• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptNIH Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
Child Abuse Negl. Author manuscript; available in PMC Nov 1, 2011.
Published in final edited form as:
PMCID: PMC2981623
NIHMSID: NIHMS233828

Associations between childhood adversity and depression, substance abuse and HIV & HSV2 incident infections in rural South African youth

Abstract

Objectives

to describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes.

Methods

we analysed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes simplex type 2 virus at 12 and 24 month follow up; 1,367 male and 1,415 female volunteers were recruited from 70 rural villages.

Results

Both women and men before 18 had experienced physical punishment (89.3% & 94.4%), physical hardship (65.8% & 46.8%), emotional abuse (54.7% & 56.4%), emotional neglect (41.6% & 39.6%), and sexual abuse (39.1% & 16.7%). Incident HIV infections were more common in women who experienced emotional abuse (IRR 1.96, 95% CI 1.25, 3.06, p=0.003), sexual abuse (IRR 1.66 95%CI 1.04, 2.63, p=0.03), and physical punishment (IRR 2.13 95%CI 1.04, 4.37, p=0.04). Emotional neglect in women was associated with depression (aOR 1.82 (95% CI 1.15, 2.88, p= 0.01), suicidality (aOR 5.07 (95% CI 2.07, 12.45, p<0.0001), alcohol abuse (aOR 2.17 (95% CI 0.99, 4.72, p=0.05), and incident HSV2 infections (IRR 1.62, 95% CI 1.01, 2.59, p=0.04). In men emotional neglect was associated with depression (aOR 3.41 (95% CI1.87, 6.20, p<0.0001) and drug use (aOR 1.98 (95% CI 1.37, 2.88, p<0.0001). Sexual abuse was associated with alcohol abuse in men (aOR 3.68 (95% CI2.00, 6.77, p<0.0001) and depression (aOR 2.16 (95% CI1.34, 3.48, p=0.002) and alcohol abuse in women (aOR 3.94 (95% CI 1.90, 8.17, p<0.0001).

Practice implications

Childhood exposure to adversity is very common and influences the health of women and men. All forms of adversity, emotional, physical and sexual, enhance the risk of adverse health outcomes in men and women. Prevention of child abuse need to be included as part of the HIV prevention agenda in Sub-Saharan Africa. Interventions are needed to prevent emotional, sexual, and physical abuse and responses from health and social systems in Africa to psychologically support exposed children must be strengthened.

Introduction

Exposure to adversity in childhood violates children’s basic human rights and has significant implications for their health and social development. Research on adverse experiences in childhood, including child abuse, has been a substantially neglected area, especially in Africa. Yet this is critical for building a global climate of respect for human rights, and understanding what child protection is needed, why it is important and the policy responses required.

Sexual violence against girls has been described in a number of studies, with the prevalence reported varying depending on the definition used. Research with women in 3 sites in Tanzania and Namibia has found between 9.5% and 21% of women reporting unwanted sexual contact before age 15 and a third of young women in Swaziland reported sexual abuse before 18 (Garcia-Moreno, Jansen, Ellsberg, Heise, & Watts, 2005; Reza, et al., 2009). Schools are a particularly common context for sexual and physical abuse in Africa (Human Rights Watch, 2001; Jewkes, Levin, Bradshaw, & Mbananga, 2002). In South Africa corporal punishment in schools has been illegal since 1996 but the government has not managed to enforce the law (Morrell, 2001a; Morrell, 2001b). Research from Uganda and Zambia has also pointed to the ubiquity of the use of physical punishment in homes (Naker, 2005; Slonim-Nevo, & Mukuka, 2007). While highly prevalent sexual and physical abuse of children in sub-Saharan has been documented, there has been little attempt to conceptualize or ascertain the prevalence of neglect or emotional abuse and even less work on abuse of boys.

Research mostly in developed countries has shown that children who have been physically or sexually abused have a greater risk of depression, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder, unwanted pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections (Slonim-Nevo, & Mukuka, 2007; Runyan, Wattam, Ikeda, Hassan, & Ramiro, 2002; Turner, Finkelhhor, & Ormrod, 2006; Felitti, et al., 1998; Jewkes, et al., 2006a). In research with Native American tribes, women exposed to emotional, physical, and sexual abuse were more likely to develop alcohol dependency, as were men exposed to sexual and physical abuse (Koss et al., 2003). Exposure to abuse and neglect negatively affects the development of a child's brain, with consequent cognitive, psychological, and social impairment (Perry, 2001), as well as a risk of developing anti-social and violent behaviour (Perry, 2001; Caspi et al., 2002), including rape perpetration (Jewkes et al., 2006b; Knight, & Sims-Knight, 2003; Malamuth, 2003).

We used data collected in South Africa during a research project evaluating an HIV prevention intervention (Jewkes et al., 2006c; Jewkes et al., 2008) to describe here the prevalence of exposure to childhood adversity and test hypotheses that such exposures were associated with prevalent depressive symptomatology, suicidality, and substance abuse, as well as incident herpes simplex type 2 virus infection (HSV2) and HIV infections over 2 years of follow-up.

Methods

Between 2002–2003 we recruited 1367 men and 1415 women aged 15–26 years into a cluster randomized controlled trial undertaken to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioral intervention Stepping Stones. They were volunteers from 70 study clusters (64 villages and 6 townships) in the rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa near the town of Mthatha. Eligible participants were aged 16–23 years, normally resident in the area where they schooled and mature enough to understand the study and consent process. There was a difference between the actual (15–26 years) and intended age of participants which is discussed in detail elsewhere (Jewkes et al., 2006c). Most were recruited from schools, where between 15–25 youth of each sex per village were enrolled in the study.

Clusters were randomly allocated to the two study arms. The Stepping Stones intervention uses participatory learning approaches, including critical reflection, role play, and drama and draws the everyday reality of participants’ lives into the sessions. It is delivered to single sex groups, which are run in parallel, and has 13 3-hour long sessions that are complemented by 3 meetings of male and female peer groups, and a final community meeting. The programme spanned about 50 hours and ran for 6–8 weeks. The control intervention was a single 3 hour session on HIV, safer sex, and condoms. The content was taken from Stepping Stones. Both interventions were delivered by facilitators employed by the project.

Prior to the intervention, we administered questionnaires and collected blood samples before the intervention (baseline) and after about 1 and 2 years. Participants were located for the follow up interviews using details collected at enrolment; 1,121 men and 1,100 women were successfully traced and provided data for the HIV and HSV-2 incidence analyses. Age and sex-matched interviewers conducted face to face interviews with participants in isiXhosa (their first language). A trained nurse counsellor provided counselling before HIV testing to groups of eight to ten people after they had enrolled for the study, signed consent for the interview, and completed the baseline questionnaire. Participants with positive results were told their CD4 counts and screened for medical problems. They also were referred to local health services and HIV support groups according to a referral algorithm. For the first years of the study anti-retroviral medication was not available in the public sector in the study area. The Medical Research Council paid for lunch, transport, and consultation fees for HIV positive participants accessing health services. The study nurses supported participants with social problems and HIV related problems throughout the course of the study, referring to social workers or health facilities as appropriate. Further description of the trial methods is published elsewhere (Jewkes et al., 2006c).

Access and ethics

In each cluster, recruitment started with general community mobilization, and the study was explained to key local figures. In most villages the chief (or his representative) called a monthly community meeting. Typically the staff member attended and made a brief presentation and then took questions from the community, including from parents of potential participants. After the community meeting project staff went to the school to raise interest in the study and invited possible participants to a meeting. Here they explained the study to a group of about 60 young men and women in the targeted age group. Names were taken and the group was asked to decide on the 40 people who were most likely to be able to participate in the study. The presenter read aloud the study’s consent form to the 40 and gave an opportunity for questions. The form explained the procedures that would occur in some detail. After the group presentation we asked for confirmation that there was still general interest in participation and asked the young people to talk with their families before committing themselves. Each potential participant received a Xhosa language leaflet describing the study in terms understandable to a lay audience. Those who decided to participate were asked to report at an assigned time anywhere from 2 to 7 days later. At that time, they provided and signed formal informed consent and study recruitment was finalised. All participants were given 20 rand (about $2.50) after each interview. Written informed consent was provided by all participants for each round of data collection. We had an active community advisory board and data safety and monitoring board. Ethical approval for the study was given by the University of Pretoria.

Defining and measuring adverse childhood experiences

Adverse childhood experiences at baseline were measured on a modified version of the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein et al., 1994). We assessed 5 dimensions of adversity: emotional neglect, emotional abuse, physical neglect/hardship, physical abuse, and sexual abuse (Cronbach’s alpha for scale 0.77 in women, 0.75 in men). The items used are shown in Table 2. We adapted the scale for local use with Xhosa youth through lengthy discussion with newly recruited project staff, who were men and women of the same age as the participants, and who had mostly grown up in the study area. Discussions covered cultural relevance, wording and meaning, with a group consensus achieved on the most accurate and appropriate Xhosa translation for each items.

Table 2
Prevalence of emotional abuse, neglect and physical hardship in rural South African youth

Participants were asked whether before the age of 18 they had experienced each act never, sometimes, often, or very often. Each dimension of adversity was then categorised as a 3 level variable: the ‘never’ exposure category required no exposure to any item in the dimension, the ‘some’ exposure category was used when a participant responded ‘sometimes’ to 1 item only, and a ‘often’ exposure category, signified as response of ‘sometimes’ to more than 1 item or any response of ‘often’ or ‘very often.’

Psychosocial outcomes

We measured current and past year alcohol use using the 12-item AUDIT scale (Sanders, Aasland, Babor, de la Fuente, & Grant, 1993). We used a cut point of 8 for ‘problem drinking.’ We measured drug use by asking about ever use of dagga (marijuana), benzene, mandrax, injected drugs, or other drugs and dichotomised respondents into ever and never users.

Depressive symptomatology was measured with the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) ascertaining symptoms in the past week. The term ‘depression’ here refers to a CES-D score over 21, which is regarded as indicating a high probability of clinical depression. We also asked about suicidal thoughts in the past month.

Biological outcomes

HIV incidence was determined through blood tests at baseline, 12 and 24 months. HIV serostatus at each time point was assessed with 2 rapid tests (World Health Organization, 2004). The Determine (Abbott Diagnostics, Johannesburg) test was used as a screening test and specimens that tested positive were retested with Uni-goldTM (Trinity Biotech, Dublin, Ireland). An HIV-1 screen ELISA (Genscreen) followed by 2 confirmatory ELISAs (Vironostika and Murex 1.2.0 if HIV positive) was performed to clarify any indeterminate results. Two Glycoprotein G-based herpes simplex virus type 2 ELISAs were used to test for herpes infection, Kalon (Kalon Biological Ltd., Aldershot, United Kingdom) and HerpeSelect Immunoblot IgG (Focus Technologies,Cypress, Calif.). An additional test, CAPTIA Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) IgG Type Specific ELISAs was used to resolve discrepant results. Participants who tested positive for HIV or HSV-2 at baseline were excluded from the incidence analyses for each of these respective outcomes.

Covariates

All analyses were controlled for a range of sociodemographic and study design variables. These include age, education completed (grouped as up to and including grade 10 versus higher), parental death, and socio-economic status. Socio-economic status was measured on a scale derived for the study, taking into account the overall poverty of the study area. This included household goods ownership (TV, radio, and car), food insufficiency (frequency of hunger and going without meat), and perceived difficulty accessing a modest sum of money for a medical emergency (R100 which is £9). Factor analysis was used to weight the items before use in data analysis.

Statistical analysis

Analyses were carried out using Stata release 10.0. All procedures used in data analysis took into account the study design, viewing the baseline study as a stratified, 2-stage survey with participants clustered within villages. The datasets for men and women were analysed separately. First descriptive analyses were carried out and the main potential explanatory and outcome variables summarized as percentages with 95% confidence limits. These estimates were carried out using standard methods for estimating confidence intervals from complex multistage sample surveys (Taylor linearization).

To fit multivariable models to investigate the association between outcomes assessed at baseline and the various dimensions of childhood adversity, the following procedure was followed for each exposure and outcome combination: To account for clustering of respondents within villages, generalized linear mixed models (xtlogit) were fitted for each outcome including the relevant dimension of childhood adversity and the designated set of control variables (age, education level, parental death, and socio-economic status) and stratum. After testing which individual dimensions of childhood adversity were associated with the outcome, the model building process was repeated with the factor analysed scale replacing the 5 dimensions. Suicidality and incident HIV and HSV2 infections in men, and drug use in women could not be modelled due to lack of statistical power.

In women there were 128 HIV seroconversions in 2,076 person years of follow up, with an HIV incidence of 6.0 per 100 person years. There were 100 HSV2 seroconversions in women in 2,020 person years of follow up, with an HSV2 incidence of 5.0 per 100 person years. For each female participant we calculated the person years of exposure as the time from baseline to the last negative result if the person remained negative, or as the total time between any negative tests as well as half the time between the last negative and first positive test. Random effects Poisson models were built to test the hypothesis that each dimension of childhood adversity predicted HIV incident infections and that each predicted HSV2 incident infections in women. Each model included variables for the study treatment arm, stratum, and person years of exposure. We excluded those who had prevalent infections at baseline. We tested for interactions between all variables in the model, including treatment arm, none were significant. We tested goodness of fit using the Poisson goodness of fit test. We confirmed the findings of associations for each outcome variable, by modelling survival time under observation using a Weibull model, with the same other variables included.

Results

Table 1 shows the distribution of socio-demographic variables and outcomes for the men and women in the sample. The men were a little older than the women, but there was no difference in educational level attained or experience of parental loss. Women reported significantly more depression and suicidality than men, and were very much more likely to have prevalent HIV and HSV2 infections at baseline and develop incident ones over 2 years follow up. Men reported more substance abuse.

Table 1
Socio-demographic and health characteristics of the sample

The proportion of respondents reporting experience of the different forms of childhood adversity are shown in Tables 2 and and3.3. By far the most common was physical punishment at home. Most participants had sometimes been beaten every day or every week and implements were often used in the beatings. A quarter of participants said they had sometimes or often been marked or bruised. Men reported more frequent and severe physical punishment than women. Neither emotional abuse nor emotional neglect showed any gender differences. In contrast, women reported substantially more sexual abuse than men. Physical hardship was reported more commonly by women than men, with notable differences in reports of not having enough to eat, and not being washed or having clean clothes.

Table 3
Prevalence of physical punishment and sexual abuse in rural South African youth

The adjusted odds ratios for the relationship between the different forms of childhood adversity and mental health, substance abuse are presented in Table 4 for women and Table 5 for men. For women, the incidence rate ratios for HIV and HSV2 by exposure to childhood adversity are presented in Table 4. There was more depression in women reporting emotional neglect and sexual abuse, but depression was less common among women who had some (rather than no) experience of physical punishment. In men, depression was very strongly associated with emotional neglect. In women, suicidality was very strongly associated with emotional neglect.

Table 4
Adjusted ORs for the relationship between childhood adversity and depression & suicidality & substance abuse & HIV & HSV2 in women*#
Table 5
Adjusted ORs for the relationship between childhood adversity and depression & substance abuse in men*#**

Alcohol abuse was more common in women who had experienced emotional neglect and sexual abuse, and in men it was associated with emotional abuse, physical hardship, and sexual abuse. In women no association was found between drug use and any individual dimension of childhood adversity, but the scale as a whole was associated (aOR 1.43 per unit increase in score; 95% CI 1.15, 1.78, p=0.001). Drug abuse in men was associated with physical hardship.

The incidence of HIV was significantly higher in women experiencing emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and physical abuse. Women reporting emotional neglect had a higher incidence of HSV2 infections over 2 years of follow up.

Discussion

A high proportion of rural South African youth experience adversity in childhood of a nature that is hurtful, exploitative, or neglectful, and many children experience multiple forms. There has previously been little research on emotional abuse and neglect in Africa, but we have shown them to be highly prevalent and of considerable importance for health of girls and boys. Emotional neglect was associated with 6 of the 8 outcomes studied, and emotional abuse was associated with the other 2 outcomes. Gender stereotypes often depict men and boys as being emotionally and physically resilient, yet our findings show that neither boys nor girls are resilient in the face of emotional neglect and abuse and indeed these forms of adversity have very serious implications for their health. Most notably women who had experienced emotional abuse, as well as sexual and physical abuse were at increased the risk of acquisition of HIV infections and those who had experienced emotional neglect had a 62% higher incidence of HSV2 infections (a co-factor that increases the risk of HIV up to three fold [Freeman et al., 2006]). To date child protection needs are discussed in the context of HIV responses, chiefly in relation to orphans, this research strongly suggests that they should to be addressed as part of HIV prevention.

Physical punishment was particularly common, a finding which echoes research from Uganda and Zambia, and also frequently caused visible injury (Naker, 2005; Slonim-Nevo, & Mukuka, 2007). Sexual abuse was reported by 39% of women, which is a little higher than the 33% who reported it in a randomly selected sample of women in Swaziland (Reza et al., 2009).

Depression and alcohol abuse were more common in sexually abused women and there was some evidence they were at greater risk of acquiring HIV. These findings are similar to those of Reza et al. in Swaziland who found sexual abuse associated with depression and suicidal ideation, self-reported sexually transmitted infections, alcohol use, and unwanted pregnancy, and of researchers from North America (NIMH Multisite HIV Prevention Trial Group, 2001; Cohen et al., 2000; Wingood, & DiClemente, 1997a; Wingood, & DiClemente, 1997b; Hobfoll et al., 2002). Our definition of sexual abuse included sex with a partner 5 or more years older. Men who had consensual sex with girls aged 16 and 17 and who were 5 or more years older are not defined as raping under South African law, but in such relationships a marked age difference also signals a marked power differential between partners. Since the girls are definitionally children, such sex acts do meet commonly used definitions of sexual abuse (Faller, 1989). Adolescent South African girls having older partners has previously been shown to be associated with risk of prevalent HIV infections in women (Jewkes et al., 2006a; Pettifor et al., 2005). In men, sexual abuse was associated with alcohol abuse. The analysis presented here did not include questions of coerced sex by men, but a previous analysis of questions on this from the dataset has shown that this was associated with prevalent HIV infections in men (Jewkes et al., 2006d).

The study had a number of limitations. To conceptualise childhood adversity, we adapted a well validated international measure and in so doing we made a choice to focus on experiences that were hurtful, exploitative, abusive or neglectful. There are many other forms of adversity, such as parental death, which may place young people at risk. We chose to control for parental death but not include it in the scale because it was only loosely correlated with other dimension of child adversity scale in our data. While physical hardship is generally a feature of life in poverty, it is important not to overlook the potential for physical aspects of child neglect to be found in this context. In order to take into account at least some of the contribution of poverty, all models were adjusted for socio-economic status, including indicators of food availability. Indeed the gender differences in reporting exposure to physical hardship, particularly experience of hunger, need further investigation.

There may have been some under-ascertainment of adversity as some of the sample (19% of men and 44% of women) was under 18 at the time of interview (mostly age 17) and they may have been subject to ongoing experiences of adversity, or were still to have their first incident. The prevalences presented here may thus underestimate adversity prevalence in the population, but given our principal interest in adversity occurring before the outcome, we do not expect this to substantially influence the results. This was a volunteer sample and so caution is required in considering the generalizablity of the results. The adverse experiences and mental health outcomes were self-reported and so may be subject to bias. To the extent that this data was cross-sectional at the baseline assessment from which we derived our psycho-social outcome measures, there is uncertainty about the temporal relationship between adversity and outcome. A particular strength of this dataset, however, was that we had data on incident HIV and HSV2 infections and so the temporal sequence for those outcomes was established.

Efforts to understand children’s exposure to adversity need to be integrated with an agenda for action. We need to generate debate and raise awareness about boundaries between acceptable childrearing and practices which are hurtful or neglectful and have adverse consequences for boy and girl children. There is a need to strengthen both community-level and statutory aspects of child protection systems, starting with identification of vulnerable children in schools and adequate follow-up of children who come to the attention of authorities, for example after rape (Vetten et al., 2008). In South Africa stronger social welfare services are needed so that intervention does occur when children are referred. There is an urgent need to better conceptualize and implement appropriate child protection services for developing country settings. Services to meet the psychological needs of children and to assist in recovery from trauma need to be more accessible.

Epidemiological research is needed into the prevalence of and risk factors for abuse in a range of settings. There is also a need for qualitative research to enable a deeper understanding of the social context in which children are exposed to different forms of adversity in childhood and social dynamics that influence abusive practices. There is also a need for intervention research to define what is effective in protecting children from abuse, changing parenting and care-giving practices, strengthening responses from health and social services and criminal justice systems, and identifying what is of benefit to children in low resource settings.

Conclusions

Exposure of children to adverse experiences is very common and has been a highly neglected area of research in Africa. Particularly neglected has been research on emotional abuse and neglect, which we have shown has an adverse impact on the health of young adults. While associations between physical and sexual abuse and risk of depression, suicidality and substance abuse are well recognized in other populations, our findings that exposure to several forms of childhood adversity increase the risk of women acquiring HIV and HSV2 over a period of 2 years of follow up are novel. These demonstrate the importance of interventions to protect children as part of overall efforts to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa. Interventions to prevent neglect and abuse of children and develop services to protect and support those who have been exposed need a much higher profile and priority in sub-Saharan Africa.

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the contributions of the following: Jonathan Levin, the project statistician, Planned Parenthood Association of South Africa Eastern Cape Branch, our partner in the study intervention; the National Institute for Communicable Diseases for quality control, testing, and storage of specimens; the project field staff without whose dedicatation we would not have been able to run the study; Mary Koss contributed to the questionnaire design and aspects of the study implementation; Chief Z.S Mtirara and the members of the Community Advisory Board; and the Data Safety and Monitoring Board.

This study was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health grant number MH 64882-01 and MH 64882-04S1A1 and the South African Medical Research Council. Dr Dunkle’s participation was supported by funding from the Harry F. Guggenheim Foundation.

Footnotes

Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

References

  • Bernstein DP, Fink L, Handelsman L, Foote J, Lovejoy M, Wenzel K, Sapareto E, Ruggiero J. Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1994;151:1132–1136. [PubMed]
  • Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt TE, Mill J, Martin J, Craig IW, Taylor A, Poulton R. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science. 2002;297:851–854. [PubMed]
  • Cohen M, Deamant C, Barkan S, Richardson J, Young M, Holman S, Anastos K, Cohen J, Melnick S. Domestic violence and childhood sexual abuse in HIV-infected women and women at risk for HIV. American Journal of Public Health. 2000;90:560–565. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Faller KC. The role relationship between victim perpetrator as a predictor of characteristics of intrafamilial sexual abuse. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. 1989;6:217–229.
  • Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, Koss MP, Marks JS. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1998;14(4):245–258. [PubMed]
  • Freeman EE, Weiss HA, Glynn JR, Cross PL, Whitworth JA, Hayes RJ. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection increases HIV acquisition in men and women: Systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. AIDS. 2006;20:73–83. [PubMed]
  • Garcia-Moreno C, Jansen HSFM, Ellsberg M, Heise L, Watts C. WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women. Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes & women’s responses. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2005.
  • Hobfoll SE, Bansal A, Schurg R, Young S, Pierce C, Hobfoll I, Johnson R. The impact of perceived child abuse history on Native American women's psychological well-being and AIDS risk. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2002;70:252–257. [PubMed]
  • Human Rights Watch. Scared at school: Sexual violence against girls in South African schools. New York: Human Rights Watch; 2001.
  • Jewkes R, Levin J, Bradshaw D, Mbananga N. Rape of girls in South Africa. The Lancet. 2002;359:319–320. [PubMed]
  • Jewkes R, Dunkle K, Nduna M, Levin J, Jama N, Khuzwayo N, Koss M, Puren A, Duvvury N. Factors associated with HIV sero-status in young rural South African women: Connections between intimate partner violence and HIV. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2006a;35(6):1461–1468. [PubMed]
  • Jewkes R, Dunkle K, Koss MP, Levin J, Nduna M, Jama N, Sikweyiya Y. Rape perpetration by young, rural South African men: Prevalence, patterns and risk factors. Social Science and Medicine. 2006b;63:2949–2961. [PubMed]
  • Jewkes R, Nduna M, Levin J, Jama N, Dunkle K, Khuzwayo N, Koss M, Puren A, Wood K, Duvvury N. A cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of Stepping Stones in preventing HIV infections and promoting safer sexual behaviour amongst youth in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Trial design, methods and baseline findings. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2006c;11:3–16. [PubMed]
  • Jewkes R, Dunkle K, Nduna M, Levin J, Jama N, Khuzwayo N, Koss M, Puren A, Duvvury N. Factors associated with HIV sero-positivity in young, rural South African men. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2006d;35:1455–1460. [PubMed]
  • Jewkes R, Nduna M, Levin J, Jama N, Dunkle K, Puren A, Duvvury N. Impact of stepping stones on HIV, HSV-2 and sexual behaviour in rural South Africa: Cluster randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal. 2008;337:a506. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Knight RA, Sims-Knight JE. The developmental antecedents of sexual coercion against women: Testing alternative hypotheses with structural equation modelling. Annals of the New York Academy of Science. 2003;989:72–85. [PubMed]
  • Koss MP, Yuan NP, Dightman D, Prince RJ, Polacca M, Sanderson B, Goldman D. Adverse childhood exposures and alcohol dependency among seven Native American tribes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2003;25:238–244. [PubMed]
  • Malamuth N. Criminal and non-criminal sexual aggressors. Integrating psychopathy in a hierarchical-mediational confluence model. Annals of the New York Academy of Science. 2003;989:33–58. [PubMed]
  • Morrell R. Corporal punishment and masculinity in South African schools. Men and Masculinities. 2001a;4:140–157.
  • Morrell R. Corporal punishment in South African schools: A neglected explanation for its persistence. South African Journal of Education. 2001b;21:292–299.
  • Naker D. Violence against children: The voices of Ugandan children and adults. Kampala: Raising Voices and Save the Children Uganda; 2005.
  • Perry BD. The neurodevelopmental impact of violence in childhood. In: Schetky D, Benedek EP, editors. Textbook of child and adolescent forensic psychiatry. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press; 2001.
  • Pettifor AE, Rees HV, Kleinschmidt I, Steffenson AE, MacPhail C, Hlongwa-Madikizela L, Vermaak K, Padian NS. Young people’s sexual health in South Africa: HIV prevalence and sexual behaviors from a nationally representative household survey. AIDS. 2005;19:1525–1534. [PubMed]
  • Reza A, Brieding M, Gulaid J, Mercy JA, Blanton C, Mthethwa Z, Bamrah S, Dahlberg L, Anderson M. Sexual violence and its health consequences among female children, Swaziland 2007. The Lancet. 2009;373:1966–1972. [PubMed]
  • Runyan D, Wattam C, Ikeda R, Hassan F, Ramiro L. Krug EG, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA, Zwi AB, Lozano R, editors. World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002. Child abuse and neglect by parents and other caregivers.
  • Saunders JB, Aasland O, Babor T, de la Fuente JR, Grant M. Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO Collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption II. Addiction. 1993;88:791–804. [PubMed]
  • Slonim-Nevo V, Mukuka L. Child abuse and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior among adolescents in Zambia. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2007;31(2):143–159. [PubMed]
  • The NIMH Multisite HIV Prevention Trial Group. A test of factors mediating the relationship between unwanted sexual activity during childhood and risky sexual practices among women enrolled in the NIMH multisite HIV prevention trial. Women & Health. 2001;33:163–180. [PubMed]
  • Turner HA, Finkelhor D, Ormrod R. The effect of lifetime victimization on the mental health of children and adolescents. Social Science & Medicine. 2006;62(1):13–27. [PubMed]
  • Vetten L, Jewkes R, Fuller R, Christofides N, Loots L, Dunseith O. Tracking justice: The attrition of rape cases through the criminal justice system in Gauteng. Johannesburg: Tshwaranang Legal Advocacy Centre; 2008.
  • Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ. Child sexual abuse, HIV sexual risk, and gender relations of African-American women. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1997a;13:380–384. [PubMed]
  • Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ. The effects of an abusive primary partner on the condom use and sexual negotiation practices of African-American women. American Journal of Public Health. 1997b;87:1016–1018. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • World Health Organization. Rapid HIV tests: guidelines for use in HIV testing and counselling services in resource-constrained settings. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2004.
PubReader format: click here to try

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...