• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of aacPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalAAC ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Mar 1994; 38(3): 542–546.
PMCID: PMC284495

Active efflux of chloramphenicol in susceptible Escherichia coli strains and in multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) mutants.


The multiple-antibiotic resistance (mar) locus (min 34) regulates a resistance to chloramphenicol in Escherichia coli that does not involve acetyltransferase. Transport studies showed that wild-type cells had an apparent endogenous active efflux of chloramphenicol which depended on the proton motive force. This efflux was not altered by a 39-kb chromosomal deletion which included the mar locus. Nevertheless, mutations at the mar locus led to a stronger net chloramphenicol efflux. Therefore, a gene encoding the putative efflux system cannot be at the mar locus but may be positively influenced by that locus.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (900K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Abdel-Sayed S. Transport of chloramphenicol into sensitive strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1987 Jan;19(1):7–20. [PubMed]
  • Baughman GA, Fahnestock SR. Chloramphenicol resistance mutation in Escherichia coli which maps in the major ribosomal protein gene cluster. J Bacteriol. 1979 Mar;137(3):1315–1323. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bissonnette L, Champetier S, Buisson JP, Roy PH. Characterization of the nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance (cmlA) gene of the In4 integron of Tn1696: similarity of the product to transmembrane transport proteins. J Bacteriol. 1991 Jul;173(14):4493–4502. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Burns JL, Smith AL. Chloramphenicol accumulation by Haemophilus influenzae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 May;31(5):686–690. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cohen SP, Hächler H, Levy SB. Genetic and functional analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993 Mar;175(5):1484–1492. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cohen SP, Hooper DC, Wolfson JS, Souza KS, McMurry LM, Levy SB. Endogenous active efflux of norfloxacin in susceptible Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988 Aug;32(8):1187–1191. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cohen SP, McMurry LM, Hooper DC, Wolfson JS, Levy SB. Cross-resistance to fluoroquinolones in multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) Escherichia coli selected by tetracycline or chloramphenicol: decreased drug accumulation associated with membrane changes in addition to OmpF reduction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Aug;33(8):1318–1325. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Das HK, Goldstein A, Kanner LC. Inhibition by chlorampenicol of the growth of nascent protein chains in Escherichia coli. Mol Pharmacol. 1966 Mar;2(2):158–170. [PubMed]
  • Desomer J, Vereecke D, Crespi M, Van Montagu M. The plasmid-encoded chloramphenicol-resistance protein of Rhodococcus fascians is homologous to the transmembrane tetracycline efflux proteins. Mol Microbiol. 1992 Aug;6(16):2377–2385. [PubMed]
  • Dittrich W, Betzler M, Schrempf H. An amplifiable and deletable chloramphenicol-resistance determinant of Streptomyces lividans 1326 encodes a putative transmembrane protein. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Nov;5(11):2789–2797. [PubMed]
  • George AM, Levy SB. Amplifiable resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and other antibiotics in Escherichia coli: involvement of a non-plasmid-determined efflux of tetracycline. J Bacteriol. 1983 Aug;155(2):531–540. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hurwitz C, Braun CB. Measurement of binding of chloramphenicol by intact cells. J Bacteriol. 1967 May;93(5):1671–1676. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jensen KF. The Escherichia coli K-12 "wild types" W3110 and MG1655 have an rph frameshift mutation that leads to pyrimidine starvation due to low pyrE expression levels. J Bacteriol. 1993 Jun;175(11):3401–3407. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lessard JL, Pestka S. Studies on the formation of transfer ribonucleic acid-ribosome complexes. 23. Chloramphenicol, aminoacyl-oligonucleotides, and Escherichia coli ribosomes. J Biol Chem. 1972 Nov 10;247(21):6909–6912. [PubMed]
  • Lomovskaya O, Lewis K. Emr, an Escherichia coli locus for multidrug resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Oct 1;89(19):8938–8942. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McMurry L, Petrucci RE, Jr, Levy SB. Active efflux of tetracycline encoded by four genetically different tetracycline resistance determinants in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jul;77(7):3974–3977. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McMurry LM, Aronson DA, Levy SB. Susceptible Escherichia coli cells can actively excrete tetracyclines. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1983 Oct;24(4):544–551. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McMurry LM, Stephan M, Levy SB. Decreased function of the class B tetracycline efflux protein Tet with mutations at aspartate 15, a putative intramembrane residue. J Bacteriol. 1992 Oct;174(19):6294–6297. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Purewal AS, Jones IG, Midgley M. Cloning of the ethidium efflux gene from Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1990 Mar 1;56(1-2):73–76. [PubMed]
  • Reeve EC. Genetic analysis of some mutations causing resistance to tetracycline in Escherichia coli K12. Genet Res. 1968 Jun;11(3):303–309. [PubMed]
  • Simoni RD, Shallenberger MK. Coupling of energy to active transport of amino acids in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972 Sep;69(9):2663–2667. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stokes HW, Hall RM. Sequence analysis of the inducible chloramphenicol resistance determinant in the Tn1696 integron suggests regulation by translational attenuation. Plasmid. 1991 Jul;26(1):10–19. [PubMed]

Articles from Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...