• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
Nucleic Acids Res. Aug 25, 1995; 23(16): 3083–3092.
PMCID: PMC307164

The coding sequences of mouse H2A and H3 histone genes contains a conserved seven nucleotide element that interacts with nuclear factors and is necessary for normal expression.

Abstract

Expression of replication-dependent histone genes of all classes is up-regulated coordinately at the onset of DNA synthesis. The cellular signals involved in coordinate regulation of these genes are not known. Here we report identification of an alpha element, present within the mouse histone coding region activating sequence (CRAS). We show evidence that this element is present in histone genes from two classes, H2a and H3, in the mouse. This element has two biological functions in histone gene expression, i.e. the element interacts with nuclear proteins in regulation of gene expression, as well as encoding the amino acids of the histone proteins. We present both in vivo and in vitro evidence that interaction of nuclear proteins with this element is required for normal expression. The binding site for nuclear protein(s) has been precisely defined by means of synthetic oligonucleotides, as well as DNase I protection and methylation interference. It is interesting to note that the histone CRAS alpha element is mutated in a replication-independent H3.3 gene; 5 of 7 nt in the CRAS alpha box are changed in this gene.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.6M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Butler WB, Mueller GC. Control of histone synthesis in HeLa cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1973 Feb 4;294(1):481–496. [PubMed]
  • Heintz N, Sive HL, Roeder RG. Regulation of human histone gene expression: kinetics of accumulation and changes in the rate of synthesis and in the half-lives of individual histone mRNAs during the HeLa cell cycle. Mol Cell Biol. 1983 Apr;3(4):539–550. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Plumb M, Stein J, Stein G. Coordinate regulation of multiple histone mRNAs during the cell cycle in HeLa cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Apr 25;11(8):2391–2410. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wu RS, Bonner WM. Separation of basal histone synthesis from S-phase histone synthesis in dividing cells. Cell. 1981 Dec;27(2 Pt 1):321–330. [PubMed]
  • Graves RA, Marzluff WF. Rapid reversible changes in the rate of histone gene transcription and histone mRNA levels in mouse myeloma cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1984 Feb;4(2):351–357. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Graves RA, Wellman SE, Chiu IM, Marzluff WF. Differential expression of two clusters of mouse histone genes. J Mol Biol. 1985 May 25;183(2):179–194. [PubMed]
  • Artishevsky A, Wooden S, Sharma A, Resendez E, Jr, Lee AS. Cell-cycle regulatory sequences in a hamster histone promoter and their interactions with cellular factors. Nature. 328(6133):823–827. [PubMed]
  • Dailey L, Hanly SM, Roeder RG, Heintz N. Distinct transcription factors bind specifically to two regions of the human histone H4 promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Oct;83(19):7241–7245. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dalton S, Wells JR. A gene-specific promoter element is required for optimal expression of the histone H1 gene in S-phase. EMBO J. 1988 Jan;7(1):49–56. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sive HL, Heintz N, Roeder RG. Multiple sequence elements are required for maximal in vitro transcription of a human histone H2B gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1986 Oct;6(10):3329–3340. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van Wijnen AJ, Wright KL, Massung RF, Gerretsen M, Stein JL, Stein GS. Two target sites for protein binding in the promoter region of a cell cycle regulated human H1 histone gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Jan 25;16(2):571–592. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LaBella F, Sive HL, Roeder RG, Heintz N. Cell-cycle regulation of a human histone H2b gene is mediated by the H2b subtype-specific consensus element. Genes Dev. 1988 Jan;2(1):32–39. [PubMed]
  • Hurt MM, Bowman TL, Marzluff WF. A common transcriptional activator is located in the coding region of two replication-dependent mouse histone genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Jun;11(6):2929–2936. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hurt MM, Pandey NB, Marzluff WF. A region in the coding sequence is required for high-level expression of murine histone H3 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jun;86(12):4450–4454. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Levine BJ, Liu TJ, Marzluff WF, Skoultchi AI. Differential expression of individual members of the histone multigene family due to sequences in the 5' and 3' regions of the genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 May;8(5):1887–1895. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ayer DE, Dynan WS. A downstream-element-binding factor facilitates assembly of a functional preinitiation complex at the simian virus 40 major late promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Jul;10(7):3635–3645. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bruhat A, Tourmente S, Chapel S, Sobrier ML, Couderc JL, Dastugue B. Regulatory elements in the first intron contribute to transcriptional regulation of the beta 3 tubulin gene by 20-hydroxyecdysone in Drosophila Kc cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 May 25;18(10):2861–2867. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Deng TL, Li Y, Johnson LF. Thymidylate synthase gene expression is stimulated by some (but not all) introns. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Jan 25;17(2):645–658. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Farnham PJ, Means AL. Sequences downstream of the transcription initiation site modulate the activity of the murine dihydrofolate reductase promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Apr;10(4):1390–1398. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lamb NJ, Fernandez A, Tourkine N, Jeanteur P, Blanchard JM. Demonstration in living cells of an intragenic negative regulatory element within the rodent c-fos gene. Cell. 1990 May 4;61(3):485–496. [PubMed]
  • Reid LH, Gregg RG, Smithies O, Koller BH. Regulatory elements in the introns of the human HPRT gene are necessary for its expression in embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jun;87(11):4299–4303. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Scotto L, Vaduva PI, Wager RE, Assoian RK. Type beta 1 transforming growth factor gene expression. A corrected mRNA structure reveals a downstream phorbol ester responsive element in human cells. J Biol Chem. 1990 Feb 5;265(4):2203–2208. [PubMed]
  • Slater EP, Rabenau O, Karin M, Baxter JD, Beato M. Glucocorticoid receptor binding and activation of a heterologous promoter by dexamethasone by the first intron of the human growth hormone gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Nov;5(11):2984–2992. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wright S, Rosenthal A, Flavell R, Grosveld F. DNA sequences required for regulated expression of beta-globin genes in murine erythroleukemia cells. Cell. 1984 Aug;38(1):265–273. [PubMed]
  • Kunkel TA, Roberts JD, Zakour RA. Rapid and efficient site-specific mutagenesis without phenotypic selection. Methods Enzymol. 1987;154:367–382. [PubMed]
  • Chaney WG, Howard DR, Pollard JW, Sallustio S, Stanley P. High-frequency transfection of CHO cells using polybrene. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1986 May;12(3):237–244. [PubMed]
  • Shapiro DJ, Sharp PA, Wahli WW, Keller MJ. A high-efficiency HeLa cell nuclear transcription extract. DNA. 1988 Jan-Feb;7(1):47–55. [PubMed]
  • Gilman MZ, Wilson RN, Weinberg RA. Multiple protein-binding sites in the 5'-flanking region regulate c-fos expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1986 Dec;6(12):4305–4316. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hraba-Renevey S, Kress M. Expression of a mouse replacement histone H3.3 gene with a highly conserved 3' noncoding region during SV40- and polyoma-induced Go to S-phase transition. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Apr 11;17(7):2449–2461. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krimer DB, Cheng G, Skoultchi AI. Induction of H3.3 replacement histone mRNAs during the precommitment period of murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Jun 25;21(12):2873–2879. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wellman SE, Casano PJ, Pilch DR, Marzluff WF, Sittman DB. Characterization of mouse H3.3-like histone genes. Gene. 1987;59(1):29–39. [PubMed]
  • Singh H, Sen R, Baltimore D, Sharp PA. A nuclear factor that binds to a conserved sequence motif in transcriptional control elements of immunoglobulin genes. Nature. 1986 Jan 9;319(6049):154–158. [PubMed]
  • Siebenlist U, Gilbert W. Contacts between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and an early promoter of phage T7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jan;77(1):122–126. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van Wijnen AJ, Bidwell J, Lian JB, Stein JL, Stein GS. Stairway assays: rapid localization of multiple protein/DNA interaction sites in gene-regulatory 5' regions. Biotechniques. 1992 Mar;12(3):400–407. [PubMed]
  • Franklin SG, Zweidler A. Non-allelic variants of histones 2a, 2b and 3 in mammals. Nature. 1977 Mar 17;266(5599):273–275. [PubMed]
  • Wells D, Kedes L. Structure of a human histone cDNA: evidence that basally expressed histone genes have intervening sequences and encode polyadenylylated mRNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 May;82(9):2834–2838. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...