• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jcinvestThe Journal of Clinical InvestigationCurrent IssueArchiveSubscriptionAbout the Journal
J Clin Invest. Jul 1991; 88(1): 346–350.
PMCID: PMC296040

Purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and excretory-secretory antigen(s) of Toxocara canis expand in vitro human T cells with stable and opposite (type 1 T helper or type 2 T helper) profile of cytokine production.


A large series of T cell clones (TCC) specific for purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (total 60) or Toxocara canis excretory/secretory (TES) antigen (total 69) were established from the peripheral blood of two healthy individuals and analyzed for their profile of cytokine production in response to stimulation with either the specific antigen or the polyclonal activator phorbol myristate acetate plus anti-CD3 antibody. Under both these experimental conditions, the great majority of PPD-specific TCC secreted IL-2 and IFN-gamma but not, or limited amounts of, IL-4 and IL-5. In contrast, most TES-specific TCC secreted IL-4 and IL-5 but not, or limited amounts of, IL-2 and IFN-gamma. PPD-specific TCC that failed to secrete IL-4 and IL-5, and TES-specific TCC that failed to secrete IL-2 and IFN-gamma, were found to lack transcripts for IL-4 and IL-5, or for IL-2 and IFN-gamma, respectively. During the course of the study, over a 6-mo period, the functional phenotype of both TES- and PPD-specific TCC was repeatedly assessed and remained constant. These data demonstrate that T cells with stable Th1 or Th2 functional pattern exist not only in mice but also in humans and suggest that in the course of natural immunization certain infectious agents preferentially expand T cell subsets with stable and definite profile of cytokine production.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (992K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Mosmann TR, Cherwinski H, Bond MW, Giedlin MA, Coffman RL. Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins. J Immunol. 1986 Apr 1;136(7):2348–2357. [PubMed]
  • Coffman RL, Seymour BW, Lebman DA, Hiraki DD, Christiansen JA, Shrader B, Cherwinski HM, Savelkoul HF, Finkelman FD, Bond MW, et al. The role of helper T cell products in mouse B cell differentiation and isotype regulation. Immunol Rev. 1988 Feb;102:5–28. [PubMed]
  • Firestein GS, Roeder WD, Laxer JA, Townsend KS, Weaver CT, Hom JT, Linton J, Torbett BE, Glasebrook AL. A new murine CD4+ T cell subset with an unrestricted cytokine profile. J Immunol. 1989 Jul 15;143(2):518–525. [PubMed]
  • Street NE, Schumacher JH, Fong TA, Bass H, Fiorentino DF, Leverah JA, Mosmann TR. Heterogeneity of mouse helper T cells. Evidence from bulk cultures and limiting dilution cloning for precursors of Th1 and Th2 cells. J Immunol. 1990 Mar 1;144(5):1629–1639. [PubMed]
  • Swain SL, Weinberg AD, English M. CD4+ T cell subsets. Lymphokine secretion of memory cells and of effector cells that develop from precursors in vitro. J Immunol. 1990 Mar 1;144(5):1788–1799. [PubMed]
  • Paliard X, de Waal Malefijt R, Yssel H, Blanchard D, Chrétien I, Abrams J, de Vries J, Spits H. Simultaneous production of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma by activated human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones. J Immunol. 1988 Aug 1;141(3):849–855. [PubMed]
  • Maggi E, Del Prete G, Macchia D, Parronchi P, Tiri A, Chrétien I, Ricci M, Romagnani S. Profiles of lymphokine activities and helper function for IgE in human T cell clones. Eur J Immunol. 1988 Jul;18(7):1045–1050. [PubMed]
  • Del Prete GF, Tiri A, De Carli M, Mariotti S, Pinchera A, Chretien I, Romagnani S, Ricci M. High potential to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production of thyroid infiltrating T lymphocytes in Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a peculiar feature of destructive thyroid autoimmunity. Autoimmunity. 1989;4(4):267–276. [PubMed]
  • Del Prete G, Tiri A, Maggi E, De Carli M, Macchia D, Parronchi P, Rossi ME, Pietrogrande MC, Ricci M, Romagnani S. Defective in vitro production of gamma-interferon and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by circulating T cells from patients with the hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome. J Clin Invest. 1989 Dec;84(6):1830–1835. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maggi E, Biswas P, Del Prete G, Parronchi P, Macchia D, Simonelli C, Emmi L, De Carli M, Tiri A, Ricci M, et al. Accumulation of Th-2-like helper T cells in the conjunctiva of patients with vernal conjunctivitis. J Immunol. 1991 Feb 15;146(4):1169–1174. [PubMed]
  • Wierenga EA, Snoek M, de Groot C, Chrétien I, Bos JD, Jansen HM, Kapsenberg ML. Evidence for compartmentalization of functional subsets of CD2+ T lymphocytes in atopic patients. J Immunol. 1990 Jun 15;144(12):4651–4656. [PubMed]
  • Savigny DH. In vitro maintenance of Toxocara canis larvae and a simple method for the production of Toxocara ES antigen for use in serodiagnostic tests for visceral larva migrans. J Parasitol. 1975 Aug;61(4):781–782. [PubMed]
  • Lanzavecchia A, Santini P, Maggi E, Del Prete GF, Falagiani P, Romagnani S, Ferrarini M. In vitro selective expansion of allergen specific T cells from atopic patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 1983 Apr;52(1):21–28. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Del Prete G, Maggi E, Parronchi P, Chrétien I, Tiri A, Macchia D, Ricci M, Banchereau J, De Vries J, Romagnani S. IL-4 is an essential factor for the IgE synthesis induced in vitro by human T cell clones and their supernatants. J Immunol. 1988 Jun 15;140(12):4193–4198. [PubMed]
  • Rolink AG, Melchers F, Palacios R. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with the mouse interleukin 5 receptor. J Exp Med. 1989 May 1;169(5):1693–1701. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • White BA, Bancroft FC. Cytoplasmic dot hybridization. Simple analysis of relative mRNA levels in multiple small cell or tissue samples. J Biol Chem. 1982 Aug 10;257(15):8569–8572. [PubMed]
  • Fong TA, Mosmann TR. The role of IFN-gamma in delayed-type hypersensitivity mediated by Th1 clones. J Immunol. 1989 Nov 1;143(9):2887–2893. [PubMed]
  • Pearce EJ, Caspar P, Grzych JM, Lewis FA, Sher A. Downregulation of Th1 cytokine production accompanies induction of Th2 responses by a parasitic helminth, Schistosoma mansoni. J Exp Med. 1991 Jan 1;173(1):159–166. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Baum CG, Szabo P, Siskind GW, Becker CG, Firpo A, Clarick CJ, Francus T. Cellular control of IgE induction by a polyphenol-rich compound. Preferential activation of Th2 cells. J Immunol. 1990 Aug 1;145(3):779–784. [PubMed]
  • Chang TL, Shea CM, Urioste S, Thompson RC, Boom WH, Abbas AK. Heterogeneity of helper/inducer T lymphocytes. III. Responses of IL-2- and IL-4-producing (Th1 and Th2) clones to antigens presented by different accessory cells. J Immunol. 1990 Nov 1;145(9):2803–2808. [PubMed]
  • Magilavy DB, Fitch FW, Gajewski TF. Murine hepatic accessory cells support the proliferation of Th1 but not Th2 helper T lymphocyte clones. J Exp Med. 1989 Sep 1;170(3):985–990. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Daynes RA, Araneo BA, Dowell TA, Huang K, Dudley D. Regulation of murine lymphokine production in vivo. III. The lymphoid tissue microenvironment exerts regulatory influences over T helper cell function. J Exp Med. 1990 Apr 1;171(4):979–996. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fiorentino DF, Bond MW, Mosmann TR. Two types of mouse T helper cell. IV. Th2 clones secrete a factor that inhibits cytokine production by Th1 clones. J Exp Med. 1989 Dec 1;170(6):2081–2095. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Clinical Investigation are provided here courtesy of American Society for Clinical Investigation


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...