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Int Immunol. Jul 2011; 23(7): 415–420.
Published online Jun 1, 2011. doi:  10.1093/intimm/dxr029
PMCID: PMC3123974
Review article

An updated view on transcription factor GATA3-mediated regulation of Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation

Abstract

CD4 Th are critical for orchestrating adaptive immune responses. The expression of the transcription factor GATA3 (GATA-binding protein 3) is up-regulated or down-regulated during Th2 or Th1 cell differentiation, respectively. Furthermore, GATA3 is responsible for induction of Th2 differentiation and represses Th1 differentiation. In this review, we present an updated view on the molecular mechanisms through which GATA3 regulates Th1/Th2 differentiation. During Th2 cell differentiation, GATA3 directly binds to the Th2 cytokine gene locus at several regions and regulates expression. On the other hand, GATA3 inhibits Th1 cell differentiation by preventing up-regulation of IL-12 receptor β2 and STAT4 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 4) and neutralization of Runx3 (runt-related transcription factor 3) function through protein–protein interaction. GATA3 may also directly act on the Ifng gene. In summary, GATA3 serves as a transcriptional activator or repressor through direct action on transcriptional machinery and/or affecting chromatin remodeling at many critical loci encoding cytokines, cytokine receptors, signaling molecules as well as transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of Th1 and Th2 differentiation.

Keywords: cytokine, epigenetic modification, gene regulation

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