Logo of worldpsychLink to Publisher's site
World Psychiatry. 2010 Oct; 9(3): 131–144.
PMCID: PMC2948719

WPA guidance on how to combat stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists

1Association for the Improvement of Mental Health Programmes, Geneva, Switzerland
2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany
3Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada
4Department of Psychiatry, Kanto Medical Center, University of Tokyo, Japan
5World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark
6Department of Psychiatry, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
7Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
8Center for Transcultural Psychiatry, Psychiatric Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
9National Institute of Mental Health, Department of Adult Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan
10Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville, KY, USA


In 2009 the WPA President established a Task Force that was to examine available evidence about the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and to make recommendations about action that national psychiatric societies and psychiatrists as professionals could do to reduce or prevent the stigmatization of their discipline as well as to prevent its nefarious consequences. This paper presents a summary of the Task Force’s findings and recommendations. The Task Force reviewed the literature concerning the image of psychiatry and psychiatrists in the media and the opinions about psychiatry and psychiatrists of the general public, of students of medicine, of health professionals other than psychiatrists and of persons with mental illness and their families. It also reviewed the evidence about the interventions that have been undertaken to combat stigma and consequent discrimination and made a series of recommendations to the national psychiatric societies and to individual psychiatrists. The Task Force laid emphasis on the formulation of best practices of psychiatry and their application in health services and on the revision of curricula for the training of health personnel. It also recommended that national psychiatric societies establish links with other professional associations, with organizations of patients and their relatives and with the media in order to approach the problems of stigma on a broad front. The Task Force also underlined the role that psychiatrists can play in the prevention of stigmatization of psychiatry, stressing the need to develop a respectful relationship with patients, to strictly observe ethical rules in the practice of psychiatry and to maintain professional competence.

Keywords: Stigmatization, psychiatry, psychiatrists, general public, media, medical students, patients and relatives, ethical rules

One of the goals included in the WPA Action Plan 2008-2011, adopted by the WPA General Assembly, is an improvement of the image of psychiatry and psychiatrists in the eyes of health professionals, the general public, health decision makers and students of health professions 1,2. In the pursuance of this goal, the President of the WPA established a Task Force and entrusted it with the development of a guidance on how to combat stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists.

This paper provides a review of the current knowledge in the area and lists a series of recommendations about what can be done to address the problem.


The Task Force conducted a review of the literature to identify publications dealing with the image of psychiatry, psychiatrists, psychiatric institutions and psychiatric treatment. The search algorithm selected was applied to Social SciSearch/Social Science Citation Index, PsycINFO, Embase, Somed (joint search via the meta-search engine Dimdi, title only) and Medline (titles and abstracts).

The review aimed at providing a comprehensive account of stereotypes of psychiatry and psychiatrists. However, there are several topics related to attitudes towards psychiatry and psychiatrists (e.g., help-seeking behaviour, compliance) that could not be included completely, and are thus only contained as far as they appeared to be of relevance for our review.

The search was conducted in July 2009, was not limited to any specific year and identified articles published in English and German. The members of the Task Force contributed suggestions about publications in other languages of which they were aware. The initial search yielded 8,217 articles, of which 7,296 remained after duplicates were excluded. After screening titles and abstracts, we identified 398 papers as potentially relevant. A further review of references identified additional publications. A total of 503 potentially relevant studies were considered in detail and form the basis for this review.


We defined stigma broadly, to encompass the negative stereotypes and prejudicial beliefs that people may hold, as well as discriminatory or inequitable practices that may result. Further, we recognized that stigma and discrimination may occur at the level of the individual, through interpersonal interactions, as well as at the level of social structures by virtue of unfair policies, practices, and laws 3. We first consider the stigmatization of psychiatry (and psychiatric treatments), then the stigmatization of psychiatrists.

The stigmatization of psychiatry

The general public

The public opinion about psychiatric facilities has been consistently negative during the past decades. The image of a “psychiatric hospital” has been typically that of a large-scale institution with a custodial character 4, locked doors, and located on the outskirts of the community 5,6. In a representative survey of German respondents 4, 25% believed that patients were not let out, and 50% believed that straightjackets were still in use.

Some positive changes could be observed during the 1970s, with the development of community mental health care 7. However, community care was also met by resistance from community residents, referred to as the NIMBY (not in my backyard) syndrome. For example, in one study, while 81% of Americans rejected the idea that “the best way to handle the mentally ill is to keep them behind locked doors”, significantly fewer (31%) would actually welcome an outpatient mental health centre in their neighborhood 8. Reasons for this resistance included concerns about declining property values, the safety of children, and personal safety 9,10,11,12.

Public opinions about psychiatric treatment have been found to be mixed. While some studies revealed that respondents considered psychiatric treatment to be helpful 13,14,15, in others, respondents expressed concern about the quality and efficacy of treatment 16,17,18, and in some, respondents considered psychiatric treatment to be harmful 19,20,21.

Selecting from a range of treatment options, psychotherapy was usually preferred over psychotropic medication 6,20,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33. However, the framing of the questions seems to influence the results. A forced choice among treatment options seems to yield a preference for psychotherapy, but if the acceptance of a certain kind of treatment is assessed, studies usually find high rates of acceptance for both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological treatment 34,35,36,37.

The general public tends to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy, recommending it as the only treatment even for conditions such as schizophrenia where scientific evidence suggests that psychopharmacological treatment is indicated 22,38. In contrast, negative effects of psychotropic medications are perceived as severe, whereas the positive effects are underestimated 31,39,40. In some cases, despite agreeing that they are effective, the majority of respondents would not be willing to take psychiatric medications 41.

Five misconceptions about psychotropic medications were found to be prevalent in the general population. They are perceived as being addictive 30,31,39,42,43,44, a “sedation without curing” 30,38,39,44,45,46, an “invasion of identity” 39, merely drugging patients 40, and ineffective in preventing relapse 30. These misconceptions are represented also in Africa, where traditional healers are trusted more than Western trained doctors 47,48.

Negative attitudes about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) were often observed. In an Australian population study, for example, only 7% perceived ECT as helpful, whereas 70% perceived it as harmful 22.

Medical students

Among medical students, results are mixed, sometimes contradictory. While the overall status of psychiatry as a discipline is low, some studies also report positive changes in attitudes, either over the course of time 49,50 or after completion of psychiatric training during medical school 51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71, although improvement in attitudes seems to be transient 72,73,74,75. In other studies, no improvement in attitudes was noted 76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83. Despite positive attitudes, the proportion of medical students indicating they would choose psychiatry as a career is often low 84,85,86,87,88,89,90,91.

Perceived low prestige and low respect among other medical disciplines have been among the main reasons mentioned for not choosing psychiatry as a career 49,87,92,93,94,95,96,97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111. In a recent survey of US medical students on medical specialties perceived as the object of bashing, psychiatry ranked third (39%) after family medicine and general internal medicine 112.

When there was an attraction to psychiatry, it appeared to be based primarily on its being interesting and intellectually challenging 77,101,110, and providing a career that promises job satisfaction with good prospects 101,113,114. Medical students often do not view psychiatry as an (intellectually) challenging career choice 101,115,116,117 and see it as a profession with low job satisfaction and limited fulfillment 109. Psychiatry was, however, in other studies, ranked as most attractive as far as intellectual challenge was considered 92,118,119.

A further influential aspect is the impact of students’ families on their attitudes and their decision to aim for a career in psychiatry. Stereotypes such as specializing in psychiatry being “wasted time” are widespread among the families of medical students 94,120, although students do not necessarily feel discouraged by their family 100,104. Nevertheless, this attitude reflects an image of psychiatry as not being “real medicine” 109.

Financial aspects, such as low pay 49,87,92,99,106,107,109,116,121,122,123,124 and lack of government funding 103,125,126,127,128,129, also play a role in forming the image of psychiatry as a discipline. These financial drawbacks have an impact on attitudes of medical students in both clinical and research settings.

Medical students also perceive psychiatry as lacking a solid, authoritative scientific foundation 92,97,101,109,117,119,130,131,132,133,134,135. This attitude is partly based on uncertainty concerning the nosology and diagnosis of mental illnesses, which is mentioned among the reasons for medical students not to enter psychiatry 109,136,137. The classification of mental disorders in the DSM and ICD categories has been subject to criticism because the majority of these diagnostic categories are not validated by biological criteria 138,139,140,141, thus reinforcing the image of psychiatry as not being “real medicine”. One aspect of this discussion includes the question as to whether research using diagnoses that are not validated as inclusion criteria “is equally invalid” 142.

Results concerning medical students’ opinion about psychiatric treatment and its outcome have been mixed. Medical students often viewed psychiatric treatment as ineffective 115,143 and considered psychiatry to be “too slow moving” 133.

Medical students were often less skeptical than the general public towards psychotropic medications 144,145. However, psychotropic drugs were criticized for not targeting the actual cause of the illness 146. Psychotherapy was rated more positively in some instances 147.

Medical students’ attitudes towards ECT have been also mixed. Most of the respondents viewed it as a form of punishment 148,149, only to be used as a last resort 150. In contrast, the majority of medical students in a Nigerian study disagreed with the idea of ECT being misused as a punishment 151. UK students reported no fears of abuse of ECT by psychiatrists, unlike some 30% of their counterparts in Iraq and Egypt 152. Negative attitudes towards ECT may be attributable to mass media and movie depictions 148,153, whereas the UK students were more likely to have observed actual cases treated with ECT 152,154.

Health professionals

Family physicians’ attitudes toward psychiatry have been explored in some studies. Two reasons for non-referral were identified 155: concerns about the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment and stigma for the patient. Psychotropic drugs were often considered necessary, but psychotherapy and combined approaches were also recommended 156,157.

The image of psychiatry from the perspective of psychiatrists has not been studied extensively. A study evaluating how a sample of psychiatrists and pediatricians felt about their specialty found that satisfaction was rated high among psychiatrists 158, with no differences in satisfaction compared with pediatricians. Lambert et al 136, assessing the reasons why doctors left the specialty they had initially chosen, report that the main reasons mentioned by psychiatrists included the specialty’s poor public image, the perceived lack of respect among other doctors, and the perception of under-resourcing. Only 71% of psychiatrists in a British study reported a general willingness to take antipsychotics themselves in the case of a schizophrenic disorder 159.

Student nurses and nurses have been found to have positive attitudes toward psychiatry 160,161,162,163,164,165,166. The same applies to pharmacy students 167.

Health professionals’ attitudes towards specific psychiatric treatments appear to coincide with those of the general population and medical students. Thus, depot medication was often perceived as coercive and compromising patient autonomy 168,169, psychotherapy was preferred over antidepressants 170, and psychotropic drugs were often accepted only as a last resort 171. Social workers, however, had a positive attitude towards psychotropic medications 172,173. Only 35% of non-medical mental health professionals reported that they would consider taking antipsychotics themselves in the case of a schizophrenic disorder, whereas 85% would recommend them to relatives 159. Mental health nurses recommended ECT only in cases of extreme depression 174. Involuntary treatment methods elicited strong emotions among nurses 175,176.

Patients and relatives

Among patients who did not comply with a referral to a psychiatrist, the most frequently mentioned reason was the fear of mental illness stigma, rather than negative expectations about the treatment and its quality 177. Patients usually expect that treatment will be helpful 178,179, and most outpatient clients in a community mental health centre were satisfied with the treatment they received 180,181. However, expectations that treatments such as ECT will be painful, and that medications may be administered without their consent are often reported by patients 26,182.

Regarding specific forms of psychiatric treatment, patients and their relatives harbor the same stereotypes about psychotropic medications as are found in the general public. Thus, these medications are often rejected because they are thought to be addictive 32,183,184,185, not to target the actual causes of the illness 32, to induce personality changes 179,186 and to suppress normal feelings 184. Some studies show a clear preference for psychotherapy over pharmacological treatment 19,26,187,188 and patients often do not expect psychotropic medication when first beginning treatment 178,179,189. Psychiatric treatment was often seen as being either slow in taking effect or completely ineffective 190.

However, compared to the general population, psychiatric patients and their relatives have been found to have slightly more positive attitudes towards psychotropic medications 191,192,193,194,195, and some studies report that satisfaction with this form of treatment is high 196,197,198. Previously hospitalized patients showed more positive attitudes towards psychiatric treatment 199,200,201.

While ECT has often been viewed by patients as an effective treatment method 202,203, most patients expected severe side effects 204,205, often leading them to consider it as a treatment of last resort. However, this was not the case in patients who had already undergone ECT 206,207,208. Similarly, while most patients reported that they were not in favor of compulsory treatment, because it would limit their autonomy, most evaluated their actual experience with compulsory treatment as helpful 197,209,210,211,212,213,214,215,216,217,218.

The media

The general depiction of psychiatry in the news and entertainment media is predominantly negative. In a media commentary, psychiatry was portrayed as “a discipline without true scholarship, scientific methods, or effective treatment techniques” 219. Newspapers and movies have often conveyed a negative picture of psychiatric hospitals 220,221. These images were quickly generalized and contributed to the negative image of psychiatry overall 222,223. Modern community mental health centers have been rarely depicted in the media 224.

The depiction of psychiatric treatment is also often negative, with images of ineffective and punitive electroshocks 225, forced confinement, or psychoanalytical treatment 224,226,227 prevailing. The “Hollywood mythology of psychiatry” 228 conveys the idea that successful treatment is not based on medication and gradual progress, but on a single cathartic session. Newspaper reports on psychotropic drugs have been substantially more critical than reports on cardiac drugs, more often emphasizing negative side effects while omitting information on beneficial effects 229,230. Reports on ECT have been frequently negative and biased 231. Several newspapers repeatedly criticized the relationship between psychiatry and the industry 232.

The stigmatization of psychiatrists

The general public

The public image of psychiatrists is largely negative and based on insufficient knowledge about their training, expertise and purpose. For example, it is not widely known that psychiatrists are medical doctors, and the duration of their training is underestimated 6,182,233,234,235. They are ascribed a low status among physicians 236, academicians 235, and mental health professions 237. Many studies report an insufficient differentiation between the various mental health professions, in particular between psychiatrists and psychologists 233,237,238. Only two studies reported that respondents were able to differentiate between the professions 6,235. Psychiatrists are accused of relying too much on medications 239. In the presence of a mental health problem, help from a confidant 25,27,34 or a family physician 241,242 is often recommended instead of treatment by a psychiatrist. Nevertheless, only a small minority of the general public endorse the stereotype that “psychiatrists are useless” 22,236,237,243.

There are competing stereotypes concerning the professional roles of psychiatrists 244,245. On the one hand, they are often perceived as “agents of repression” whose purpose it is to guarantee conformist behavior 244 and who can “see into people’s minds” 18. It is sometimes suggested that psychiatrists do not really want to understand their patients and are hostile towards them 6,107. On the other hand, psychiatrists are sometimes perceived as oracles, diviners or loving saviors, with exaggerated expectations about treatment success and healing 244.

Another misconception about psychiatrists concerns their role in courts as experts who testify about the mental health of defendants. Their explanations for a defendant’s behaviour are often misunderstood as “creating loopholes for criminals” 246,247. In this context, respondents also expressed low confidence in psychiatrists’ ability to detect legal insanity. Similarly, it has been suggested that the testimony of forensic psychiatrists is not based on professional expertise but motivated by financial interest 219,248,249. Nevertheless, the majority of lawyers and judges rejected the low-competence stereotype 250.

Three additional stereotypes describing psychiatrists can be found in the literature, referring to madness, oddness and abusiveness. Arguably, the most common is that of the psychiatrist who suffers from mental health problems 18,233,239,251. However, we have not found a single study that gave direct empirical evidence that the public actually endorse this stereotype. In a population survey 236, the majority described psychiatrists as helpful and trustworthy, and only a small minority perceived them as quirky or intransparent. But, given the choice between various mental health professionals, the participants in an Australian survey felt least comfortable talking to psychiatrists and rated them highest on perceived oddness 237. Finally, psychiatrists have been viewed as dangerous and manipulative abusers 107,252, who exploit their patients and abuse their power 51, even to the extent of trying to obtain sexual favours.

Medical students and health professionals

Medical students often report overhearing negative, disparaging remarks about psychiatrists by teachers in medical school and during clerkship 112,120. Based on the notion that “psychiatrists must be crazy because they are able to deal with crazy people” 244 or that “working with crazy people will make you crazy” 120, medical students sometimes perceive psychiatrists as more emotionally unstable or neurotic than other health professionals 65,94,97,253. Medical students may also see psychiatrists as peculiar, fuzzy, confused thinkers who are complex and difficult to understand 79,94,253,254.

Within the medical community, the status of psychiatrists is usually described as low. Some authors suggest that there is a “lack of respect among the medical community” 120, which stereotypes psychiatrists as “unsure, ineffective, useless and incomprehensible” 244. This perception of psychiatrists as “not real doctors” is also reflected in the fact that referral letters from family physicians to psychiatrists rarely contain information about physical symptoms 255. Nevertheless, medical doctors acknowledge that psychiatrists can help people with mental disorders and possess relevant expertise 256. They also report that they value and desire the advice of consultant psychiatrists 257,258,259, although they do not want to have them as treatment providers on a long-term basis 250,261. Despite these positive attitudes, 35% of non-psychiatric doctors see psychiatrists as less emotionally stable than other physicians, and 51% as neurotic 256.

On the other hand, psychiatrists rated themselves as more introspective, less authoritarian, more cultured and mature than their medical colleagues and 77% disagreed with the idea that they were more neurotic. Psychiatrists are, however, well-aware of their negative image 246,256,262.

Psychiatrists appear to be generally well accepted by other mental health professionals 263,264. Psychologists, nurses and social workers rated psychiatrists as equal to other professional groups in competence, although they consistently evaluated them as less warm 265.

Patients and relatives

Attitudes of patients and their relatives to psychiatrists are ambivalent. Satisfaction with psychiatrists’ performance tends to be high 196,198, with attitudes becoming more positive during hospitalization 161. An often expressed concern is about the time pressures that exist within psychiatric care facilities and the associated lack of time for intensive conversations 196,266,267,268,269. Some patients have described psychiatrists as controlling 267 and some relatives have perceived them as arrogant 268. Strehlow and Piesiur-Strehlow 270 found that lack of knowledge about the expertise of psychiatrists and negative attitudes led parents to choose psychiatrists only as a last resort for their children with mental health problems.

The media

Many of the stereotypes that are prevalent among the general public can also be found in the way psychiatrists are portrayed in the media. For example, psychiatrists are depicted as unhelpful, not providing effective therapy (128, 224), and unable to explain or predict their patients’ behaviour 271. Furthermore, derogatory and colloquial terms for psychiatrists are frequently used 107. The depiction of a malicious, controlling psychiatrist 272, a functionary of the oppressive state 227, was typical for the first half of the last century 228. In the ensuing years, different subtypes of psychiatrists have evolved. For example, Schneider 273 differentiated Dr. Dippy, Dr. Wonderful and Dr. Evil, representing the stereotypes of the mad psychiatrist, the super-healer and the exploitative, boundary-violating psychiatrist. A similar classification has been proposed on the basis of a movie analysis 226. Typically, positive attributes of psychiatrists include them always being available to their patients 228. A review of American movies 274 found that psychiatrists were depicted as helpful and friendly in about one half, and as malicious and boundary-violating in the other half, of the analyzed movies.


Our review of the literature on the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists revealed a scarcity of research on the development and evaluation of interventions to combat stigma. The results of these few studies are presented separately for the stigma toward psychiatry and that toward psychiatrists.

Interventions to combat the stigmatization of psychiatry

Concerning the stigma towards psychiatric treatment, there is some evidence that improving people’s knowledge about mental disorders during a “mental health first aid course” improves concordance with generally recommended therapies 275. There is also some evidence that attitudes towards community-based facilities could be improved by providing information about mental disorders and their treatment as well as contact with persons who suffer from those disorders 276. Battaglia et al 277 found that a presentation given by a psychiatrist on mental health issues for high school students not only improved knowledge about mental health, but also improved help-seeking attitudes and appreciation of psychiatrists, possibly due to greater familiarity.

Changing the depiction of psychiatry in the media is an important prerequisite for changing public opinion, particularly by promoting realistic expectations about treatment modalities and their success 234,239. Stuart 278 suggests that mental health professionals as well as patients should be more present in the media, in order to provide a more accurate picture of psychiatric treatments and their consumers. Media training for mental health professionals may improve their credibility and the acceptability of their message. A specific intervention that aims at improving the relations between psychiatrists and the media is described by Kutner and Bresin 279. Based on the idea that insecurity in a media interview situation can come across as arrogance, they developed a specific media training program. In workshops with groups of six psychiatry residents, information about the media and its functioning is provided and communication and presentation skills are practiced in role-playing. Even though no formal evaluation was reported, the authors claim positive experiences with the training.

Most interventions aimed at modifying medical students’ attitudes towards psychiatry centered on changes in teaching modalities and the curriculum in medical school. Studies comparing different styles of teaching (e.g., traditional versus problem-based teaching) failed to show an advantage of one method over another 55,67,72. According to a study by Singh et al 67, the acquisition of knowledge, an awareness of the therapeutic potential of psychiatric interventions and direct patient contact can improve attitudes and enhance psychiatry’s attractiveness as a career choice.

One specific approach to correcting the misperception of psychiatric treatment as ineffective is described by Coodin and Chisholm 280. A psychiatry seminar on recovery in persons with schizophrenia, co-taught by a consumer and a professional, led to more favourable perceptions of treatment for mental illness. Lambert et al 136 argue that tackling the negative image of psychiatry should start in medical school and continue in junior doctor training, in order to retain psychiatrists in their jobs. Moreover, in order to avoid mismatches, they recommend that interested medical students have the opportunity to gain more experience in psychiatric internships before pursuing a long-term career in psychiatry.

Interventions to combat the stigmatization of psychiatrists

We were unable to identify any studies describing interventions specifically targeting the stigmatization and discrimination of psychiatrists. However, there were several recommendations on how to change their negative image, most of which focused on developing a positive relationship with the media. This includes active participation of psychiatrists in the flow of information 233 and provision of expert knowledge on mental health issues 281 and forensic cases 282.

The Quebec Psychiatric Association developed recommendations on how to improve the image of psychiatrists with the help of a communication firm. Their strategies include becoming more visible in the media, responding to public needs and critical events, and increasing the visibility of psychiatrists in the community 283. They further argue that psychiatrists should react publicly to criticism of their profession. Higher visibility and better community orientation are also recommended by Felix 284 and Davidson 285, who suggest that community volunteering is an important approach to better public recognition.

In the interest of reducing stigma within the medical profession, it is recommended to address stigma in psychiatric education 120, providing medical students with a more accurate picture of psychiatry as a discipline and offering positive role models 94,176,286. To form positive relations with trained doctors, consultation-liaison relationships with a psychiatrist are recommended 287. In that regard, it is important that the psychiatrist remains “a physician first and a specialist second”, with sound medical knowledge 176,288. Spiessl and Cording 289 suggest an easily accessible psychiatric liaison service for family physicians in order to reduce delays in referrals. Moreover, they suggest practice-oriented seminars for family physicians, informing them about mental illness but also about psychiatric facilities, as well as continuing education in the context of the psychiatric liaison service.


Our review of the literature on stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists produced only a very small number of articles on research concerning the development and evaluation of interventions aimed at reducing such stigma. The main results indicated the importance of close collaboration with the media. In this regard, the improvement of public relations, the inclusion of psychiatrists in the media as experts on psychiatric issues, as well as workshops for psychiatrists on how to interact with the media, have proven to be effective in reducing the stigma of psychiatry and psychiatrists. Moreover, the media play an important role in providing information and correcting misconceptions about psychiatric treatments, facilities and the job of psychiatrists. The second main result concerns the improvement of the image of psychiatry and psychiatrists through a combination of knowledge and contact with people with mental illness. Specific approaches concerning medical students’ attitudes include addressing stigma and misconceptions about psychiatry during medical training, and improving teaching in psychiatry.

Also on the basis of the experience of its global programme on reducing the stigma and discrimination toward schizophrenia 290,291,292,293, the WPA recommends the following actions to combat the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists.

Recommendations to national psychiatric societies

National psychiatric organizations should define best practices of psychiatry and actively pursue their application in the mental health care system.

In addition to the publication of appropriate guidelines about best practices, psychiatric organizations should find ways to introduce their contents into the medical curricula and make training in their use an essential part of postgraduate education in psychiatry. The fact that best practice guidelines exist and that they are being applied should be public knowledge.

Psychiatric organizations should ensure rapid action in instances of human rights violations in the practice or research related to psychiatry and clearly report on the effects of such action. They should place emphasis on the development of techniques that will facilitate the control of quality of psychiatric practice, and on the wide use of such techniques. They should regularly report on scientific achievements and successes in the provision of care for people with mental disorders in communications with governments. They should work toward full transparency of their relationship with health related industries.

National psychiatric organizations, in collaboration with relevant academic institutions, should revise the curricula for undergraduate and postgraduate medical training.

There is evidence from a number of countries that medical students have a poor opinion of psychiatry and that a decreasing number of them choose psychiatry as a specialty upon graduation. As our review showed, this is in part due to the influence of teachers from other medical disciplines who hold such views and in part to the way in which psychiatry is presented and taught in medical schools in most countries. A variety of teaching methods that could make the subject of psychiatry more attractive exist, but are not widely used. These include the intensified instruction about skills (that can be used in dealing with mental illness as well as in the practice of medicine in general), contact with people who have been treated for their psychiatric illness and recovered, the involvement of family members as teachers about the routine management of mental illness and impairment in the community, exposure to successful community care for the mentally ill, use of summer schools and exchange programs to increase the attraction of psychiatry, and a better integration of the teaching of psychiatry with that of neurosciences and behavioral sciences.

Skills of presentation and communication, for work with the media and governmental offices, are of considerable importance in the development of mental health services as well as in any effort to change the image of psychiatry. At present, these skills are taught only exceptionally. Postgraduate training should also include education about the origins of stigma of mental illness and about the methods that can be used to combat it.

National psychiatric societies should establish closer links and collaboration with other professional societies, with patient and family associations and with other organizations that can be involved in the provision of mental health care and the rehabilitation of the mentally ill

The image of psychiatry and of psychiatrists depends, to a large extent, on the opinion of other medical specialists and on the perception of the discipline by those who use psychiatric services. Psychiatric societies often have very poor links to other professional societies and to organizations of patients and relatives, with which the relationship is often adversarial. The conduct of joint projects (e.g., research on comorbidity of mental and physical disorders) and collaboration with patient and family organizations in the production of guidelines and practice standards might diminish the gap that currently exists and contribute to the improvement of the image of psychiatry.

Collaboration with patient and family organizations can also contribute to the effort to make psychiatric services more efficient and user-friendly. The experience that some countries have in this respect (e.g., in the joint selection of an “ombudsman” who can help to resolve problems emerging in mental health services and the introduction of regular meetings of representatives of patient and family organizations and leaders of mental health programs) may reduce the number of conflicts and provide opportunities for contact and collaboration.

Collaboration with schools and teacher associations as well as organizations such as the Rotary Club can also be helpful in reducing the stigma of psychiatry.

National psychiatric societies should seek to establish and maintain sound working relationships with the media

The role of the media in shaping attitudes of the general public is of increasing importance. The information which media have about the practice of psychiatry is often incomplete or obsolete. National psychiatric societies should consider different ways of providing up-to-date information and developing working relationships with media representatives, including workshops, regular informative bulletins and press releases, the involvement of media representatives in planning services and other ways appropriate for the country.

Recommendations to leaders of psychiatric services and individual psychiatrists

Psychiatrists must be aware that their behaviour can contribute to the stigmatization of psychiatry as a discipline and of themselves as its representatives

The behaviour of psychiatrists in their clinical practice is of decisive importance for the image of psychiatry and psychiatrists. Its components that need to be given particular attention include: a) the development of a respectful relationship with patients and their relatives; b) staying abreast with advances of psychiatric research and practice and their implementation in clinical practice; c) strict observance of ethical principles in the provision of care and in the organization of services; d) collaboration with other medical specialists and health workers as well as with other professionals involved in the care for people with mental disorders.


The authors would like to thank Ms. M. Marekwica, Ms. K. Samjeske and Ms. P. Schlamann for their contributions to the paper and their helpful assistance.


1. Maj M. The WPA Action Plan 2008-2011. World Psychiatry. 2008;7:129–130.
2. Maj M. The WPA Action Plan is in progress. World Psychiatry. 2009;8:65–66. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
3. Stuart H. Fighting the stigma caused by mental disorders: past perspectives, present ac-tivities, and future directions. World Psychiatry. 2008;7:185–188. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
4. Angermeyer MC. Public image of psychiatry. Results of a representative poll in the new federal states of Germany. Psychiatrische Praxis. 2000;27:327–329. [PubMed]
5. Gibson R. The psychiatric hospital and reduction of stigma. In: Fink PJ, Tasman A, editors. Stigma and mental illness. Washington: American Psychiatric Press; 1992. pp. 185–188.
6. Redlich FC. What the citizen knows about psychiatry. Ment Hyg. 1950;34:64–79. [PubMed]
7. Weinstein RM. Attitudes toward psychiatric treatment among hospitalized patients: a review of quantitative research. Soc Sci Med. 1981;15:301–314. [PubMed]
8. Borinstein AB. Public attitudes toward persons with mental illness. Health Affairs. 1992;11:186–196. [PubMed]
9. Borinstein DA. What do the neighbors think now? Community residences on Long Island in New York. Commun Ment Health J. 1993;29:235–245. [PubMed]
10. Dear M. Understanding and overcoming the NIMBY syndrome. Journal of the American Planning Association. 1992;58:288–300.
11. Lauber C, Nordt C, Haker H. Community psychiatry: results of a public opinion survey. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2006;52:234–242. [PubMed]
12. Takahashi LM. Information and attitudes toward mental health care facilities: implications for addressing the NIMBY syndrome. Journal of Planning Education and Research. 1997;17:119–130.
13. Kobau R, Dilorio C, Chapman D. Attitudes about mental illness and its treatment: validation of a generic scale for public health surveillance of mental illness associated stigma. Commun Ment Health J. 2010;46:164–176. [PubMed]
14. Flaskerud JH, Kviz FJ. Rural attitudes toward and knowledge of mental illness and treatment re-sources. Hosp Commun Psychiatry. 1983;34:229–233. [PubMed]
15. Yang LH, Phelan JC, Link BG. Stigma and beliefs of efficacy towards traditional Chinese medicine and Western psychiatric treatment among Chinese-Americans. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology. 2008;14:10–18. [PubMed]
16. Hamre P, Dahl AA, Malt UF. Public attitudes to the quality of psychiatric treatment, psychiatric patients, and prevalence of mental disorders. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 1994;48:275–281.
17. Schnittker J. Misgivings of medicine?: African Americans’ skepticism of psychiatric medica-tion. J Health Soc Behav. 2003;44:506–524. [PubMed]
18. Thornicroft G, Rose D, Mehta N. Discrimination against people with mental illness: what can psychiatrists do? Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 2010;16:53–59.
19. Britten N. Psychiatry, stigma, and resistance. Psychiatrists need to concentrate on under-standing, not simply compliance. BMJ. 1998;317:963–964. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
20. Lauber C, Nordt C, Falcato L. Lay recommendations on how to treat mental disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2001;36:553–556. [PubMed]
21. È De Toledo Piza Peluso, S Luìs Blay. Public beliefs about the treatment of schizophrenia and depression in Bra-zil. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2009;55:16–27. [PubMed]
22. Griffiths KM, Christensen H, Jorm AF. Mental health literacy as a function of remoteness of residence: an Australian national study. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:1–20. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
23. Angermeyer MC, Breier P, Dietrich S. Public attitudes toward psychiatric treatment. An international compari-son. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2005;40:855–864. [PubMed]
24. Angermeyer MC, Matschinger H. Public attitude towards psychiatric treatment. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996;94:326–336. [PubMed]
25. Angermeyer MC, Matschinger H, Riedel-Heller SG. Whom to ask for help in case of a mental disorder? Preferences of the lay pub-lic. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1999;34:202–210. [PubMed]
26. Noble LM, Douglas BC, Newman SP. What do patients expect of psychiatric services? A systematic and critical review of empirical studies. Soc Sci Med. 2001;52:985–998. [PubMed]
27. Angermeyer MC, Holzinger A, Matschinger H. Mental health literacy and attitude towards people with mental illness: a trend analysis based on population surveys in the eastern part of Germany. Eur Psychiatry. 2009;24:225–232. [PubMed]
28. Dahlberg KM, Waern M, Runeson B. Mental health literacy and attitudes in a Swedish community sample – investi-gating the role of personal experience of mental health care. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:1–10. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
29. Lasoski MC. Attitudes of the elderly toward mental health treatment strategies. Dissertation Abstracts International. 1984;44:2248b–2248b.
30. Hugo CJ, Boshoff DEL, Traut A. Community attitudes toward and knowledge of mental illness in South Af-rica. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2003;38:715–719. [PubMed]
31. Ozmen E, Ogel K, Aker T. Public opinions and beliefs about the treatment of depression in urban Tur-key. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2005;40:869–876. [PubMed]
32. Lazaratou H, Anagnostopoulos DC, Alevizos EV. Parental attitudes and opinions on the use of psychotropic medication in mental disorders of childhood. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2007;6:1–7. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
33. Zoellner LA, Feeny NC, Cochran B. Treatment choice for PTSD. Behav Res Ther. 2003;41:879–886. [PubMed]
34. Stones CR. Attitudes toward psychology, psychiatry and mental illness in the Central East-ern Cape of South Africa. South Afr J Psychol. 1996;26:221–225.
35. Wagner AW, Bystritsky A, Russo JE. Beliefs about psychotropic medication and psychotherapy among primary care patients with anxiety disorders. Depress Anxiety. 2005;21:99–105. [PubMed]
36. Givens JL, Katz IR, Bellamy S. Stigma and the acceptability of depression treatments among African Americans and Whites. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22:1292–1297. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
37. Ineland L, Jacobssson L, Renberg ES. Attitudes towards mental disorders and psychiatric treatment – changes over time in a Swedish population. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 2008;62:192–197. [PubMed]
38. Jorm AF. Mental health literacy: public knowledge and beliefs about mental disor-ders. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;177:396–401. [PubMed]
39. Benkert O, Graf-Morgenstern M, Hillert A. Public opinion on psychotropic drugs: an analysis of the factors influencing ac-ceptance or rejection. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1997;185:151–158. [PubMed]
40. De Las Cuevas C, Sanz EJ. Attitudes toward psychiatric drug treatment: the experience of being treated. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;63:1063–1067. [PubMed]
41. Croghan TW, Tomlin M, Pescosolido BA. American attitudes toward and willingness to use psychiatric medica-tions. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2003;191:166–174. [PubMed]
42. Hegerl U, Althaus D, Stefanek J. Public attitudes towards treatment of depression: effects of an information cam-paign. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2003;36:288–291. [PubMed]
43. Kessing LV, Hansen HV, Demyttenaere K. Depressive and bipolar disorders: patients’ attitudes and beliefs towards de-pression and antidepressants. Psychol Med. 2005;35:1205–1213. [PubMed]
44. Angermeyer MC, Held T, Görtler D. Pro and contra: psychotherapy and psychopharmacotherapy attitude of the pub-lic. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 1993;43:286–292. [PubMed]
45. Pescosolido BA, Perry BL, Martin JK. Stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about treatment and psychiatric medications for children with mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2007;58:613–618. [PubMed]
46. Angermeyer MC, Matschinger H. Have there been any changes in the public’s attitudes towards psychiatric treatment? Results from representative population surveys in Germany in the years 1990 and 2001. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005;111:68–73. [PubMed]
47. Akighir A. Traditional and modern psychiatry: a survey of opinions and beliefs amongst people in plateau state, Nigeria. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 1982;28:203–209. [PubMed]
48. Alem A, Jacobsson L, Hanlon C. Community-based mental health care in Africa: mental health workers’ views. World Psychiatry. 2008;7:54–57. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
49. Balon R, Gregory R, Franchini MD. Medical students’ attitudes and views of psychiatry: 15 years later. Acad Psychiatry. 1999;23:30–36.
50. Caldera T, Kullgren G. Attitudes to psychiatry among Swedish and Nicaraguan medical students: a cross-cultural study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 1994;48:271–274.
51. Bulbena A, Pailhez G, Coll J. Changes in the attitudes towards psychiatry among Spanish medical students during training in psychiatry. Eur J Psychiatry. 2005;19:79–87.
52. Creed F, Goldberg D. Students’ attitudes towards psychiatry. Med Educ. 2009;21:227–234. [PubMed]
53. Lau AY, Offord DR. A study of student attitudes toward a psychiatric clerkship. J Ass Am Med Coll. 1976;51:919–928. [PubMed]
54. Maxmen JS. Student attitude changes during “psychiatric medicine” clerkships. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1979;1:98–103. [PubMed]
55. McParland M, Noble LM, Livingston G. The effect of a psychiatric attachment on students’ attitudes to and intention to pursue psychiatry as a career. Med Educ. 2003;37:447–454. [PubMed]
56. McParland M, Noble LM, Livingston G. The effectiveness of problem-based learning compared to traditional teaching in undergraduate psychology. Med Educ. 2004;38:859–867. [PubMed]
57. Balon R. Does a clerkship in psychiatry affect medical students’ attitudes toward psychia-try? Acad Psychiatry. 2008;32:73–75. [PubMed]
58. Brook P, Ingleby D, Wakeford R. Students’ attitudes to psychiatry: a study of first- and final-year clinical students’ attitudes in six medical schools. J Psychiatr Educ. 1986;10:151–169.
59. Shelley RK, Webb MG. Does clinical clerkship alter students’ attitudes to a career choice of psychia-try? Med Educ. 1986;20:330–334. [PubMed]
60. Augoustinos M, Schrader G, Chynoweth R. Medical students’ attitudes towards psychiatry: a conceptual shift. Psychol Med. 1985;15:671–678. [PubMed]
61. Burch EA, Smeltzer DJ, Chestnut EC. Tutorial teaching of psychiatry – effects on test-scores, attitudes, and career choices of medical students. J Psychiatr Educ. 1984;8:127–135.
62. Chung MC, Prasher VP. Differences in attitudes among medical students towards psychiatry in one Eng-lish university. Psychol Rep. 1995;77:843–847. [PubMed]
63. Das MP, Chandrasena RD. Medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry. Can J Psychiatry. 1988;33:783–787. [PubMed]
64. Holm-Petersen C, Vinge S, Hansen J. The impact of contact with psychiatry on senior medical students’ attitudes to-ward psychiatry. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007;33:308–311. [PubMed]
65. Moos RH, Yalom ID. Medical students’ attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatrists. Ment Hyg. 1966;50:246–256. [PubMed]
66. Oldham JM, Sacks MH, Nininger JE. Medical students’ learning as primary therapists or as participant/observers in a psychiatric clerkship. Am J Psychiatry. 1983;140:1615–1618. [PubMed]
67. Singh SP, Baxter H, Standen P. Changing the attitudes of ‘tomorrow’s doctors’ towards mental illness and psy-chiatry: a comparison of two teaching methods. Med Educ. 1998;32:115–120. [PubMed]
68. Sloan D, Browne S, Meagher D. Attitudes toward psychiatry among Irish final year medical students. Eur Psychiatry. 1996;11:407–411. [PubMed]
69. Wilkinson DG, Greer S, Toone BK. Medical students’ attitudes to psychiatry. Psychol Med. 1983;13:185–192. [PubMed]
70. Wilkinson DG, Toone BK, Greer S. Medical students’ attitudes to psychiatry at the end of the clinical curricu-lum. Psychol Med. 1983;13:655–658. [PubMed]
71. Reddy JP, Tan SM, Azmi MT. The effect of a clinical posting in psychiatry on the attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry and mental illness in a Malaysian medical school. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2005;34:505–510. [PubMed]
72. Baxter H, Singh SP, Standen P. The attitudes of ‘tomorrow’s doctors’ towards mental illness and psychiatry: changes during the final undergraduate year. Med Educ. 2001;35:381–383. [PubMed]
73. Burra P, Kalin R, Leichner P. The ATP 30 – a scale for measuring medical students’ attitudes to psychia-try. Med Educ. 1982;16:31–38. [PubMed]
74. Sivakumar K, Wilkinson G, Toone BK. Attitudes to psychiatry in doctors at the end of their first post-graduate year: two-year follow-up of a cohort of medical students. Psychol Med. 1986;16:457–460. [PubMed]
75. Araya RI, Jadresic E, Wilkinson G. Medical students’ attitudes to psychiatry in Chile. Med Educ. 1992;26:153–156. [PubMed]
76. Agbayewa MO, Leichner PP. Effects of a psychiatric rotation on psychiatric knowledge and attitudes towards psychiatry in rotating interns. Can J Psychiatry. 1985;30:602–604. [PubMed]
77. Fischel T, Manna H, Krivoy A. Does a clerkship in psychiatry contribute to changing medical students’ attitudes towards psychiatry? Acad Psychiatry. 2008;32:147–150. [PubMed]
78. Galletly CA, Schrader GD, Chestemtan HM. Medical student attitudes to psychiatry: lack of effect of psychiatric hospital ex-perience. Med Educ. 1995;29:449–451. [PubMed]
79. Guttmann F, Rosca-Rebaudengo P, Davis H. Changes in attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry: an evaluation of a clerkship in psychiatry. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 1996;33:158–166. [PubMed]
80. Kuhnigk O, Strebel B, Schilauske J. Attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry: effects of training, courses in psychiatry, psychiatric experience and gender. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2007;12:87–101. [PubMed]
81. Muga F, Hagali M. What do final year medical students at the University of Papua New Guinea think of psychiatry. PNG Med J. 2006;49:126–136. [PubMed]
82. Tharyan P, John T, Tharyan A. Attitudes of ‘tomorrow’s doctors’ towards psychiatry and mental illness. National Medical Journal of India. 2001;14:355–359. [PubMed]
83. Bobo WV, Nevin R, Greene E. The effect of psychiatric third-year rotation setting on academic performance, student attitudes, and specialty choice. Acad Psychiatry. 2009;33:105–111. [PubMed]
84. Alexander DA, Eagles JM. Changes in attitudes towards psychiatry among medical students: correlation of attitude shift with academic performance. Med Educ. 1990;24:452–460. [PubMed]
85. Maidment R, Livingston G, Katona C. Change in attitudes to psychiatry and intention to pursue psychiatry as a career in newly qualified doctors: a follow-up of two cohorts of medical students. Med Teach. 2004;26:565–569. [PubMed]
86. Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Ongecha-Owuor F. Attitudes toward psychiatry: a survey of medical students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. Acad Psychiatry. 2008;32:154–159. [PubMed]
87. Niaz U, Hassan S, Hussain H. Attitudes towards psychiatry in pre-clinical and post-clinical clerkships in differ-ent medical colleges of Karachi. Pak J Med Sci. 2003;19:253–263.
88. Niedermier JA, Bornstein R, Brandemihl A. The junior medical student psychiatry clerkship: curriculum, attitudes, and test performance. Acad Psychiatry. 2006;30:136–143. [PubMed]
89. Rao NR, Meinzer AE, Manley M. International medical students’ career choice, attitudes toward psychiatry, and emigration to the United States: examples from India and Zimbabwe. Acad Psychiatry. 1998;22:117–126. [PubMed]
90. O’Flaherty AF. Students’ attitudes to psychiatry. Irish Med J. 1977;70:162–163. [PubMed]
91. Soufi HE, Raoof AM. Attitude of medical students towards psychiatry. Med Educ. 1991;26:38–41. [PubMed]
92. Abramowitz MZ, Bentov-Gofrit D. The attitudes of Israeli medical students toward residency in psychiatry. Acad Psychiatry. 2005;29:92–95. [PubMed]
93. Berman I, Merson A, Berman SM. Psychiatrists’ attitudes toward psychiatry. Acad Med. 1996;71:110–111. [PubMed]
94. Buchanan A, Bhugra D. Attitude of the medical profession to psychiatry. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1992;85:1–5. [PubMed]
95. Compton MT, Frank E, Elon L. Changes in U.S. medical students’ specialty interests over the course of medical school. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23:1095–1100. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
96. Eagle PF, Marcos LR. Factors in medical students’ choice of psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry. 1980;137:423–427. [PubMed]
97. Furnham AF. Medical students’ beliefs about nine different specialties. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986;293:1607–1610. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
98. Gat I, Abramowitz MZ, Bentov-Gofrit D. Changes in the attitudes of Israeli students at the Hebrew University Medical School toward residency in psychiatry: a cohort study. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2007;44:194–203. [PubMed]
99. Koh KB. Medical students’ attitudes toward psychiatry in a Korean medical col-lege. Yonsei Medical Journal. 1990;31:60–64. [PubMed]
100. Laugharne R, Appiah-Poku J, Laugharne J. Attitudes toward psychiatry among final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana. Acad Psychiatry. 2009;33:71–75. [PubMed]
101. Malhi GS, Parker GB, Parker K. Shrinking away from psychiatry? A survey of Australian medical students’ inter-est in psychiatry. Aust N Zeal J Psychiatry. 2002;36:416–423. [PubMed]
102. Monro AB. The status of psychiatry in the National Health Service. Am J Psychiatry. 1969;125:1223–1226. [PubMed]
103. Neff JA, McFall SL, Cleaveland TD. Psychiatry and medicine in the US: interpreting trends in medical specialty choice. Sociol Health Illn. 1987;9:45–61. [PubMed]
104. Pailhez G, Bulbena A, Coll J. Attitudes and views on psychiatry: a comparison between Spanish and U.S. medical students. Acad Psychiatry. 2005;29:82–91. [PubMed]
105. Rosoff SM, Leone MC. The public prestige of medical specialties: overviews and undercurrents. Soc Sci Med. 1991;32:321–326. [PubMed]
106. Singer P, Dornbush RL, Brownstein EJ. Undergraduate psychiatric education and attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry. Compr Psychiatry. 1986;27:14–20. [PubMed]
107. von Sydow K. Das Image von Psychologen, Psychotherapeuten und Psychiatern in der Öf-fentlichkeit. Psychotherapeut. 2007;52:322–333.
108. Yager J, Lamotte K, Nielsen A III. Medical students’ evaluation of psychiatry: a cross-country comparison. Am J Psychiatry. 1982;139:1003–1009. [PubMed]
109. Wigney T, Parker G. Factors encouraging medical students to a career in psychiatry: qualitative analysis. Aust N Zeal J Psychiatry. 2008;42:520–525. [PubMed]
110. Lee EK, Kaltreider N, Crouch J. Pilot study of current factors influencing the choice of psychiatry as a spe-cialty. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152:1066–1069. [PubMed]
111. Creed F, Goldberg D. Doctors’ interest in psychiatry as a career. Med Educ. 1987;21:235–243. [PubMed]
112. Holmes D, Tmuuliel-Berhalter LM, Zayas LE. “Bashing” of medical specialities: student’s experiences and recommenda-tion. Fam Med. 2008;40:400–406. [PubMed]
113. Ghadirian AM, Engelsmann F. Medical students’ interest in and attitudes toward psychiatry. J Med Educ. 1981;56:361–362. [PubMed]
114. Samuel-Lajeunesse B, Ichou P. French medical students’ opinion of psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry. 1985;142:1462–1466. [PubMed]
115. Calvert SH, Sharpe M, Power M. Does undergraduate education have an effect on Edinburgh medical students’ attitudes to psychiatry and psychiatric patients? J Nerv Ment Dis. 1999;187:757–761. [PubMed]
116. Feifel D, Moutier CY, Swerdlow NR. Attitudes toward psychiatry as a prospective career among students entering medical school. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:1397–1402. [PubMed]
117. Malhi GS, Parker GB, Parker K. Attitudes toward psychiatry among students entering medical school. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2003;107:424–429. [PubMed]
118. Maidment R, Livingston G, Katona M. Carry on shrinking: Career intentions and attitudes to psychiatry of prospective medical students. Psychiatr Bull. 2003;27:30–32.
119. Yellowlees P, Vizard T, Eden J. Australian medical students’ attitudes towards specialties and special-ists. Med J Australia. 1990;152:587–588. 591–592. [PubMed]
120. Cutler JL, Harding KJ, Mozian SA. Discrediting the notion “working with ‘crazies’ will make you ‘crazy’”: addressing stigma and enhancing empathy in medical student education. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2009;14:487–502. [PubMed]
121. Cutler JL, Alspector SL, Harding KJ. Medical students’ perceptions of psychiatry as a career choice. Acad Psychiatry. 2006;30:144–149. [PubMed]
122. Garfinkel PE, Dorian BJ. Psychiatry in the new millennium. Can J Psychiatry. 2000;45:40–47. [PubMed]
123. Martin VL, Bennett DS, Pitale M. Medical students’ interest in child psychiatry: a clerkship intervention. Acad Psychiatry. 2007;31:225–227. [PubMed]
124. Syed EU, Siddiqi MN, Dogar I. Attitudes of Pakistani medical students towards psychiatry as a prospective ca-reer: a survey. Acad Psychiatry. 2008;32:160–164. [PubMed]
125. Byrne P. Challenging healthcare discrimination. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 2010;16:60–62.
126. Stoudemire A. Quo vadis, psychiatry? Problems and potential for the future of medical student education in psychiatry. Psychosomatics. 2000;41:204–209. [PubMed]
127. Wigney T, Parker G. Medical student observations on a career in psychiatry. Aust N Zeal J Psychiatry. 2007;41:726–731. [PubMed]
128. Arboleda-Flórez J. Considerations on the stigma of mental illness. Can J Psychiatry. 2003;48:645–650. [PubMed]
129. Arboleda-Flórez J. Mental illness and human rights. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2008;21:479–484. [PubMed]
130. Strebel B, Obladen M, Lehmann E. Attitude of medical students to psychiatry. A study with the German translated, expanded version of the ATP-30. Nervenarzt. 2000;71:205–212. [PubMed]
131. Akinyinka OO, Ohaeri JU, Asuzu MC. Beliefs and attitudes of clinical year students concerning medical specialties: an Ibadan medical school study. Afr J Med Sci. 1992;21:89–99. [PubMed]
132. Al-Adawi S, Dorvlo AS, Bhaya C. Withering before the sowing? A survey of Oman’s ‘tomorrow’s doctors’ interest in Psychiatry. Educ Health (Abingdon) 2008;21:117–117. [PubMed]
133. Brockington I, Mumford D. Recruitment into psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;180:307–312. [PubMed]
134. Herran A, Carrera M, Andres A. Attitudes toward psychiatry among medical students – factors associated to se-lection of psychiatry as a career. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2006;16:563–563.
135. Marić NP, Stojiljković DJ, Milekić B. How medical students in their pre-clinical year perceive psychiatry as a career: the study from Belgrade. Psychiatr Danub. 2009;21:206–212. [PubMed]
136. Lambert TW, Turner G, Fazel S. Reasons why some UK medical graduates who initially choose psychiatry do not pursue it as a long-term career. Psychol Med. 2006;36:679–684. [PubMed]
137. West ND, Walsh MA. Psychiatry’s image today: results of an attitudinal survey. Am J Psychiatry. 1975;132:1318–1319. [PubMed]
138. Kendell R, Jablensky A. Distinguishing between the validity and utility of psychiatric diagnoses. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:4–12. [PubMed]
139. van Os J. ‘Salience syndrome’ replaces ‘schizophrenia’ in DSM-V and ICD-11: psychia-try’s evidence-based entry into the 21st century? Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009;120:363–372. [PubMed]
140. Summerfield D. Depression: epidemic or pseudo-epidemic? J Roy Soc Med. 2006;99:161–162. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
141. Alarcon RD. Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: review and projec-tions. World Psychiatry. 2009;8:131–139. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
142. Katschnig H. Are psychiatrists an endangered species? Observations on internal and external challenges to the profession. World Psychiatry. 2010;9:21–28. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
143. Nielsen AC III, Eaton JS. Jr. Medical students’ attitudes about psychiatry. Implications for psychiatric re-cruitment. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1981;38:1144–1154. [PubMed]
144. Angermeyer MC, Matschinger H, Sandmann J. Die Einstellung von Medizinstudenten zur Behandlung mit Psychopharmaka., Teil 1: Vergleich zwischen Medizinstudenten und Allgemeinbevölkerung. Psychiatr Prax. 1994;21:58–63. [PubMed]
145. Hillert A, Sandmann J, Angermeyer MC. Attitude of medical students to treatment with psychotropic drugs. 2: Change in attitude in the course of medical education. Psychiatr Prax. 1994;21:64–69. [PubMed]
146. Linden M, Becker S. Attitudes and beliefs of medical and psychology students with regard to treat-ment with psycholtropic drugs. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 1984;52:362–369. [PubMed]
147. Strebel B, Kuhnigk O, Jüptner M. Attitudes of medical students toward psychotherapy as a function of the aca-demic semester, gender and prior experience with psychiatry and psychotherapy. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 2003;54:184–184.
148. Walter G, McDonald A, Rey JM. Medical student knowledge and attitudes regarding ECT prior to and after view-ing ECT scenes from movies. J ECT. 2002;18:43–46. [PubMed]
149. Clothier JL, Freeman T, Snow L. Medical student attitudes and knowledge about ECT. J ECT. 2001;17:99–101. [PubMed]
150. Gazdag G, Kocsis-Ficzere N, Tolna J. Hungarian medical students’ knowledge about and attitudes toward electrocon-vulsive therapy. J ECT. 2005;21:96–99. [PubMed]
151. James BO, Omoaregba JO, Olotu OS. Nigerian medical students attitudes to unmodified electroconvulsive ther-apy. J ECT. 2009;25:186–189. [PubMed]
152. Abbas M, Mashrai N, Mohanna M. Knowledge of and attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy of medical stu-dents in the United Kingdom, Egypt, and Iraq: a transcultural perspective. J ECT. 2007;23:260–264. [PubMed]
153. Gazdag G, Sebestyén G, Ungvari GS. Impact on psychiatric interns of watching live electroconvulsive treat-ment. Acad Psychiatry. 2009;33:152–156. [PubMed]
154. Kinnair D, Dawson S, Perera R. Electroconvulsive therapy: medical students’ attitudes and knowledge. The Psychiatrist. 2010;34:54–57.
155. Link B, Levav I, Cohen A. The primary medical care practitioner’s attitudes toward psychiatry. An Israeli study. Soc Sci Med. 1982;16:1413–1420. [PubMed]
156. Meise U, Günther V. Einstellungen von Ärzten zur Psychiatrie. Neuropsychiatrie. 1995;Bd.9:157–162.
157. Pro JD, Fortin D. Physicians and psychiatry: physicians‘ attitudes toward psychiatry. J Kans Med Soc. 1973;74:367–368. [PubMed]
158. Blumberg P, Flaherty JA. Faculty perceptions of their own speciality. J Med Educ. 1982;57:338–339. [PubMed]
159. Rettenbacher MA, Burns T, Kemmler G. Schizophrenia: attitudes of patients and professional carers towards the illness and antipsychotic medication. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2004;37:103–109. [PubMed]
160. Spießl B, Riederer C, Fichtner KH. Attitudes towards psychiatry – Changing attitudes by working on psychiatric wards. Krankenhauspsychiatrie. 2005;16:13–17.
161. Toomey LC, Reznikoff M, Brady JP. Attitudes of nursing students toward psychiatric treatment and hospitals. Ment Hyg. 1961;45:589–602. [PubMed]
162. Harding AV. Nurses‘ attitudes to psychiatric treatment. Australasian Nurses Journal. 1980;9:28–30. [PubMed]
163. Clarke L. The effects of training and social orientation on attitudes towards psychiatric treatments. J Adv Nurs. 1989;14:485–493. [PubMed]
164. Bergman S. Nursing attitudes to psychiatry and geriatrics as preferred work areas with devi-ant groups. Isr Ann Psychiatry Rel Disc. 1974;12:156–160. [PubMed]
165. Reznikoff M. Attitudes of psychiatric nurses and aides toward psychiatric treatment and hos-pitals. Ment Hyg. 1963;47:360–364. [PubMed]
166. Wood JH, Chambers M, White SJ. Nurses‘ knowledge of and attitude to electroconvulsive therapy. J ECT. 2007;23:251–254. [PubMed]
167. Einat H, George A. Positive attitude change toward psychiatry in pharmacy students following an active learning psychopharmacology course. Acad Psychiatry. 2008;32:515–517. [PubMed]
168. Patel MX, De Zoysa N, Baker D. Antipsychotic depot medication and attitudes of community psychiatric nurses. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2005;12:237–244. [PubMed]
169. Patel MX, Yeung FK, Haddad PM. Psychiatric nurses’ attitudes to antipsychotic depots in Hong Kong and compari-son with London. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2008;15:758–766. [PubMed]
170. Mbatia J, Shah A, Jenkins R. Knowledge, attitudes and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers in Tanzania. Int J Ment Health Syst. 2009;3:5–5. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
171. Bentley KJ, Farmer RL, Phillips ME. Student knowledge of and attitudes toward psychotropic drugs. Journal of Social Work Education. 1991;27:279–289.
172. Berg WE, Wallace M. Effect of treatment setting on social workers’ knowledge of psychotropic drugs. Health Soc Work. 1987;12:144–152. [PubMed]
173. Moses T, Kirk SA. Social workers’ attitudes about psychotropic drug treatment with youths. Soc Work. 2006;51:211–222. [PubMed]
174. Gass JP. The knowledge and attitudes of mental health nurses to electro-convulsive ther-apy. J Adv Nurs. 1998;27:83–90. [PubMed]
175. Bowers L, Alexander J, Simpson A. Cultures of psychiatry and the professional socialization process: the case of containment methods for disturbed patients. Nurse Educ Today. 2004;24:435–442. [PubMed]
176. Waggoner RW, Waggoner RW. Jr. Psychiatry’s image, issues, and responsibility. Psychiatric Hospital. 1983;14:34–38. [PubMed]
177. Ben-Noun L. Characterization of patients refusing professional psychiatric treatment in a pri-mary care clinic. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 1996;33:167–174. [PubMed]
178. Richardson LA. Seeking and obtaining mental health services: what do parents expect? Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2001;15:223–231. [PubMed]
179. Thorens G, Gex-Fabry M, Zullino DF. Attitudes toward psychopharmacology among hospitalized patients from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds. BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:55–55. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
180. Balch P, Ireland JF, McWilliams SA. Client evaluation of community mental health services: relation to demographic and treatment variables. Am J Commun Psychol. 1977;5:243–247. [PubMed]
181. Leaf PJ, Bruce ML, Tischler GL. The relationship between demographic factors and attitudes toward mental health services. J Commun Psychol. 1987;15:275–284. [PubMed]
182. Skuse DH. Attitudes to the psychiatric outpatient clinic. BMJ. 1975;3:469–471. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
183. Chakraborty K, Avasthi A, Kumar S. Attitudes and beliefs of patients of first episode depression towards antidepres-sants and their adherence to treatment. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2009;44:482–488. [PubMed]
184. Givens JL, Datto CJ, Ruckdeschel K. Older patients‘ aversion to antidepressants. A qualitative study. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:146–151. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
185. Kessing LV, Hansen HV, Bech P. Attitudes and beliefs among patients treated with mood stabilizers. Clin Pract Epidemol Ment Health. 2006;2:8–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
186. Williams RA, Hollis HM, Benott K. Attitudes toward psychiatric medications among incarcerated female adoles-cents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998;37:1301–1307. [PubMed]
187. McIntyre K, Farrell M, David A. In-patient psychiatric care: the patient‘s view. Br J Med Psychol. 1989;62:249–255. [PubMed]
188. Stevens J, Wang W, Fan L. Parental attitudes toward children’s use of antidepressants and psychother-apy. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009;19:289–296. [PubMed]
189. Blenkiron P. Referral to a psychiatric clinic: what do patients expect? Int J Health Care Qual Assur Inc Leadersh Health Serv. 1998;11:188–192. [PubMed]
190. Ingham J. The public image of psychiatry. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1985;20:107–108. [PubMed]
191. Baumann M, Bonnetain F, Briancon S. Quality of life and attitudes towards psychotropics and dependency: consumers vs. non-consumers aged 50 and over. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2004;29:405–415. [PubMed]
192. Holzinger A, Löffler W, Matschinger H. Attitudes towards psychotropic drugs: schizophrenic patients vs. general pub-lic. Psychopharmakotherapie. 2001;8:76–80.
193. van Dongen CJ. Is the treatment worse than the cure? Attitudes toward medications among per-sons with severe mental illness. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 1997;35:21–25. [PubMed]
194. Wacker HR. Attitude of ambulatory psychiatric patients to psychopharmacologic treat-ment. Schweiz Arch Neurol Psychiatr. 1991;142:77–88. [PubMed]
195. Irani F, Dankert M, Siegel SJ. Patient and family attitudes toward schizophrenia treatment. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2004;6:283–288. [PubMed]
196. La Roche C, Ernst K. The attitude of 200 hospitalized psychiatric patients and their doctors toward treatment. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr. 1975;220:107–116. [PubMed]
197. Adams NH, Hafner RJ. Attitudes of psychiatric patients and their relatives to involuntary treat-ment. Aust N Zeal J Psychiatry. 1991;25:231–237. [PubMed]
198. Mezey AG, Syed IA. Psychiatric illness and attitudes to psychiatry among general hospital outpa-tients. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1975;10:133–138.
199. Gynther MD, Reznikoff M, Fishman M. Attitudes of psychiatric patients toward treatment, psychiatrists and mental hos-pitals. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1963;136:68–71. [PubMed]
200. Yoash-Gantz RE, Gantz FE. Patient attitudes toward partial hospitalization and subsequent treatment out-come. Int J Partial Hosp. 1987;4:145–155. [PubMed]
201. Isacson D, Bingefors K. Attitudes towards drugs – a survey in the general population. Pharm World Sci. 2002;24:104–110. [PubMed]
202. Arshad M, Arham AZ, Arif M. Awareness and perceptions of electroconvulsive therapy among psychiatric pa-tients: a cross-sectional survey from teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Psychiatry. 2007;7:27–27. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
203. Salize HJ, Dressing H. Coercion, involuntary treatment and quality of mental health care: is there any link? Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2005;18:576–584. [PubMed]
204. Hillard JR, Folger R. Patients‘ attitudes and attributions to electroconvulsive shock therapy. J Clin Psychol. 1977;33:855–861. [PubMed]
205. Spencer J. Psychiatry and convulsant therapy. Med J Australia. 1977;1:844–847. [PubMed]
206. Goodman JA, Krahn LE, Smith GE. Patient satisfaction with electroconvulsive therapy. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999;74:967–971. [PubMed]
207. Pettinati HM, Tamburello TA, Ruetsch CR. Patient attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1994;30:471–475. [PubMed]
208. Kerr RA, McGrath JJ, O’Kearney RT. ECT: misconceptions and attitudes. Aust N Zeal J Psychiatry. 1982;16:43–49. [PubMed]
209. Lauber C, Rössler W. Involuntary admission and the attitude of the general population, and mental health professionals. Psychiatr Prax. 2007;34:181–185. [PubMed]
210. Kaltiala-Heino R. Involuntary psychiatric treatment: a range of patients’ attitudes. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 1996;50:27–34.
211. Lauber C, Falcato L, Rössler W. Attitudes to compulsory admission in psychiatry. Lancet. 2000;355:2080–2080. [PubMed]
212. Kane JM, Quitkin F, Rifkin A. Attitudinal changes of involuntarily committed patients following treat-ment. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1983;40:374–377. [PubMed]
213. Lauber C, Nordt C, Falcato L. Public attitude to compulsory admission of mentally ill people. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2002;105:385–389. [PubMed]
214. Lucksted A, Coursey RD. Consumer perceptions of pressure and force in psychiatric treatments. Psychiatr Serv. 1995;46:146–152. [PubMed]
215. Morgan SL. Determinants of family treatment choice and satisfaction in psychiatric emer-gencies. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1990;60:96–107. [PubMed]
216. Schwartz HI, Vingiano W, Perez CB. Autonomy and the right to refuse treatment: patients’ attitudes after involuntary medication. Hosp Commun Psychiatry. 1988;39:1049–1054. [PubMed]
217. Virit O, Ayar D, Savas HA. Patients’ and their relatives’ attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar disorder. J ECT. 2007;23:255–259. [PubMed]
218. Pugh RL, Ackerman BJ, McColgan EB. Attitudes of adolescents toward adolescent psychiatric treatment. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 1994;3:351–363.
219. Sharf BF. Send in the clowns: the image of psychiatry during the Hinckley trial. Journal of Communication. 1986;36:80–93.
220. Rottleb U, Steinberg H, Angermeyer MC. The image of psychiatry in the “Leipziger Volkszeitung” – historical longitudinal study. Psychiatr Prax. 2007;34:269–275. [PubMed]
221. Maio G. Zum Bild der Psychiatrie im Film und dessen ethische Implikationen. In: Gaebel W, Möller H-J, Rössler W, editors. Stigma - Diskriminierung - Bewältigung, Der Umgang mit sozialer Ausgrenzung psychisch Kranker. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer; 2005. pp. 99–121.
222. Steger F. From the person to an isolated case: Frank Schmökel in the discourses of power and stigmatization. Psychiatr Prax. 2003;30:389–394. [PubMed]
223. Pupato K. Psychiatrie in den Medien. In: Gaebel W, Möller H-J, Rössler W, editors. Stigma - Diskriminierung - Bewältigung, Der Umgang mit sozialer Ausgrenzung psychisch Kranker. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer; 2005. pp. 83–99.
224. Walter G. The psychiatrist in American cartoons, 1941-1990. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1992;85:167–172. [PubMed]
225. McDonald A, Walter G. Hollywood and ECT. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2009;21:200–206. [PubMed]
226. Gabbard GO, Gabbard K. Cinematic stereotypes contributing to the stigmatization of psychiatrists. In: Fink PJ, Tasman A, editors. Stigma and mental illness. Washington: American Psychiatric Press; 1992. pp. 113–126.
227. Gabbard GO, Gabbard K. Psychiatry and the cinema, 2nd ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Press; 1999.
228. Butler JR, Hyler SE. Hollywood portrayals of child and adolescent mental health treatment: implica-tions for clinical practice. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005;14:509–522. [PubMed]
229. Hillert A, Sandmann J, Ehmig SC. Psychopharmacological drugs as represented in the press: results of a system-atic analysis of newspapers and popular magazines. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1996;29:67–71. [PubMed]
230. Hoffmann-Richter U, Wick F, Alder B. Neuroleptics in the newspaper. A mass media analysis. Psychiatr Prax. 1999;26:175–180. [PubMed]
231. Hoffmann-Richter U, Alder B, Finzen A. Electroconvulsive therapy and defibrillation in the paper. An analysis of the me-dia. Nervenarzt. 1998;69:622–628. [PubMed]
232. Hoffmann-Richter U. Psychiatry in print media. Information acquired through reading of the daily pa-pers. Psychiatr Prax. 2000;27:354–356. [PubMed]
233. Cuenca O. Mass media and psychiatry. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2001;14:527–528.
234. Williams A, Cheyne A, Macdonald S. The public‘s knowledge of psychiatrists: questionnaire survey. Psychiatr Bull. 2001;25:429–432.
235. Thumin FJ, Zebelman M. Psychology versus psychiatry: a study of public image. Am Psychol. 1967;22:282–286. [PubMed]
236. Laux G. Common attitudes toward the psychiatrist and psychotherapist. Nervenarzt. 1977;48:331–334. [PubMed]
237. Sharpley CE. Public perceptions of four mental health professions: a survey of knowledge and attitudes to psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers and counsellors. Aust Psychol. 1986;21:57–67.
238. Vassiliou G, Vassiliou V. On the public image of the psychiatrist, the psychologist and the social worker in Athens. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 1967;13:224–228. [PubMed]
239. Dichter H. The stigmatization of psychiatrists who work with chronically mentally ill per-sons. In: Fink PJ, Tasman A, editors. Stigma and mental illness. Washington: American Psychiatric Press; 1992. pp. 203–215.
240. Kovess-Masféty V, Saragoussi D, Sevilla-Dedieu C. What makes people decide who to turn to when faced with a mental health prob-lem? Results from a French Survey. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:188–188. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
241. Jorm AF, Blewitt KA, Griffiths KM. Mental health first aid responses of the public: results from an Australian na-tional survey. BMC Psychiatry. 2005;5:9–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
242. Perry BL, Pescosolido BA, Martin JK. Comparison of public attributions, attitudes, and stigma in regard to depression among children and adults. Psychiatr Serv. 2007;58:632–635. [PubMed]
243. Bayer JK, Peay MY. Predicting intentions to seek help from professional mental health ser-vices. Aust N Zeal J Psychiatry. 1997;31:504–513. [PubMed]
244. Fink PJ, Tasman A. Stigma and mental illness. The enigma of stigma and its relation to psychiatric education. Psychiatr Ann. 1983;13:669–690.
245. Kourany RFC, LaBarbera JD, Martin JE. The image of the mental health professional. J Clin Psychiatry. 1980;41:399–399.
246. Slater D, Hans VP. Public opinion of forensic psychiatry following the Hinckley verdict. Am J Psychiatry. 1984;141:675–679. [PubMed]
247. Hans VP, Slater D, John Hinckley Jr. insanity defense: the public’s verdict. Public Opinion Quarterly. 1983;47:202–212.
248. Farrell JL, Tisza SM. Forensic ethics – Suspension and other sanctions imposed on an Arizona state prosecutor who showed disrespect for and prejudice against mental health experts during trial. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2005;33:405–406.
249. Benedek EP, Selzer ML. Lawyers’ use of psychiatry: II. Am J Psychiatry. 1977;134:435–436. [PubMed]
250. Hiday VA. Are lawyers enemies of psychiatrists? A survey of civil commitment counsel and judges. Am J Psychiatry. 1983;140:323–326. [PubMed]
251. Walter G. The stereotype of the mad psychiatrist. Aust N Zeal J Psychiatry. 1989;23:547–554. [PubMed]
252. von Sydow K, Reimer C. Attitudes toward psychotherapists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and psychoana-lysts. Am J Psychother. 1998;52:463–488. [PubMed]
253. Bruhn JG, Parsons O. A. Medical students attitudes towards four medical specialties. J Med Educ. 1964;39:40–49. [PubMed]
254. Streit-Forest U, Laplante N. Probing further into the freshman medical students‘ attitudes toward “patient”, “doctor-patient relation” and “psychiatrist” J Psychiatr Educ. 1983;7:113–125.
255. Culshaw D, Clafferty R, Brown K. Let‘s get physical! A study of general practitioner‘s referral letters to general adult psychiatry – Are physical examination and investigation results included? Scott Med J. 2008;53:7–8. [PubMed]
256. Dewan MJ, Levy BF, Donnelly MP. A positive view of psychiatrists and psychiatry. Compr Psychiatry. 1988;29:523–531. [PubMed]
257. Cohen-Cole SA, Friedman CP. Attitudes of nonpsychiatric physicians toward psychiatric consultation. Hosp Commun Psychiatry. 1982;33:1002–1005. [PubMed]
258. De-Nour AK. Attitudes of physicians in a general hospital towards psychiatric consultation service. Ment Health Soc. 1979;5:215–223. [PubMed]
259. Schubert DS, Billowitz A, Gabinet L. Effect of liaison psychiatry on attitudes toward psychiatry, rate of consultation, and psychosocial documentation. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1989;11:77–87. [PubMed]
260. Doron A, Ma’oz B, Fennig S. Attitude of general practitioners towards psychiatric consultation in primary care clinic. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2003;40:90–95. [PubMed]
261. Barber R, Williams AS. Psychiatrists working in primary care: a survey of general practitioners atti-tude. Aust N Zeal J Psychiatry. 1996;30:278–286. [PubMed]
262. Bhugra D. Professionalism and psychiatry: the profession speaks. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008;118:327–329. [PubMed]
263. Bryant SG, Guernsey BG, Pearce EL. Pharmacists’ perceptions of mental health care, psychiatrists, and mentally ill patients. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1985;42:1366–1369. [PubMed]
264. Kellett JM, Mezey AG. Attitudes to psychiatry in the general hospital. BMJ. 1970;4:106–108. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
265. Koeske GF, Koeske RD, Mallinger J. Perceptions of professional competence: cross-disciplinary ratings of psycholo-gists, social workers, and psychiatrists. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1993;63:45–54. [PubMed]
266. Brink C. “Keine Angst vor Psychiatern”. Psychiatry, critics of psychiatry and the public in the Federal Republic of Germany 1960-1980. Med Ges Gesch. 2006;26:341–360. [PubMed]
267. Ryan CS, Robinson DR, Hausmann LR. Stereotyping among providers and consumers of public mental health services. The role of perceived group variability. Ther Behav Modif. 2001;25:406–442. [PubMed]
268. Jungbauer J, Wittmund B, Angermeyer MC. Caregivers’ views of the treating psychiatrists: coping resource or additional burden? Psychiatr Prax. 2002;29:279–284. [PubMed]
269. Morgan G. Why people are often reluctant to see a psychiatrist. Psychiatr Bull. 2006;30:346–347.
270. Strehlow U, Piesiur-Strehlow B. On the image of child psychiatry amongst the people and the parents con-cerned. Acta Paedopsychiatrica. 1989;52:89–100. [PubMed]
271. Myers JM. The image of the psychiatrist. Am J Psychiatry. 1964;121:323–328. [PubMed]
272. Redlich FC. The psychiatrist in caricature: an analysis of unconscious attitudes toward psy-chiatry. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1950;20:560–571. [PubMed]
273. Schneider I. The theory and practice of movie psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry. 1987;144:996–1002. [PubMed]
274. Gharaibeh NM. The psychiatrist‘s image in commercially available American movies. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005;114:316–319. [PubMed]
275. Kitchener BA, Jorm AF. Mental health first aid training in a workplace setting: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry. 2004;15:23–23. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
276. Wolff G, Pathare S, Craig T. Public education for community care. A new approach. Br J Psychiatry. 1996;168:441–447. [PubMed]
277. Battaglia J, Coverdale JH, Bushong CP. Evaluation of a mental illness awareness week program in public schools. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147:324–329. [PubMed]
278. Stuart H. Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness? CNS Drugs. 2006;20:99–106. [PubMed]
279. Kutner L, Beresin EV. Media training for psychiatry residents. Acad Psychiatry. 1999;23:227–232.
280. Coodin S, Chisholm F. Teaching in a new key: effects of a co-taught seminar on medical students‘ atti-tudes toward schizophrenia. Psychiatr Rehabil J. 2001;24:299–302. [PubMed]
281. Persaud R. Psychiatrists suffer from stigma, too. Psychiatr Bull. 2000;24:284–285.
282. Stotland NL. Psychiatry, the law, and public affairs. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1998;26:281–287. [PubMed]
283. Lamontagne Y. The public image of psychiatrists. Can J Psychiatry. 1990;35:693–695. [PubMed]
284. Felix RH. The image of the psychiatrist: past, present and future. Am J Psychiatry. 1964;121:318–322. [PubMed]
285. Davidson HA. The image of the psychiatrist. Am J Psychiatry. 1964;121:329–334. [PubMed]
286. Bhugra D. Psychiatric training in the UK: the next steps. World Psychiatry. 2008;7:117–118. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
287. Ajiboye PO. Consultation-liaison psychiatry: the past and the present. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2007;36:201–205. [PubMed]
288. Kearney TR. The status and usefulness of the psychiatrist. Dis Nerv Syst. 1961;22:6979–6979. [PubMed]
289. Spiessl H, Cording C. Collaboration of the general practitioner and the psychiatrist with the psychiatric hospital. A literature review. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2000;68:206–215. [PubMed]
290. Gaebel W, Zäske H, Baumann AE. Evaluation of the German WPA “Program against stigma and discrimination be-cause of schizophrenia - Open the doors”: results from representative telephone surveys be-fore and after three years of antistigma interventions. Schizophr Res. 2008;98:184–193. [PubMed]
291. Sartorius N, Schulze H. Reducing the stigma of mental illness: a report from a Global Programme of the World Psychiatric Association. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2005.
292. Aichberger M, Sartorius N. Annotated bibliography of selected publications and other materials related to stigma and discrimination. An update for the years 2002 to 2006. Geneva: World Psychiatric Association Global Programme to Reduce the Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia; 2006.
293. Pickenhagen A, Sartorius N. Annotated bibliography of selected publications and other materials related to stigma and discrimination because of mental illness and intervention programmes fighting it. Geneva: World Psychiatric Association Global Programme to Reduce the Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia; 2002.

Articles from World Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of The World Psychiatric Association
PubReader format: click here to try


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    NCBI Bookshelf books that cite the current articles.
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...