of MEDLINE. Hospital Medicine. 1998;59:756–758,760–761.
  • Brazier H, McCabe G. MEDLINE in a Clinical Context. Irish Medical Journal. 1998;91:124,126.
  • D'Alessandro MP, Nguyen BC, D'Alessandro DM. Information Needs and Information-Seeking Behaviors of On-Call Radiology Residents. Academic Radiology. 1999;6:16–621.
  • D'Alessandro MP. Creating and Curating a Pediatric Radiology Digital Library to Make the Internet a Useful Reference Tool for the Radiologist. Pediatric Radiology. 1998;28:890–895.
  • Detlefsen EG. The Information Behaviors of Life and Health Scientists and Health Care Providers: Characteristics of the Research Literature. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1998;86:385–390.
  • Humphreys BL. Librarians and Collaborative Research: Toward a Better Scientific Base for Information Practice. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1996;84:433–436.
  • Lindberg DAB, Humphreys BL. Computers in Medicine. JAMA. 1995;273:1667–1668.
  • Peterson MW, Galvin JR, Dayton C, D'Alessandro MP. Realizing the Promise—Delivering Pulmonary Continuing Medical Education over the Internet. Chest. 1999;115:1429–1436.
  • Sullivan F, Gardner M, Van Rijsbergen K. An Information Retrieval Service to Support Clinical Decision-Making at the Point of Care. British Journal of General Practice. 1999;49:1003–1007.

Klein, Marshall

  • D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP, Hendrix MJ, Bakalar RS. Information Needs of Naval Primary Care Providers and Patients at Sea. Military Medicine. 1999;164:127–131.
  • D'Alessandro DM, Qian F, D'Alessandro MP, et al. Performing Continuous Quality Improvement for a Digital Health Sciences Library through an Electronic Mail Analysis. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1998;86:594–601.
  • Dimitroff A. Educational Services in Health Sciences Libraries: A Content Analysis of the Literature, 1987–1994. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1995;83:420–424.
  • Glanville J, Haines M, Auston I. Getting Research Findings into Practice: Finding Information on Clinical Effectiveness. British Medical Journal. 1998;317:200–203.
  • Harter SP, Hert CA. Evaluation of Information Retrieval Systems: Approaches, Issues, and Methods. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. 1997;32:3–94.
  • Klemenz B. Clinical Medicine Supported by Online Databases. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 1996;121:643.
  • Klemenz B, Mcsherry D, Grundke V. Clinical Problem Solving by Computer. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London. 1997;31:32–36.
  • Stielstra J. Retrieving Medical Information. Hospital Practice. 1996;31:42.

Lindberg only

  • Ahluwalia KP, Lang WP. Accessing MEDLINE from the Dental Office. Journal of the American Dental Association. 1996;127:510–516.
  • Allison JJ, Kiefe CI, Weissman NW, Carter J, Centor RM. The Art and Science of Searching MEDLINE to Answer Clinical Questions: Finding the Right Number of Articles. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. 1999;15:281–296.
  • Altemeier WA, Hodge R. A Pediatrician's View: What's the Big Deal? My Practice Has Always Been Evidence Based. Pediatric Annals. 1998;27:544–546.
  • Ash JS. Factors Affecting the Diffusion of Online End User Literature Searching. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1999;87:58–66.
  • Bigby M, Gadenne AS. Understanding and Evaluating Clinical Trials. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 1996;34:555–590.
  • Bonichon F, Courtial F, Blanc-Vincent MP. Review of the Literature, Information Search and Critical Reading in the Field of Oncology. Bulletin du Cancer. 1998;85:867–885.
  • Brodell RT, Wile MZ, Chren MM, Bickers DR. Learning and Teaching in Dermatology: A Practitioner's Guide. Archives of Dermatology. 1996;132:946–952.
  • Busis NA. Neurology in the Electronic Information Age. European Journal of Neurology. 1999;6:385–414.
  • Chilum BI, Lundberg GD, Silberg WM. Physicians Accessing the Internet, the Pai Project: An Educational Initiative. JAMA. 1996;275:1361–1362.
  • Cimino JJ. Linking Patient Information Systems to Bibliographic Resources. Methods of Information in Medicine. 1996;35:122–126.
  • D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP, Galvin JR, Kash JB, Wakefield DS, Erkonen WE. Barriers to Rural Physician Use of a Digital Health Sciences Library. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1998;86:583–593.
  • Dalrymple PW, Roderer NK. Database Access Systems. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. 1994;29:137–178.
  • Detmer DE. Information Technology for Quality Health Care: A Summary of United Kingdom and United States Experiences. Quality in Health Care. 2000;9:181–189.
  • Detmer WM, Shortliffe EH. Using the Internet to Improve Knowledge Diffusion in Medicine. Communications of the ACM. 1997;40:101–108.
  • Ekdahl C, Karlsson D, Wigertz O, Forsum U. A Study of the Usage of a Decision-Support System for Infective Endocarditis. Medical Informatics and the Internet in Medicine. 2000;25:1–18.
  • Elson RB, Faughnan JG, Connelly DP. An Industrial Process View of Information Delivery to Support Clinical Decision Making: Implications for Systems Design and Process Measures. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 1997;4:266–278.
  • Ely JW, Osheroff JA, Ferguson KJ, Chambliss ML, Vinson DC, Moore JL. Lifelong Self-Directed Learning Using a Computer Database of Clinical Questions. Journal of Family Practice. 1997;45:382–388.
  • Ely JW, Osheroff JA, Gorman PN, et al. A Taxonomy of Generic Clinical Questions: Classification Study. British Medical Journal. 2000;321:429–432.
  • Erickson S, Warner ER. The Impact of an Individual Tutorial Session on MEDLINE Use among Obstetrics and Gynaecology Residents in an Academic Training Programme: A Randomized Trial. Medical Education. 1998;32:269–273.
  • Farmer J, Williams D. Decision-Making by Health Purchasing Organisations in Scotland: The Role and Influence of Evidence from the Research Literature. Journal of Information Science. 1997;23:59–72.
  • Fink M. Using MEDLINE to Solve Clinical Problems. JAMA. 1993;270:2053.
  • Florance V. Clinical Extracts of Biomedical Literature for Patient-Centered Problem Solving. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1996;84:375–385.
  • Forti EM, Martin KE, Jones RL, Herman JM. An Assessment of Practice Support and Continuing Medical Education Needs of Rural Pennsylvania Family Physicians. Journal of Rural Health. 1996;12:432–437.
  • Friedman CP. The Virtual Clinical Campus. Academic Medicine. 1996;71:647–651.
  • Gdalevich M, Mimouni D, Mimouni M. Pediatric Journals on the Internet. Acta Paediatrica. 2000;89:1032–1035.
  • Goldner EM, Bilsker D. Evidence-Based Psychiatry. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry/Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie. 1995;40:97–101.
  • Grimes DA. Introducing Evidence-Based Medicine into a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1995;86:451–457.
  • Hersh WR, Hickam DH. How Well Do Physicians Use Electronic Information Retrieval Systems? A Framework for Investigation and Systematic Review. JAMA. 998;280:1347–1352.
  • Hripcsak G, Clayton PD. User Comments on a Clinical Event Monitor. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 1994;636–640.
  • Huntley AC. Internet Resources for Dermatology. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 1994;31:474–484.
  • Ladhani S. The Need for Evidence-Based Management of Skin Diseases. International Journal of Dermatology. 1997;36:17–22.
  • Laine C, Weinberg DS. How Can Physicians Keep Up-to-Date? Annual Review of Medicine. 1999;50:99–110.
  • Lowe HJ, Barnett GO. Understanding and Using the Medical Subject-Headings (MeSH) Vocabulary to Perform Literature Searches. JAMA. 1994;271:1103–1108.
  • McGuire MK, Newman MG. Evidence-Based Periodontal Treatment. 1. A Strategy for Clinical Decisions. International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry. 1995;15:71–83.
  • O'Carroll PW, Cahn MA, Auston I, Selden CR. Information Needs in Public Health and Health Policy: Results of Recent Studies. Journal of Urban Health-Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 1998;75:785–793.
  • Omahony B, Culhane A, Rouse JM, Ryan F, Shannon W. Keeping up to Date: A Challenge for Teaching Practices. Irish Medical Journal. 1995;88:170–171.
  • Overhage JM, Tierney WM, McDonald CJ. Design and Implementation of the Indianapolis Network for Patient-Care and Research. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1995;83:48–56.
  • Oxman AD, Sackett DL, Guyatt GH. Users Guides to the Medical Literature. 1. How to Get Started. JAMA. 1993;270:2093–2095.
  • Polyakov A, Palmer E, Devitt PG, Coventry BJ. Clinicians and Computers: Friends or Foes? Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2000;12:91–95.
  • Rosselli D. Latin American Biomedical Publications: The Case of Colombia in MEDLINE. Medical Education. 1998;32:274–277.
  • Rowe BH, Ryan DT, Therrien S, Mulloy JV. First-Year Family Medicine Residents Use of Computers: Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1995;153:267–272.
  • Rowlands JL, Forrester WH, McSean T. British Medical Association Library Free MEDLINE Service: Survey of Members Taking Part in an Initial Pilot Project. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1996;84:116–121.
  • Saada AA. On-Line Resources for Otolaryngologists. Journal of Laryngology and Otology. 1998;112:854–859.
  • Saracevic T, Kantor PB. Studying the Value of Library and Information Services. 1. Establishing a Theoretical Framework. Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 1997;48:527–542.
  • Saracevic T, Kantor PB. Studying the Value of Library and Information Services in Corporate Environments: Progress Report. Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting. 1998;35:411–425.
  • Spooner SA. Online Resources for Pediatricians. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 1995;149:1160–1168.
  • Wilbur WJ, Yang YM. An Analysis of Statistical Term Strength and Its Use in the Indexing and Retrieval of Molecular Biology Texts. Computers in Biology and Medicine. 1996;26:209–222.
  • Wong JB, Wood BJ, Compton CC, Sitaraman S. A 76-Year-Old Woman with Cardiac and Renal Failure and Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Cholesterol Embolism Involving the Gastrointestinal Tract (and Causing the Blue-Toe Syndrome). New England Journal of Medicine. 1998;339:329–337.
  • Wood EH. MEDLINE: The Options for Health Professionals. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 1994;1:372–380.
  • Wood FB, Wallingford KT, Siegel ER. Transitioning to the Internet: Results of a National Library of Medicine User Survey. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1997;85:331–340.

Lindberg, Marshall

  • Earl MF. Library Instruction in the Medical School Curriculum: A Survey of Medical College Libraries. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1996;84:191–195.
  • Ely JW, Levy BT, Hartz A. What Clinical Information Resources Are Available in Family Physicians' Offices? Journal of Family Practice. 1999;48:135–139.
  • Fuller SS, Ketchell DS, Tarczy-Hornoch P, Masuda D. Integrating Knowledge Resources at the Point of Care: Opportunities for Librarians. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1999;87:393–403.
  • Lindberg DAB, Humphreys BL, Mccray AT. The Unified Medical Language System. Methods of Information in Medicine. 1993;32:281–291.
  • MacDougall J, Brittain JM, Gann R. Progress in Documentation Health Informatics: An Overview. Journal of Documentation. 1996;52:421–448.
  • Michaud GC, McGowan JL, Vanderjagt RH, Dugan AK, Tugwell P. The Introduction of Evidence-Based Medicine as a Component of Daily Practice. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1996;84:478–481.
  • Westberg EE, Miller RA. The Basis for Using the Internet to Support the Information Needs of Primary Care. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 1999;6:6–25.

Marshall only

  • Blagden J. Opinion Paper: Access versus Holdings. Interlending & Document Supply. 1997;25:179–82.
  • Blagden J. Opinion Paper: Access versus Holdings (vol. 25, pg. 179, 1997). Interlending & Document Supply. 1998;26:140–143.
  • Bowden VM, Kromer ME, Tobia RC. Assessment of Physicians Information Needs in Five Texas Counties. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1994;82:189–196.
  • Buchanan HS. Library Services and Health Care Administration. Library Trends. 1993;42:62–82.
  • Byrd GD. Proceedings, 92nd Annual Meeting Medical Library Association, Inc., Washington, DC, May 15–21, 1992. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1993;81:92–117. [see page 100, Report of the executive director, Carla Funk].
  • Cook D. Systematic Reviews: The Case for Rigorous Methods and Rigorous Reporting. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal Canadien d'Anesthesie. 1997;44:350–353.
  • Cook DJ, Meade MO, Fink MP. How to Keep up with the Critical Care Literature and Avoid Being Buried Alive. Critical Care Medicine. 1996;24:1757–1768.
  • Davidoff F, Florance V. The Informationist: A New Health Profession? Annals of Internal Medicine. 2000;132:996–998.
  • Detlefsen EG. Library and Information-Science Education for the New Medical Environment and the Age of Integrated Information. Library Trends. 1993;42:342–364.
  • Doran BM. What Clinical Information Do Doctors Need? Hospital Libraries Provide Crucial Information. British Medical Journal. 1997;314:904–905.
  • Galvin JR, D'Alessandro MP, Erkonen WE, Knutson TA, Lacey DL. The Virtual Hospital: A New Paradigm for Lifelong Learning in Radiology. Radiographics. 1994;14:875–879.
  • Holt MC. From Task-Force to Statute: Establishing Health-Sciences Libraries in State-Law as a Component of the Health-Care System. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1995;83:431–435.
  • Kienzle M, Curry D, Franken EA, et al. Iowa's National Laboratory for the Study of Rural Telemedicine: A Description of a Work in Progress. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1995;83:37–41.
  • Klemenz BE. Cochrane Databases: Evaluation of Randomized Controlled Studies as the Basis of Progressive Clinical Medicine. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 1997;122:384–385.
  • McClure LW. MLA and AAHSLD Testimony on Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 1995;83:252–253.
  • Meadow CT, Yuan WJ. Measuring the Impact of Information: Defining the Concepts. Information Processing & Management. 1997;33:697–714.
  • Michaud G, McGowan JL, Van Der Jagt R, Wells G, Tugwell P. Are Therapeutic Decisions Supported by Evidence From Health Care Research? Archives of Internal Medicine. 1998;158:1665–1668.
  • Rodrigues RJ. Information Systems: The Key to Evidence-Based Health Practice. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2000;78:1344–1351.
  • Rosenberg W, Donald A. Evidence Based Medicine: An Approach to Clinical Problem-Solving. British Medical Journal. 1995;310:1122–1126.
  • Sackett DL, Straus SE. Finding and Applying Evidence During Clinical Rounds: The “Evidence Cart.” JAMA. 1998;280:1336–1338.
  • Scott I, Heyworth R, Fairweather P. The Use of Evidence-Based Medicine in the Practice of Consultant Physicians: Results of a Questionnaire Survey. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine. 2000;30:319–326.

Addendum

Citing articles added to the ISI Web of Science between May 2001 and August 2002. These citations are presented for informational purposes. They are not included in the citation analysis.

Klein only

  • Bernstam E. MEDLINEQBE (Query-by-Example). Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium. 2001:47–51.
  • Dorsch JL. Information Needs of Rural Health Professionals: A Review of the Literature. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 2000 Oct;88(4):346–54.
  • Walz M, Brill C, Bolte R, Cramer U, Wein B, Reimann C, Haimerl M, Weisser G, Lehmann KJ, Loose R, Georgi M. Teleradiology Requirements and Aims in Germany and Europe: Status at the Beginning of 2000. European Radiology. 2000;10(9):1472–82.

Klein, Lindberg, Marshall

  • McGowan JJ, Richwine M. Electronic Information Access in Support of Clinical Decision Making: A Comparative Study of the Impact on Rural Health Care Outcomes. Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium. 2000:565–9.

Klein, Marshall

  • Richwine MP, McGowan JJ. A Rural Virtual Health Sciences Library Project: Research Findings with Implications for Next Generation Library Services. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 2001 Jan;89(1):37–44.

Lindberg only

  • Bradley DR, Rana GK, Martin PW, Schumacher RE. Real-Time, Evidence-Based Medicine Instruction: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Journal of the Medical Library Association. 2002 Apr;90(2):194–201.
  • Cooper RA, Fitzgerald SG, Boninger ML, Brienza DM, Shapcott N, Cooper R, Flood K. Telerehabilitation: Expanding Access to Rehabilitation Expertise. Proceedings of the IEEE. 2001 Aug;89(8):1174–1193.
  • Detmer DE. Information Technology for Quality Health Care: A Summary of United Kingdom and United States Experiences. Quality Health Care. 2000 Sep;9(3):181–9.
  • Erickson-Owens DA, Kennedy HP. Fostering Evidence-Based Care in Clinical Teaching. Journal of Midwifery Womens Health. 2001 May–Jun;46(3):137–45.
  • Jerome RN, Giuse NB, Gish KW, Sathe NA, Dietrich MS. Information Needs of Clinical Teams: Analysis of Questions Received by the Clinical Informatics Consult Service. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 2001 Apr;89(2):177–84.
  • Kuchenbecker J, Schmitz K, Dick HB. Online literature search [written in German]. Ophthalmologe. 2000 Dec;97(12):885–92.
  • Liaw ST, Marty JJ. Learning to Consult with Computers. Medical Education. 2001 Jul;35(7):645–51.
  • Mendonca EA, Cimino JJ, Johnson SB, Seol YH. Accessing Heterogeneous Sources of Evidence to Answer Clinical Questions. Journal of Biomedical Information. 2001 Apr;34(2):85–98.
  • Wood FB, Lyon B, Schell MB, Kitendaugh P, Cid VH, Siegel ER. Public Library Consumer Health Information Pilot Project: Results of a National Library of Medicine Evaluation. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 2000 Oct;88(4):314–22.

Marshall only

  • Byrd GD. Can the Profession of Pharmacy Serve as a Model for Health Informationist Professionals? Journal of the Medical Library Association. 2002 Jan;90(1):68–75.
  • Eldredge JD. Evidence-Based Librarianship: An Overview. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 2000 Oct;88(4):289–302.
  • Wolf DG, Chastain-Warheit CC, Easterby-Gannett S, Chayes MC, Long BA. Hospital Librarianship in the United States: At the Crossroads. Journal of the Medical Library Association. 2002 Jan;90(1):38–48.

Footnotes

* Presented in part at MLA/Triple Chapter Meeting; New Orleans, Louisiana; October 27, 2001; Florida Health Sciences Library Association Annual Meeting; St. Augustine, Florida; April 12, 2002; MLA '02, the 102nd Annual Meeting of the Medical Library Association; Dallas, Texas, May 19, 2002.

 The Value of the Hospital Library may be viewed at http://www.mlanet.org/resources/value.html.

REFERENCES

  • King DN. The contribution of hospital library information services to clinical care: a study in eight hospitals. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 1987.  Oct. 75(4):291–30. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Garfield E. The multiple meanings of impact factors. J Am Soc Inf Sci 1998;49(8):768. [cited 16 Oct 2003]. <http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/multiple_meanings_impfactor.html>.
  • Kuhlemeier KV. A bibliometric analysis of the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1992.  Feb. 73(2):126–32. [PubMed]
  • Neale V. Publication productivity ranking questioned. Fam Med. 1994.  Oct. 26(9):550. [PubMed]
  • Krumland RB, Will EE, and Gorry GA. Scientific publications of a medical school faculty. J Med Educ. 1979.  Nov. 54(11):876–84. [PubMed]
  • Garfield E. How to use citation analysis for faculty evaluations, and when is it relevant? Part 1. Current Contents 1983 Oct 31;(44):354–362. [cited 16 Oct 2003]. <http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v6p354y1983.pdf>.
  • Garfield E. How to use citation analysis for faculty evaluations, and when is it relevant? Part 2. Current Contents 1983 Nov 7;(45):363–72. [cited 16 Oct 2003]. <http://www.garfield.library.upenn.gedu/essays/v6p363y1983.pdf>.
  • Kuhlemeier KV. A bibliometric analysis of the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1992.  Feb. 73(2):132. [PubMed]
  • Garfield E. How to use citation analysis for faculty evaluations, and when is it relevant? Part 2. Current Contents 1983 Nov 7;(45):363. [cited 16 Oct 2003]. <http://www.garfield.library.upenn.gedu/essays/v6p363y1983.pdf>.
  • Zachert MJ. Educational services in health sciences libraries: an analysis of the periodical literature, 1975–1986. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 1987.  Jul. 75(3):234–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bayers N. Personal communication, Research Services Group, ISI.
  • Palmer RA. The hospital library is crucial to quality healthcare. Hosp Top. 1991.  Summer. 69(3):20–5. [PubMed]
  • Urquhart CJ, Hepworth JB. Comparing and using assessments of the value of information to clinical decision-making. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 1996.  Oct. 84(4):482–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Homan JM. A snapshot in time: citation rankings of the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 2000.  Jan. 88(1):83. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Garfield E. How can impact factors be improved? BMJ. 1996.  Aug 17. 313(7054):411–3. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA are provided here courtesy of Medical Library Association
PubReader format: click here to try

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...