• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
Nucleic Acids Res. May 25, 1995; 23(10): 1758–1765.
PMCID: PMC306933

Cell stress and translational inhibitors transiently increase the abundance of mammalian SINE transcripts.

Abstract

The abundance of Alu RNA is transiently increased by heat shock in human cell lines. This effect is specific to Alu repeats among Pol III transcribed genes, since the abundance of 7SL, 7SK, 5S and U6 RNAs is essentially unaffected by heat shock. The rapid induction of Alu expression precedes the heat shock induction of mRNAs for the ubiquitin and HSP 70 heat shock genes. Heat shock mimetics also transiently induce Alu expression indicating that increased Alu expression is a general cell-stress response. Cycloheximide treatment rapidly and transiently increases the abundance of Alu RNA. Again, compared with other genes transcribed by Pol III, this increase is specific to Alu. However, as distinguished from the cell stress response, cycloheximide does not induce expression of HSP 70 and ubiquitin mRNAs. Puromycin also increases Alu expression, suggesting that this response is generally caused by translational inhibition. The response of mammalian SINEs to cell stress and translational inhibition is not limited to SINEs which are Alu homologues. Heat shock and cycloheximide each transiently induce Pol III directed expression of B1 and B2 RNAs in mouse cells and C-element RNA in rabbit cells. Together, these three species exemplify the known SINE composition of placental mammals, suggesting that mammalian SINEs are similarly regulated and may serve a common function.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Weiner AM, Deininger PL, Efstratiadis A. Nonviral retroposons: genes, pseudogenes, and transposable elements generated by the reverse flow of genetic information. Annu Rev Biochem. 1986;55:631–661. [PubMed]
  • Sinnett D, Richer C, Deragon JM, Labuda D. Alu RNA transcripts in human embryonal carcinoma cells. Model of post-transcriptional selection of master sequences. J Mol Biol. 1992 Aug 5;226(3):689–706. [PubMed]
  • Liu WM, Maraia RJ, Rubin CM, Schmid CW. Alu transcripts: cytoplasmic localisation and regulation by DNA methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994 Mar 25;22(6):1087–1095. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sakagami M, Ohshima K, Mukoyama H, Yasue H, Okada N. A novel tRNA species as an origin of short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs). Equine SINEs may have originated from tRNA(Ser). J Mol Biol. 1994 Jun 24;239(5):731–735. [PubMed]
  • Krane DE, Clark AG, Cheng JF, Hardison RC. Subfamily relationships and clustering of rabbit C repeats. Mol Biol Evol. 1991 Jan;8(1):1–30. [PubMed]
  • Maraia RJ, Driscoll CT, Bilyeu T, Hsu K, Darlington GJ. Multiple dispersed loci produce small cytoplasmic Alu RNA. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Jul;13(7):4233–4241. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maraia RJ. The subset of mouse B1 (Alu-equivalent) sequences expressed as small processed cytoplasmic transcripts. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Oct 25;19(20):5695–5702. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ryskov AP, Ivanov PL, Kramerov DA, Georgiev GP. Mouse ubiquitous B2 repeat in polysomal and cytoplasmic poly(A)+RNAs: uniderectional orientation and 3'-end localization. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Sep 24;11(18):6541–6558. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Englander EW, Wolffe AP, Howard BH. Nucleosome interactions with a human Alu element. Transcriptional repression and effects of template methylation. J Biol Chem. 1993 Sep 15;268(26):19565–19573. [PubMed]
  • Kochanek S, Renz D, Doerfler W. DNA methylation in the Alu sequences of diploid and haploid primary human cells. EMBO J. 1993 Mar;12(3):1141–1151. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Liu WM, Schmid CW. Proposed roles for DNA methylation in Alu transcriptional repression and mutational inactivation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Mar 25;21(6):1351–1359. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schmid C, Maraia R. Transcriptional regulation and transpositional selection of active SINE sequences. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1992 Dec;2(6):874–882. [PubMed]
  • Hellmann-Blumberg U, Hintz MF, Gatewood JM, Schmid CW. Developmental differences in methylation of human Alu repeats. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Aug;13(8):4523–4530. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fornace AJ, Jr, Mitchell JB. Induction of B2 RNA polymerase III transcription by heat shock: enrichment for heat shock induced sequences in rodent cells by hybridization subtraction. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Jul 25;14(14):5793–5811. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fornace AJ, Jr, Alamo I, Jr, Hollander MC, Lamoreaux E. Induction of heat shock protein transcripts and B2 transcripts by various stresses in Chinese hamster cells. Exp Cell Res. 1989 May;182(1):61–74. [PubMed]
  • Panning B, Smiley JR. Activation of RNA polymerase III transcription of human Alu repetitive elements by adenovirus type 5: requirement for the E1b 58-kilodalton protein and the products of E4 open reading frames 3 and 6. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Jun;13(6):3231–3244. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jang KL, Latchman DS. HSV infection induces increased transcription of Alu repeated sequences by RNA polymerase III. FEBS Lett. 1989 Dec 4;258(2):255–258. [PubMed]
  • Georgopoulos C, Welch WJ. Role of the major heat shock proteins as molecular chaperones. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1993;9:601–634. [PubMed]
  • Lee YJ, Dewey WC. Effect of cycloheximide or puromycin on induction of thermotolerance by sodium arsenite in Chinese hamster ovary cells: involvement of heat shock proteins. J Cell Physiol. 1987 Jul;132(1):41–48. [PubMed]
  • Price BD, Calderwood SK. Heat-induced transcription from RNA polymerases II and III and HSF binding activity are co-ordinately regulated by the products of the heat shock genes. J Cell Physiol. 1992 Nov;153(2):392–401. [PubMed]
  • Tomilin NV, Bozhkov VM, Bradbury EM, Schmid CW. Differential binding of human nuclear proteins to Alu subfamilies. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992 Jun 25;20(12):2941–2945. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ullu E, Weiner AM. Human genes and pseudogenes for the 7SL RNA component of signal recognition particle. EMBO J. 1984 Dec 20;3(13):3303–3310. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Doran JL, Bingle WH, Roy KL. The nucleotide sequences of two human 5S rRNA pseudogenes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Aug 11;15(15):6297–6297. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Murphy S, Tripodi M, Melli M. A sequence upstream from the coding region is required for the transcription of the 7SK RNA genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Dec 9;14(23):9243–9260. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hayashi K. Organization of sequences related to U6 RNA in the human genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Jul 24;9(14):3379–3388. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ponte P, Ng SY, Engel J, Gunning P, Kedes L. Evolutionary conservation in the untranslated regions of actin mRNAs: DNA sequence of a human beta-actin cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Feb 10;12(3):1687–1696. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hunt C, Morimoto RI. Conserved features of eukaryotic hsp70 genes revealed by comparison with the nucleotide sequence of human hsp70. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Oct;82(19):6455–6459. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fornace AJ, Jr, Alamo I, Jr, Hollander MC, Lamoreaux E. Ubiquitin mRNA is a major stress-induced transcript in mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Feb 11;17(3):1215–1230. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Quentin Y. Successive waves of fixation of B1 variants in rodent lineage history. J Mol Evol. 1989 Apr;28(4):299–305. [PubMed]
  • Krayev AS, Markusheva TV, Kramerov DA, Ryskov AP, Skryabin KG, Bayev AA, Georgiev GP. Ubiquitous transposon-like repeats B1 and B2 of the mouse genome: B2 sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Dec 11;10(23):7461–7475. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Crête P, Landry J. Induction of HSP27 phosphorylation and thermoresistance in Chinese hamster cells by arsenite, cycloheximide, A23187, and EGTA. Radiat Res. 1990 Mar;121(3):320–327. [PubMed]
  • Baler R, Welch WJ, Voellmy R. Heat shock gene regulation by nascent polypeptides and denatured proteins: hsp70 as a potential autoregulatory factor. J Cell Biol. 1992 Jun;117(6):1151–1159. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Landry J, Chrétien P, Lambert H, Hickey E, Weber LA. Heat shock resistance conferred by expression of the human HSP27 gene in rodent cells. J Cell Biol. 1989 Jul;109(1):7–15. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bredow S, Sürig D, Müller J, Kleinert H, Benecke BJ. Activating-transcription-factor (ATF) regulates human 7S L RNA transcription by RNA polymerase III in vivo and in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Dec 11;18(23):6779–6784. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ullu E, Weiner AM. Upstream sequences modulate the internal promoter of the human 7SL RNA gene. Nature. 318(6044):371–374. [PubMed]
  • Okada N. SINEs. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1991 Dec;1(4):498–504. [PubMed]
  • Yoshioka Y, Matsumoto S, Kojima S, Ohshima K, Okada N, Machida Y. Molecular characterization of a short interspersed repetitive element from tobacco that exhibits sequence homology to specific tRNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jul 15;90(14):6562–6566. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chang DY, Nelson B, Bilyeu T, Hsu K, Darlington GJ, Maraia RJ. A human Alu RNA-binding protein whose expression is associated with accumulation of small cytoplasmic Alu RNA. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Jun;14(6):3949–3959. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...