• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Oct 1989; 86(19): 7634–7638.
PMCID: PMC298121

Endothelin 1, an endothelium-derived peptide, is expressed in neurons of the human spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia.


The localization of endothelin 1 mRNA and endothelin-like immunoreactivity was investigated in samples of neurologically normal nervous system tissue from 10 adults by using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Tissue sections of spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia were hybridized with an 35S-radiolabeled endothelin 1 complementary RNA probe. Autoradiograms showed labeled neurons in the spinal cord (laminae IV-VI and many motoneurons) and numerous small and large neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. Endothelin 1 transcripts were also found in association with the endothelial layer of some blood vessels in the white matter of the spinal cord. A similar distribution of immunoreactivity was seen using three antisera to endothelin 1, but fewer cells were immunostained than were labeled after the hybridization. Two other endothelin 1 antisera immunostained the endothelial lining of blood vessels in the spinal cord white matter but not neurons. In the ganglia, endothelin 1 transcripts were localized to all cells expressing beta-preprotachykinin and most expressing calcitonin gene-related peptide mRNAs; in the majority of the motoneurons, coexistence of endothelin 1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide mRNAs was noted. There was a similar pattern of coexistence for respective peptide immunoreactivities in the ganglia and spinal cord. The expression of endothelin 1 mRNA in distinct neuronal cell types suggests that this peptide plays a part in neural transmission/modulation and adds a further dimension to the known vascular-related actions of endothelin 1.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Inoue A, Yanagisawa M, Kimura S, Kasuya Y, Miyauchi T, Goto K, Masaki T. The human endothelin family: three structurally and pharmacologically distinct isopeptides predicted by three separate genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Apr;86(8):2863–2867. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yanagisawa M, Kurihara H, Kimura S, Tomobe Y, Kobayashi M, Mitsui Y, Yazaki Y, Goto K, Masaki T. A novel potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells. Nature. 1988 Mar 31;332(6163):411–415. [PubMed]
  • Itoh Y, Yanagisawa M, Ohkubo S, Kimura C, Kosaka T, Inoue A, Ishida N, Mitsui Y, Onda H, Fujino M, et al. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding the precursor of a human endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide, endothelin: identity of human and porcine endothelin. FEBS Lett. 1988 Apr 25;231(2):440–444. [PubMed]
  • Yoshizawa T, Kimura S, Kanazawa I, Uchiyama Y, Yanagisawa M, Masaki T. Endothelin localizes in the dorsal horn and acts on the spinal neurones: possible involvement of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels and substance P release. Neurosci Lett. 1989 Jul 31;102(2-3):179–184. [PubMed]
  • Power RF, Wharton J, Salas SP, Kanse S, Ghatei M, Bloom SR, Polak JM. Autoradiographic localisation of endothelin binding sites in human and porcine coronary arteries. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989 Jan 24;160(1):199–200. [PubMed]
  • Jones CR, Hiley CR, Pelton JT, Mohr M. Autoradiographic visualization of the binding sites for [125I]endothelin in rat and human brain. Neurosci Lett. 1989 Feb 27;97(3):276–279. [PubMed]
  • Koseki C, Imai M, Hirata Y, Yanagisawa M, Masaki T. Autoradiographic distribution in rat tissues of binding sites for endothelin: a neuropeptide? Am J Physiol. 1989 Apr;256(4 Pt 2):R858–R866. [PubMed]
  • Hamid Q, Wharton J, Terenghi G, Hassall CJ, Aimi J, Taylor KM, Nakazato H, Dixon JE, Burnstock G, Polak JM. Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA and immunoreactivity in the rat heart and human atrial appendage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Oct;84(19):6760–6764. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gibson SJ, Polak JM, Bloom SR, Sabate IM, Mulderry PM, Ghatei MA, McGregor GP, Morrison JF, Kelly JS, Evans RM, et al. Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of man and of eight other species. J Neurosci. 1984 Dec;4(12):3101–3111. [PubMed]
  • Bishop AE, Hamid QA, Adams C, Bretherton-Watt D, Jones PM, Denny P, Stamp GW, Hurt RL, Grimelius L, Harmar AJ, et al. Expression of tachykinins by ileal and lung carcinoid tumors assessed by combined in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and radioimmunoassay. Cancer. 1989 Mar 15;63(6):1129–1137. [PubMed]
  • Gibson SJ, Polak JM, Giaid A, Hamid QA, Kar S, Jones PM, Denny P, Legon S, Amara SG, Craig RK, et al. Calcitonin gene-related peptide messenger RNA is expressed in sensory neurones of the dorsal root ganglia and also in spinal motoneurones in man and rat. Neurosci Lett. 1988 Sep 12;91(3):283–288. [PubMed]
  • Holz GG, 4th, Dunlap K, Kream RM. Characterization of the electrically evoked release of substance P from dorsal root ganglion neurons: methods and dihydropyridine sensitivity. J Neurosci. 1988 Feb;8(2):463–471. [PubMed]
  • Ju G, Hökfelt T, Brodin E, Fahrenkrug J, Fischer JA, Frey P, Elde RP, Brown JC. Primary sensory neurons of the rat showing calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity and their relation to substance P-, somatostatin-, galanin-, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide- and cholecystokinin-immunoreactive ganglion cells. Cell Tissue Res. 1987 Feb;247(2):417–431. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Gene
    Gene links
  • GEO Profiles
    GEO Profiles
    Related GEO records
  • HomoloGene
    HomoloGene links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • OMIM
    OMIM record citing PubMed
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...