• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
Nucleic Acids Res. Dec 25, 1993; 21(25): 5803–5816.
PMCID: PMC310458

Analysis of the RNA-recognition motif and RS and RGG domains: conservation in metazoan pre-mRNA splicing factors.

Abstract

We present a systematic analysis of sequence motifs found in metazoan protein factors involved in constitutive pre-mRNA splicing and in alternative splicing regulation. Using profile analysis we constructed a database enriched in protein sequences containing one or more presumptive copies of the RNA-recognition motif (RRM). We provide an accurate alignment of RRMs and structure-based criteria for identifying new RRMs, including many that lack the prototype RNP-1 submotif. We present a comprehensive table of 125 sequences containing 252 RRMs, including 22 previously unreported RRMs in 17 proteins. The presence of a putative RRM in these proteins, which are implicated in a variety of cellular processes, strongly suggests that their function involves binding to RNA. Unreported homologies in the RRM-enriched database to the metazoan SR family of splicing factors are described for an Arg-rich human nuclear protein and two yeast proteins (S. pombe mei2 and S. cerevisiae Npl3). We have rigorously tested the phylogenetic relationships of a large sample of RRMs. This analysis indicates that the RRM is an ancient conserved region (ACR) that has diversified by duplication of genes and intragenic domains. Statistical analyses and classification of repeated Arg-Ser (RS) and RGG domains in various protein splicing factors are presented.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Rio DC. RNA binding proteins, splice site selection, and alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Gene Expr. 1992;2(1):1–5. [PubMed]
  • Dreyfuss G, Matunis MJ, Piñol-Roma S, Burd CG. hnRNP proteins and the biogenesis of mRNA. Annu Rev Biochem. 1993;62:289–321. [PubMed]
  • Lührmann R, Kastner B, Bach M. Structure of spliceosomal snRNPs and their role in pre-mRNA splicing. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Nov 30;1087(3):265–292. [PubMed]
  • Krainer AR, Mayeda A, Kozak D, Binns G. Functional expression of cloned human splicing factor SF2: homology to RNA-binding proteins, U1 70K, and Drosophila splicing regulators. Cell. 1991 Jul 26;66(2):383–394. [PubMed]
  • Ge H, Zuo P, Manley JL. Primary structure of the human splicing factor ASF reveals similarities with Drosophila regulators. Cell. 1991 Jul 26;66(2):373–382. [PubMed]
  • Zamore PD, Patton JG, Green MR. Cloning and domain structure of the mammalian splicing factor U2AF. Nature. 1992 Feb 13;355(6361):609–614. [PubMed]
  • Sailer A, MacDonald NJ, Weissmann C. Cloning and sequencing of the murine homologue of the human splicing factor U2AF65. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992 May 11;20(9):2374–2374. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vellard M, Sureau A, Soret J, Martinerie C, Perbal B. A potential splicing factor is encoded by the opposite strand of the trans-spliced c-myb exon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Apr 1;89(7):2511–2515. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fu XD, Maniatis T. Isolation of a complementary DNA that encodes the mammalian splicing factor SC35. Science. 1992 Apr 24;256(5056):535–538. [PubMed]
  • Patton JG, Porro EB, Galceran J, Tempst P, Nadal-Ginard B. Cloning and characterization of PSF, a novel pre-mRNA splicing factor. Genes Dev. 1993 Mar;7(3):393–406. [PubMed]
  • Roth MB, Zahler AM, Stolk JA. A conserved family of nuclear phosphoproteins localized to sites of polymerase II transcription. J Cell Biol. 1991 Nov;115(3):587–596. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Champlin DT, Frasch M, Saumweber H, Lis JT. Characterization of a Drosophila protein associated with boundaries of transcriptionally active chromatin. Genes Dev. 1991 Sep;5(9):1611–1621. [PubMed]
  • Ayane M, Preuss U, Köhler G, Nielsen PJ. A differentially expressed murine RNA encoding a protein with similarities to two types of nucleic acid binding motifs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Mar 25;19(6):1273–1278. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zahler AM, Lane WS, Stolk JA, Roth MB. SR proteins: a conserved family of pre-mRNA splicing factors. Genes Dev. 1992 May;6(5):837–847. [PubMed]
  • Kim YJ, Zuo P, Manley JL, Baker BS. The Drosophila RNA-binding protein RBP1 is localized to transcriptionally active sites of chromosomes and shows a functional similarity to human splicing factor ASF/SF2. Genes Dev. 1992 Dec;6(12B):2569–2579. [PubMed]
  • Krainer AR, Conway GC, Kozak D. Purification and characterization of pre-mRNA splicing factor SF2 from HeLa cells. Genes Dev. 1990 Jul;4(7):1158–1171. [PubMed]
  • Krainer AR, Conway GC, Kozak D. The essential pre-mRNA splicing factor SF2 influences 5' splice site selection by activating proximal sites. Cell. 1990 Jul 13;62(1):35–42. [PubMed]
  • Ge H, Manley JL. A protein factor, ASF, controls cell-specific alternative splicing of SV40 early pre-mRNA in vitro. Cell. 1990 Jul 13;62(1):25–34. [PubMed]
  • Mayeda A, Zahler AM, Krainer AR, Roth MB. Two members of a conserved family of nuclear phosphoproteins are involved in pre-mRNA splicing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Feb 15;89(4):1301–1304. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fu XD, Mayeda A, Maniatis T, Krainer AR. General splicing factors SF2 and SC35 have equivalent activities in vitro, and both affect alternative 5' and 3' splice site selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Dec 1;89(23):11224–11228. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Choi YD, Grabowski PJ, Sharp PA, Dreyfuss G. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins: role in RNA splicing. Science. 1986 Mar 28;231(4745):1534–1539. [PubMed]
  • Sierakowska H, Szer W, Furdon PJ, Kole R. Antibodies to hnRNP core proteins inhibit in vitro splicing of human beta-globin pre-mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Jul 11;14(13):5241–5254. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mayeda A, Krainer AR. Regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing by hnRNP A1 and splicing factor SF2. Cell. 1992 Jan 24;68(2):365–375. [PubMed]
  • Mattox W, Ryner L, Baker BS. Autoregulation and multifunctionality among trans-acting factors that regulate alternative pre-mRNA processing. J Biol Chem. 1992 Sep 25;267(27):19023–19026. [PubMed]
  • Bandziulis RJ, Swanson MS, Dreyfuss G. RNA-binding proteins as developmental regulators. Genes Dev. 1989 Apr;3(4):431–437. [PubMed]
  • Kenan DJ, Query CC, Keene JD. RNA recognition: towards identifying determinants of specificity. Trends Biochem Sci. 1991 Jun;16(6):214–220. [PubMed]
  • Nagai H, Sztein MB, Steeg PS, Hooks JJ, Oppenheim JJ, Steinberg AD. Diminished peripheral blood monocyte DR antigen expression in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1984 Apr-Jun;2(2):131–137. [PubMed]
  • Haynes SR. The RNP motif protein family. New Biol. 1992 May;4(5):421–429. [PubMed]
  • Mattaj IW. RNA recognition: a family matter? Cell. 1993 Jun 4;73(5):837–840. [PubMed]
  • Li H, Bingham PM. Arginine/serine-rich domains of the su(wa) and tra RNA processing regulators target proteins to a subnuclear compartment implicated in splicing. Cell. 1991 Oct 18;67(2):335–342. [PubMed]
  • Steinert PM, Mack JW, Korge BP, Gan SQ, Haynes SR, Steven AC. Glycine loops in proteins: their occurrence in certain intermediate filament chains, loricrins and single-stranded RNA binding proteins. Int J Biol Macromol. 1991 Jun;13(3):130–139. [PubMed]
  • Kiledjian M, Dreyfuss G. Primary structure and binding activity of the hnRNP U protein: binding RNA through RGG box. EMBO J. 1992 Jul;11(7):2655–2664. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pearson WR, Lipman DJ. Improved tools for biological sequence comparison. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Apr;85(8):2444–2448. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ. Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol. 1990 Oct 5;215(3):403–410. [PubMed]
  • Gribskov M, McLachlan AD, Eisenberg D. Profile analysis: detection of distantly related proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Jul;84(13):4355–4358. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Devereux J, Haeberli P, Smithies O. A comprehensive set of sequence analysis programs for the VAX. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Jan 11;12(1 Pt 1):387–395. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brendel V, Bucher P, Nourbakhsh IR, Blaisdell BE, Karlin S. Methods and algorithms for statistical analysis of protein sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 15;89(6):2002–2006. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saitou N, Nei M. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol. 1987 Jul;4(4):406–425. [PubMed]
  • Higgins DG, Sharp PM. CLUSTAL: a package for performing multiple sequence alignment on a microcomputer. Gene. 1988 Dec 15;73(1):237–244. [PubMed]
  • Scherly D, Kambach C, Boelens W, van Venrooij WJ, Mattaj IW. Conserved amino acid residues within and outside of the N-terminal ribonucleoprotein motif of U1A small nuclear ribonucleoprotein involved in U1 RNA binding. J Mol Biol. 1991 Jun 20;219(4):577–584. [PubMed]
  • Burd CG, Matunis EL, Dreyfuss G. The multiple RNA-binding domains of the mRNA poly(A)-binding protein have different RNA-binding activities. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Jul;11(7):3419–3424. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ye L, Sugiura M. Domains required for nucleic acid binding activities in chloroplast ribonucleoproteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992 Dec 11;20(23):6275–6279. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lutz-Freyermuth C, Query CC, Keene JD. Quantitative determination that one of two potential RNA-binding domains of the A protein component of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex binds with high affinity to stem-loop II of U1 RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Aug;87(16):6393–6397. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jessen TH, Oubridge C, Teo CH, Pritchard C, Nagai K. Identification of molecular contacts between the U1 A small nuclear ribonucleoprotein and U1 RNA. EMBO J. 1991 Nov;10(11):3447–3456. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boelens W, Scherly D, Jansen EJ, Kolen K, Mattaj IW, van Venrooij WJ. Analysis of in vitro binding of U1-A protein mutants to U1 snRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Sep 11;19(17):4611–4618. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Scherly D, Boelens W, Dathan NA, van Venrooij WJ, Mattaj IW. Major determinants of the specificity of interaction between small nuclear ribonucleoproteins U1A and U2B'' and their cognate RNAs. Nature. 1990 Jun 7;345(6275):502–506. [PubMed]
  • Bentley RC, Keene JD. Recognition of U1 and U2 small nuclear RNAs can be altered by a 5-amino-acid segment in the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) B" protein and through interactions with U2 snRNP-A' protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Apr;11(4):1829–1839. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nagai K, Oubridge C, Jessen TH, Li J, Evans PR. Crystal structure of the RNA-binding domain of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein A. Nature. 1990 Dec 6;348(6301):515–520. [PubMed]
  • Harper DS, Fresco LD, Keene JD. RNA binding specificity of a Drosophila snRNP protein that shares sequence homology with mammalian U1-A and U2-B" proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992 Jul 25;20(14):3645–3650. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hoffman DW, Query CC, Golden BL, White SW, Keene JD. RNA-binding domain of the A protein component of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein analyzed by NMR spectroscopy is structurally similar to ribosomal proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Mar 15;88(6):2495–2499. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wittekind M, Görlach M, Friedrichs M, Dreyfuss G, Mueller L. 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR assignments and global folding pattern of the RNA-binding domain of the human hnRNP C proteins. Biochemistry. 1992 Jul 14;31(27):6254–6265. [PubMed]
  • Görlach M, Wittekind M, Beckman RA, Mueller L, Dreyfuss G. Interaction of the RNA-binding domain of the hnRNP C proteins with RNA. EMBO J. 1992 Sep;11(9):3289–3295. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Merrill BM, Stone KL, Cobianchi F, Wilson SH, Williams KR. Phenylalanines that are conserved among several RNA-binding proteins form part of a nucleic acid-binding pocket in the A1 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein. J Biol Chem. 1988 Mar 5;263(7):3307–3313. [PubMed]
  • Query CC, Bentley RC, Keene JD. A common RNA recognition motif identified within a defined U1 RNA binding domain of the 70K U1 snRNP protein. Cell. 1989 Apr 7;57(1):89–101. [PubMed]
  • Birney E, Kumar S, Krainer AR. A putative homolog of U2AF65 in S. cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992 Sep 11;20(17):4663–4663. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Piñol-Roma S, Swanson MS, Gall JG, Dreyfuss G. A novel heterogeneous nuclear RNP protein with a unique distribution on nascent transcripts. J Cell Biol. 1989 Dec;109(6 Pt 1):2575–2587. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smith V, Barrell BG. Cloning of a yeast U1 snRNP 70K protein homologue: functional conservation of an RNA-binding domain between humans and yeast. EMBO J. 1991 Sep;10(9):2627–2634. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kao HY, Siliciano PG. The yeast homolog of the U1 snRNP protein 70K is encoded by the SNP1 gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992 Aug 11;20(15):4009–4013. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chambers JC, Kenan D, Martin BJ, Keene JD. Genomic structure and amino acid sequence domains of the human La autoantigen. J Biol Chem. 1988 Dec 5;263(34):18043–18051. [PubMed]
  • Chan EK, Sullivan KF, Tan EM. Ribonucleoprotein SS-B/La belongs to a protein family with consensus sequences for RNA-binding. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Mar 25;17(6):2233–2244. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brennan CA, Platt T. Mutations in an RNP1 consensus sequence of Rho protein reduce RNA binding affinity but facilitate helicase turnover. J Biol Chem. 1991 Sep 15;266(26):17296–17305. [PubMed]
  • Grimes S, Anderson D. RNA dependence of the bacteriophage phi 29 DNA packaging ATPase. J Mol Biol. 1990 Oct 20;215(4):559–566. [PubMed]
  • Rebagliati M. An RNA recognition motif in the bicoid protein. Cell. 1989 Jul 28;58(2):231–232. [PubMed]
  • Voelker RA, Gibson W, Graves JP, Sterling JF, Eisenberg MT. The Drosophila suppressor of sable gene encodes a polypeptide with regions similar to those of RNA-binding proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Feb;11(2):894–905. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Landsman D. RNP-1, an RNA-binding motif is conserved in the DNA-binding cold shock domain. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992 Jun 11;20(11):2861–2864. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schindelin H, Marahiel MA, Heinemann U. Universal nucleic acid-binding domain revealed by crystal structure of the B. subtilis major cold-shock protein. Nature. 1993 Jul 8;364(6433):164–168. [PubMed]
  • Schnuchel A, Wiltscheck R, Czisch M, Herrler M, Willimsky G, Graumann P, Marahiel MA, Holak TA. Structure in solution of the major cold-shock protein from Bacillus subtilis. Nature. 1993 Jul 8;364(6433):169–171. [PubMed]
  • Kim YJ, Baker BS. Isolation of RRM-type RNA-binding protein genes and the analysis of their relatedness by using a numerical approach. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Jan;13(1):174–183. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shamoo Y, Ghosaini LR, Keating KM, Williams KR, Sturtevant JM, Konigsberg WH. Site-specific mutagenesis of T4 gene 32: the role of tyrosine residues in protein-nucleic acid interactions. Biochemistry. 1989 Sep 5;28(18):7409–7417. [PubMed]
  • Chaudhary N, McMahon C, Blobel G. Primary structure of a human arginine-rich nuclear protein that colocalizes with spliceosome components. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Sep 15;88(18):8189–8193. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Huang S, Spector DL. Will the real splicing sites please light up? Curr Biol. 1992 Apr;2(4):188–190. [PubMed]
  • Shimoda C, Uehira M, Kishida M, Fujioka H, Iino Y, Watanabe Y, Yamamoto M. Cloning and analysis of transcription of the mei2 gene responsible for initiation of meiosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Bacteriol. 1987 Jan;169(1):93–96. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bossie MA, DeHoratius C, Barcelo G, Silver P. A mutant nuclear protein with similarity to RNA binding proteins interferes with nuclear import in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 1992 Aug;3(8):875–893. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zhang M, Zamore PD, Carmo-Fonseca M, Lamond AI, Green MR. Cloning and intracellular localization of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor small subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Sep 15;89(18):8769–8773. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dreyfuss G, Swanson MS, Piñol-Roma S. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles and the pathway of mRNA formation. Trends Biochem Sci. 1988 Mar;13(3):86–91. [PubMed]
  • Good PJ, Rebbert ML, Dawid IB. Three new members of the RNP protein family in Xenopus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Feb 25;21(4):999–1006. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matunis EL, Matunis MJ, Dreyfuss G. Characterization of the major hnRNP proteins from Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 1992 Jan;116(2):257–269. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ye LH, Li YQ, Fukami-Kobayashi K, Go M, Konishi T, Watanabe A, Sugiura M. Diversity of a ribonucleoprotein family in tobacco chloroplasts: two new chloroplast ribonucleoproteins and a phylogenetic tree of ten chloroplast RNA-binding domains. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Dec 11;19(23):6485–6490. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Szabo A, Dalmau J, Manley G, Rosenfeld M, Wong E, Henson J, Posner JB, Furneaux HM. HuD, a paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis antigen, contains RNA-binding domains and is homologous to Elav and Sex-lethal. Cell. 1991 Oct 18;67(2):325–333. [PubMed]
  • Kim YJ, Baker BS. The Drosophila gene rbp9 encodes a protein that is a member of a conserved group of putative RNA binding proteins that are nervous system-specific in both flies and humans. J Neurosci. 1993 Mar;13(3):1045–1056. [PubMed]
  • Richter K, Good PJ, Dawid IB. A developmentally regulated, nervous system-specific gene in Xenopus encodes a putative RNA-binding protein. New Biol. 1990 Jun;2(6):556–565. [PubMed]
  • Green P, Lipman D, Hillier L, Waterston R, States D, Claverie JM. Ancient conserved regions in new gene sequences and the protein databases. Science. 1993 Mar 19;259(5102):1711–1716. [PubMed]
  • Zahler AM, Neugebauer KM, Lane WS, Roth MB. Distinct functions of SR proteins in alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Science. 1993 Apr 9;260(5105):219–222. [PubMed]
  • Lazinski D, Grzadzielska E, Das A. Sequence-specific recognition of RNA hairpins by bacteriophage antiterminators requires a conserved arginine-rich motif. Cell. 1989 Oct 6;59(1):207–218. [PubMed]
  • Woppmann A, Patschinsky T, Bringmann P, Godt F, Lührmann R. Characterisation of human and murine snRNP proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and phosphopeptide analysis of U1-specific 70K protein variants. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Aug 11;18(15):4427–4438. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ghisolfi L, Joseph G, Amalric F, Erard M. The glycine-rich domain of nucleolin has an unusual supersecondary structure responsible for its RNA-helix-destabilizing properties. J Biol Chem. 1992 Feb 15;267(5):2955–2959. [PubMed]
  • Kumar A, Casas-Finet JR, Luneau CJ, Karpel RL, Merrill BM, Williams KR, Wilson SH. Mammalian heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1. Nucleic acid binding properties of the COOH-terminal domain. J Biol Chem. 1990 Oct 5;265(28):17094–17100. [PubMed]
  • Karpel RL, Burchard AC. Physical studies of the interaction of a calf thymus helix-destablizing protein with nucleic acids. Biochemistry. 1980 Sep 30;19(20):4674–4682. [PubMed]
  • Pontius BW, Berg P. Renaturation of complementary DNA strands mediated by purified mammalian heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 protein: implications for a mechanism for rapid molecular assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Nov;87(21):8403–8407. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kumar A, Wilson SH. Studies of the strand-annealing activity of mammalian hnRNP complex protein A1. Biochemistry. 1990 Dec 4;29(48):10717–10722. [PubMed]
  • Munroe SH, Dong XF. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 catalyzes RNA.RNA annealing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Feb 1;89(3):895–899. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lischwe MA, Cook RG, Ahn YS, Yeoman LC, Busch H. Clustering of glycine and NG,NG-dimethylarginine in nucleolar protein C23. Biochemistry. 1985 Oct 22;24(22):6025–6028. [PubMed]
  • Lapeyre B, Amalric F, Ghaffari SH, Rao SV, Dumbar TS, Olson MO. Protein and cDNA sequence of a glycine-rich, dimethylarginine-containing region located near the carboxyl-terminal end of nucleolin (C23 and 100 kDa). J Biol Chem. 1986 Jul 15;261(20):9167–9173. [PubMed]
  • Mancebo R, Lo PC, Mount SM. Structure and expression of the Drosophila melanogaster gene for the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle 70K protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Jun;10(6):2492–2502. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zahler AM, Neugebauer KM, Stolk JA, Roth MB. Human SR proteins and isolation of a cDNA encoding SRp75. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Jul;13(7):4023–4028. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Diamond RH, Du K, Lee VM, Mohn KL, Haber BA, Tewari DS, Taub R. Novel delayed-early and highly insulin-induced growth response genes. Identification of HRS, a potential regulator of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jul 15;268(20):15185–15192. [PubMed]
  • Matsushima N, Creutz CE, Kretsinger RH. Polyproline, beta-turn helices. Novel secondary structures proposed for the tandem repeats within rhodopsin, synaptophysin, synexin, gliadin, RNA polymerase II, hordein, and gluten. Proteins. 1990;7(2):125–155. [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...