Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. 1980 Dec; 144(3): 1076–1082.
PMCID: PMC294773

Patterns of Protein Production in Myxococcus xanthus During Spore Formation Induced by Glycerol, Dimethyl Sulfoxide, and Phenethyl Alcohol


Spore formation of Myxococcus xanthus can occur not only on agar plates during fruiting body formation, but also in a liquid culture by simply adding glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide, or phenethyl alcohol to the culture. This chemically-induced spore formation occurs synchronously and much faster than that occurring during fruiting body formation. Dramatic changes in patterns of protein synthesis were observed during chemically-induced spore formation, as had previously been observed during fruiting body formation (Inouye et al., Dev. Biol. 68:579–591, 1979). However, the production of protein S, one of the major development-specific proteins during fruiting body formation, was not detected at all, although protein U, another development-specific protein, was produced in a late stage of spore formation as in the case of fruiting body formation. This indicates that the control of the gene expression during chemically-induced spore formation is significantly different from that during fruiting body formation. It was also found that during spore formation, every cell seems to have a potential to form a spore regardless of its age, since smaller cells as well as larger cells separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation could equally form spores upon the addition of glycerol. Patterns of protein synthesis were almost identical for all the three chemicals. However, the final yield of spores was significantly different depending upon the chemicals used. When phenethyl alcohol was added with glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide, the final yields were determined by the multiple effect of the two chemicals added. This suggests that although these chemicals are able to induce the gene functions required for spore formation, they may have inhibitory effects on some of the gene functions or the processes of spore formation.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.6M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bacon K, Rosenberg E. Ribonucleic acid synthesis during morphogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus. J Bacteriol. 1967 Dec;94(6):1883–1889. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bretscher AP, Kaiser D. Nutrition of Myxococcus xanthus, a fruiting myxobacterium. J Bacteriol. 1978 Feb;133(2):763–768. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Burchard RP, Parish JH. Mutants of Myxococcus xanthus insensitive to glycerol-induced myxospore formation. Arch Microbiol. 1975 Aug 28;104(3):289–292. [PubMed]
  • Inouye M, Inouye S, Zusman DR. Gene expression during development of Myxococcus xanthus: pattern of protein synthesis. Dev Biol. 1979 Feb;68(2):579–591. [PubMed]
  • Inouye M, Inouye S, Zusman DR. Biosynthesis and self-assembly of protein S, a development-specific protein of Myxococcus xanthus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Jan;76(1):209–213. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Inouye S, White D, Inouye M. Development of Stigmatella aurantiaca: effects of light and gene expression. J Bacteriol. 1980 Mar;141(3):1360–1365. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kaiser D, Manoil C, Dworkin M. Myxobacteria: cell interactions, genetics, and development. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1979;33:595–639. [PubMed]
  • Kimchi A, Rosenberg E. Linkages between deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and cell division in Myxococcus xanthus. J Bacteriol. 1976 Oct;128(1):69–79. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sadler W, Dworkin M. Induction of cellular morphogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus. II. Macromolecular synthesis and mechanism of inducer action. J Bacteriol. 1966 Apr;91(4):1520–1525. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...