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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Apr 1989; 86(8): 2554–2558.
PMCID: PMC286955

An erythroid-specific, developmental-stage-independent enhancer far upstream of the human "beta-like globin" genes.


We have identified an erythroid-specific enhancer element far upstream of the human "beta-like globin" genes, at 10.2-11.0 kilobases 5' of the embryonic epsilon-globin gene, and thus at 53-54 kilobases 5' of the adult beta-globin gene. It is capable of enhancing the expression of a cis-linked test gene by up to 300-fold. This enhancer element is apparently developmental-stage-independent, as it is functional at the embryonic and the adult developmental stages in erythroid cells that are expressing the respective beta-like globin genes. The enhancer and globin promoter sequences work in synergy and are capable of conferring on a cis-linked gene the high transcriptional efficiency (enhancer function), erythroid specificity (enhancer and promoter functions), and developmental-stage specificity (promoter function) that are characteristic of the in vivo transcription of the beta-like globin genes in erythroid cells.

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Selected References

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