Logo of ijpsychHomeCurrent issueInstructionsSubmit article
Indian J Psychiatry. 1994 Jul-Sep; 36(3): 129–132.
PMCID: PMC2972479

CODEINE CONTAINING COUGH SYRUP ADDICTION IN ASSAM AND NAGALAND

Niteen S. Wairagkar, MD,* J. Das, MD, S. Kumar, PhD, J. Mahanta, MD, K. Satyanarayana, MBBS, MSc, PhD, R.K. Phukan, MSc, M. Chetia, BSc, and S.K. Goswami, BSc, PGDCA

Abstract

The drug abuse monitoring study of Regional Medical Research Center, Dibrugarh, reported 181 and 395 addicts from the states of Assam and Nagaland respectively in one year. Of these, 48 (26.5%) and 49(12.4%) cases were contributed by the primary abuse of codeine containing cough syrups. A11 addicts were males in their early twenties. Most of the addicts were unmarried and educated up to matriculation. The majority of addicts in Assam were Hindus (85.4%) and in Nagaland Christians (81.63%). Unemployment was predominant in both the groups. The mean age for the first use of codeine cough syrup was 17.44 years (Assam) and 15.77 years (Nagaland). Nagaland had more chronic abusers. Addicts were used the oral route several times a day and friends were the main source of introduction. Mild forms of physical and psychiatric disorders were reported Easy over-the-counter availability, lesser expenditure, milder withdrawals and ease of consumption without secrecy were some of the reasons for the emergence of this new form of addiction in Assam and Nagaland.

Keywords: Codeine, over-the-counter cough syrups, addiction

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (187K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bender FH, Cooper JV, Dreyfus R. Fatalities associated with an acute overdose of glutethimide (Doriden) and codeine. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1988 Aug;30(4):332–333. [PubMed]
  • Davis H, Baum C, Graham DJ. Indices of drug misuse for prescription drugs. Int J Addict. 1991 Jul;26(7):777–795. [PubMed]
  • Ishigooka J, Yoshida Y, Murasaki M. Abuse of "BRON": a Japanese OTC cough suppressant solution containing methylephedrine, codeine, caffeine and chlorpheniramine. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1991;15(4):513–521. [PubMed]
  • Jensen S, Hansen AC. Abuse of codeine separated from over-the-counter drugs containing acetylsalicylic acid and codeine. Int J Legal Med. 1993;105(5):279–281. [PubMed]
  • Jinks MJ, Raschko RR. A profile of alcohol and prescription drug abuse in a high-risk community-based elderly population. DICP. 1990 Oct;24(10):971–975. [PubMed]
  • Senjo M. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in people that abuse codeine. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1989 Jun;79(6):619–620. [PubMed]
  • Stock CJ. Safe use of codeine in the recovering alcoholic or addict. DICP. 1991 Jan;25(1):49–53. [PubMed]
  • Suzuki T, Otani K, Misawa M. Differential sensitivity to physical dependence on morphine and codeine in three inbred strains of mice. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1991 Dec;57(4):455–462. [PubMed]

Articles from Indian Journal of Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of Medknow Publications

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...