• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of iaiPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalIAI ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Infect Immun. Dec 1994; 62(12): 5447–5455.
PMCID: PMC303287

Saccharomyces cerevisiae virulence phenotype as determined with CD-1 mice is associated with the ability to grow at 42 degrees C and form pseudohyphae.


Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates have been shown previously to exhibit a high degree of variation in their ability to proliferate and persist in CD-1 mice (K.V. Clemons, J.H. McCusker, R. W. Davis, and D.A. Stevens, J. Infect. Dis. 169:859-867, 1994). Isolate origin was not a firm predictor of virulence phenotype, since the virulence phenotypes of clinical and nonclinical isolates ranged from virulent to avirulent and from intermediate to avirulent, respectively. Therefore, it was important to determine if there was any association between putative virulence traits and virulence that might help explain the variation in virulence phenotypes. S. cerevisiae isolates spanning a range of virulence phenotypes in experimental infections were examined for putative virulence traits: the ability to grow at supraoptimal temperatures (42, 39, and 37 degrees C), gelatin liquefaction, casein utilization, and pseudohyphal formation. Gelatin liquefaction appeared to be unrelated to pseudohyphal formation on casein or to virulence. Significant differences in the ability to grow at 39 and 42 degrees C were observed when the virulent and intermediate classes were compared with the avirulent class. Less extreme but still significant differences in pseudohyphal formation were observed when the virulent and intermediate classes were compared with the avirulent class. Therefore, two virulence traits, similar to those identified in other pathogenic fungi, the ability to grow at elevated temperatures and pseudohyphal formation, have been identified in S. cerevisiae.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.7M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Aucott JN, Fayen J, Grossnicklas H, Morrissey A, Lederman MM, Salata RA. Invasive infection with Saccharomyces cerevisiae: report of three cases and review. Rev Infect Dis. 1990 May-Jun;12(3):406–411. [PubMed]
  • Chen AW, Miller JJ. Proteolytic activity of intact yeast cells during sporulation. Can J Microbiol. 1968 Sep;14(9):957–963. [PubMed]
  • Chertow GM, Marcantonio ER, Wells RG. Saccharomyces cerevisiae empyema in a patient with esophago-pleural fistula complicating variceal sclerotherapy. Chest. 1991 Jun;99(6):1518–1519. [PubMed]
  • Cimolai N, Gill MJ, Church D. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia: case report and review of the literature. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1987 Oct;8(2):113–117. [PubMed]
  • Clemons KV, McCusker JH, Davis RW, Stevens DA. Comparative pathogenesis of clinical and nonclinical isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Infect Dis. 1994 Apr;169(4):859–867. [PubMed]
  • Cutler JE. Putative virulence factors of Candida albicans. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1991;45:187–218. [PubMed]
  • Dougherty SH, Simmons RL. Postoperative peritonitis caused by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Arch Surg. 1982 Feb;117(2):248–248. [PubMed]
  • Eng RH, Drehmel R, Smith SM, Goldstein EJ. Saccharomyces cerevisiae infections in man. Sabouraudia. 1984;22(5):403–407. [PubMed]
  • Eschete ML, West BC. Saccharomyces cerevisiae septicemia. Arch Intern Med. 1980 Nov;140(11):1539–1539. [PubMed]
  • Gimeno CJ, Ljungdahl PO, Styles CA, Fink GR. Unipolar cell divisions in the yeast S. cerevisiae lead to filamentous growth: regulation by starvation and RAS. Cell. 1992 Mar 20;68(6):1077–1090. [PubMed]
  • Kamiyama A, Niimi M, Tokunaga M, Nakayama H. Adansonian study of Candida albicans: intraspecific homogeneity excepting C. stellatoidea strains. J Med Vet Mycol. 1989;27(4):229–241. [PubMed]
  • Kiehn TE, Edwards FF, Armstrong D. The prevalence of yeasts in clinical specimens from cancer patients. Am J Clin Pathol. 1980 Apr;73(4):518–521. [PubMed]
  • Kwon-Chung KJ, Polacheck I, Popkin TJ. Melanin-lacking mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans and their virulence for mice. J Bacteriol. 1982 Jun;150(3):1414–1421. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Manzella JP, Shaffer S, Agarwal N, Kellogg JA. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in a multiply traumatized patient. J Trauma. 1989 Jan;29(1):129–130. [PubMed]
  • McCusker JH, Clemons KV, Stevens DA, Davis RW. Genetic characterization of pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates. Genetics. 1994 Apr;136(4):1261–1269. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Medoff G, Maresca B, Lambowitz AM, Kobayashi G, Painter A, Sacco M, Carratu L. Correlation between pathogenicity and temperature sensitivity in different strains of Histoplasma capsulatum. J Clin Invest. 1986 Dec;78(6):1638–1647. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mortimer RK, Johnston JR. Genealogy of principal strains of the yeast genetic stock center. Genetics. 1986 May;113(1):35–43. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nielsen H, Stenderup J, Bruun B. Fungemia with Saccharomycetaceae. Report of four cases and review of the literature. Scand J Infect Dis. 1990;22(5):581–584. [PubMed]
  • Sarachek A, Brecher CA, Rhoads DD. Differentiation of Candida stellatoidea from C. albicans and C. tropicalis by temperature-dependent growth responses on defined media. Mycopathologia. 1981 Sep 11;75(3):179–189. [PubMed]
  • Scherer S, Magee PT. Genetics of Candida albicans. Microbiol Rev. 1990 Sep;54(3):226–241. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sethi N, Mandell W. Saccharomyces fungemia in a patient with AIDS. N Y State J Med. 1988 May;88(5):278–279. [PubMed]
  • Sobel JD, Vazquez J, Lynch M, Meriwether C, Zervos MJ. Vaginitis due to Saccharomyces cerevisiae: epidemiology, clinical aspects, and therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Jan;16(1):93–99. [PubMed]
  • Spencer JF, Spencer DM. Osmotic sensitivity and tolerance and proteinase production in a strain of Saccharomyces. Z Naturforsch C. 1979 Jan-Feb;34(1-2):131–135. [PubMed]
  • Tawfik OW, Papasian CJ, Dixon AY, Potter LM. Saccharomyces cerevisiae pneumonia in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Jul;27(7):1689–1691. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Infection and Immunity are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...