• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of mbcLink to Publisher's site
Mol Biol Cell. Oct 1992; 3(10): 1057–1065.
PMCID: PMC275670

The extracellular regulation of growth factor action.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Anderson DM, Lyman SD, Baird A, Wignall JM, Eisenman J, Rauch C, March CJ, Boswell HS, Gimpel SD, Cosman D, et al. Molecular cloning of mast cell growth factor, a hematopoietin that is active in both membrane bound and soluble forms. Cell. 1990 Oct 5;63(1):235–243. [PubMed]
  • Andres JL, Stanley K, Cheifetz S, Massagué J. Membrane-anchored and soluble forms of betaglycan, a polymorphic proteoglycan that binds transforming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol. 1989 Dec;109(6 Pt 1):3137–3145. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Anklesaria P, Teixidó J, Laiho M, Pierce JH, Greenberger JS, Massagué J. Cell-cell adhesion mediated by binding of membrane-anchored transforming growth factor alpha to epidermal growth factor receptors promotes cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 May;87(9):3289–3293. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Antonelli-Orlidge A, Saunders KB, Smith SR, D'Amore PA. An activated form of transforming growth factor beta is produced by cocultures of endothelial cells and pericytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jun;86(12):4544–4548. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Appella E, Weber IT, Blasi F. Structure and function of epidermal growth factor-like regions in proteins. FEBS Lett. 1988 Apr 11;231(1):1–4. [PubMed]
  • Baird A, Schubert D, Ling N, Guillemin R. Receptor- and heparin-binding domains of basic fibroblast growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Apr;85(7):2324–2328. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Baxter RC. Glycosaminoglycans inhibit formation of the 140 kDa insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex. Biochem J. 1990 Nov 1;271(3):773–777. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Betsholtz C, Johnsson A, Heldin CH, Westermark B, Lind P, Urdea MS, Eddy R, Shows TB, Philpott K, Mellor AL, et al. cDNA sequence and chromosomal localization of human platelet-derived growth factor A-chain and its expression in tumour cell lines. Nature. 1986 Apr 24;320(6064):695–699. [PubMed]
  • Betsholtz C, Rorsman F, Westermark B, Ostman A, Heldin CH. Analogous alternative splicing. Nature. 1990 Mar 22;344(6264):299–299. [PubMed]
  • Bobek G, Scott CD, Baxter RC. Secretion of soluble insulin-like growth factor-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor by rat tissues in culture. Endocrinology. 1991 Apr;128(4):2204–2206. [PubMed]
  • Bonner JC, Badgett A, Osornio-Vargas AR, Hoffman M, Brody AR. PDGF-stimulated fibroblast proliferation is enhanced synergistically by receptor-recognized alpha 2-macroglobulin. J Cell Physiol. 1990 Oct;145(1):1–8. [PubMed]
  • Borth W, Luger TA. Identification of alpha 2-macroglobulin as a cytokine binding plasma protein. Binding of interleukin-1 beta to "F" alpha 2-macroglobulin. J Biol Chem. 1989 Apr 5;264(10):5818–5825. [PubMed]
  • Brachmann R, Lindquist PB, Nagashima M, Kohr W, Lipari T, Napier M, Derynck R. Transmembrane TGF-alpha precursors activate EGF/TGF-alpha receptors. Cell. 1989 Feb 24;56(4):691–700. [PubMed]
  • Brannan CI, Lyman SD, Williams DE, Eisenman J, Anderson DM, Cosman D, Bedell MA, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG. Steel-Dickie mutation encodes a c-kit ligand lacking transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jun 1;88(11):4671–4674. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brunner G, Gabrilove J, Rifkin DB, Wilson EL. Phospholipase C release of basic fibroblast growth factor from human bone marrow cultures as a biologically active complex with a phosphatidylinositol-anchored heparan sulfate proteoglycan. J Cell Biol. 1991 Sep;114(6):1275–1283. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Busby WH, Jr, Klapper DG, Clemmons DR. Purification of a 31,000-dalton insulin-like growth factor binding protein from human amniotic fluid. Isolation of two forms with different biologic actions. J Biol Chem. 1988 Oct 5;263(28):14203–14210. [PubMed]
  • Clemmons DR, Underwood LE, Chatelain PG, Van Wyk JJ. Liberation of immunoreactive somatomedin-C from its binding proteins by proteolytic enzymes and heparin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Feb;56(2):384–389. [PubMed]
  • Cohen KL, Nissley SP. The serum half-life of somatomedin activity: evidence for growth hormone dependence. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1976 Oct;83(2):243–258. [PubMed]
  • Colletta AA, Wakefield LM, Howell FV, van Roozendaal KE, Danielpour D, Ebbs SR, Sporn MB, Baum M. Anti-oestrogens induce the secretion of active transforming growth factor beta from human fetal fibroblasts. Br J Cancer. 1990 Sep;62(3):405–409. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Damon DH, Lobb RR, D'Amore PA, Wagner JA. Heparin potentiates the action of acidic fibroblast growth factor by prolonging its biological half-life. J Cell Physiol. 1989 Feb;138(2):221–226. [PubMed]
  • Danielpour D, Kim KY, Dart LL, Watanabe S, Roberts AB, Sporn MB. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (SELISAs) quantitate and distinguish two forms of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2) in complex biological fluids. Growth Factors. 1989;2(1):61–71. [PubMed]
  • Danielpour D, Sporn MB. Differential inhibition of transforming growth factor beta 1 and beta 2 activity by alpha 2-macroglobulin. J Biol Chem. 1990 Apr 25;265(12):6973–6977. [PubMed]
  • Dennis PA, Rifkin DB. Cellular activation of latent transforming growth factor beta requires binding to the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor type II receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jan 15;88(2):580–584. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dennis PA, Saksela O, Harpel P, Rifkin DB. Alpha 2-macroglobulin is a binding protein for basic fibroblast growth factor. J Biol Chem. 1989 May 5;264(13):7210–7216. [PubMed]
  • Derynck R, Jarrett JA, Chen EY, Eaton DH, Bell JR, Assoian RK, Roberts AB, Sporn MB, Goeddel DV. Human transforming growth factor-beta complementary DNA sequence and expression in normal and transformed cells. Nature. 1985 Aug 22;316(6030):701–705. [PubMed]
  • Derynck R, Roberts AB, Winkler ME, Chen EY, Goeddel DV. Human transforming growth factor-alpha: precursor structure and expression in E. coli. Cell. 1984 Aug;38(1):287–297. [PubMed]
  • Dolci S, Williams DE, Ernst MK, Resnick JL, Brannan CI, Lock LF, Lyman SD, Boswell HS, Donovan PJ. Requirement for mast cell growth factor for primordial germ cell survival in culture. Nature. 1991 Aug 29;352(6338):809–811. [PubMed]
  • Downing JR, Roussel MF, Sherr CJ. Ligand and protein kinase C downmodulate the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor by independent mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Jul;9(7):2890–2896. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Elgin RG, Busby WH, Jr, Clemmons DR. An insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein enhances the biologic response to IGF-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 May;84(10):3254–3258. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Flanagan JG, Chan DC, Leder P. Transmembrane form of the kit ligand growth factor is determined by alternative splicing and is missing in the Sld mutant. Cell. 1991 Mar 8;64(5):1025–1035. [PubMed]
  • Flaumenhaft R, Moscatelli D, Rifkin DB. Heparin and heparan sulfate increase the radius of diffusion and action of basic fibroblast growth factor. J Cell Biol. 1990 Oct;111(4):1651–1659. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Flaumenhaft R, Moscatelli D, Saksela O, Rifkin DB. Role of extracellular matrix in the action of basic fibroblast growth factor: matrix as a source of growth factor for long-term stimulation of plasminogen activator production and DNA synthesis. J Cell Physiol. 1989 Jul;140(1):75–81. [PubMed]
  • Fukunaga R, Seto Y, Mizushima S, Nagata S. Three different mRNAs encoding human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Nov;87(22):8702–8706. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gentry LE, Nash BW. The pro domain of pre-pro-transforming growth factor beta 1 when independently expressed is a functional binding protein for the mature growth factor. Biochemistry. 1990 Jul 24;29(29):6851–6857. [PubMed]
  • Glick AB, Flanders KC, Danielpour D, Yuspa SH, Sporn MB. Retinoic acid induces transforming growth factor-beta 2 in cultured keratinocytes and mouse epidermis. Cell Regul. 1989 Nov;1(1):87–97. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goodwin RG, Friend D, Ziegler SF, Jerzy R, Falk BA, Gimpel S, Cosman D, Dower SK, March CJ, Namen AE, et al. Cloning of the human and murine interleukin-7 receptors: demonstration of a soluble form and homology to a new receptor superfamily. Cell. 1990 Mar 23;60(6):941–951. [PubMed]
  • Gordon MY, Riley GP, Watt SM, Greaves MF. Compartmentalization of a haematopoietic growth factor (GM-CSF) by glycosaminoglycans in the bone marrow microenvironment. Nature. 326(6111):403–405. [PubMed]
  • Gospodarowicz D, Cheng J. Heparin protects basic and acidic FGF from inactivation. J Cell Physiol. 1986 Sep;128(3):475–484. [PubMed]
  • Gray A, Dull TJ, Ullrich A. Nucleotide sequence of epidermal growth factor cDNA predicts a 128,000-molecular weight protein precursor. Nature. 1983 Jun 23;303(5919):722–725. [PubMed]
  • Gray PW, Barrett K, Chantry D, Turner M, Feldmann M. Cloning of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor cDNA and expression of recombinant soluble TNF-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Oct;87(19):7380–7384. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hauschka PV, Chen TL, Mavrakos AE. Polypeptide growth factors in bone matrix. Ciba Found Symp. 1988;136:207–225. [PubMed]
  • Higashiyama S, Abraham JA, Miller J, Fiddes JC, Klagsbrun M. A heparin-binding growth factor secreted by macrophage-like cells that is related to EGF. Science. 1991 Feb 22;251(4996):936–939. [PubMed]
  • Hintz RL. Role of growth-hormone and insulin-like growth-factor-binding proteins. Horm Res. 1990;33(2-4):105–110. [PubMed]
  • Huang JS, Huang SS, Deuel TF. Specific covalent binding of platelet-derived growth factor to human plasma alpha 2-macroglobulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jan;81(2):342–346. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ito F, Ito S, Shimizu N. Transmembrane delivery of polypeptide growth factors bypassing the intrinsic cell surface receptors: synthesis and biological activity of a conjugate of epidermal growth factor with alpha 2-macroglobulin. Cell Struct Funct. 1984 Jun;9(2):105–115. [PubMed]
  • Johnson DE, Lee PL, Lu J, Williams LT. Diverse forms of a receptor for acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Sep;10(9):4728–4736. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jullien P, Berg TM, Lawrence DA. Acidic cellular environments: activation of latent TGF-beta and sensitization of cellular responses to TGF-beta and EGF. Int J Cancer. 1989 May 15;43(5):886–891. [PubMed]
  • Kanzaki T, Olofsson A, Morén A, Wernstedt C, Hellman U, Miyazono K, Claesson-Welsh L, Heldin CH. TGF-beta 1 binding protein: a component of the large latent complex of TGF-beta 1 with multiple repeat sequences. Cell. 1990 Jun 15;61(6):1051–1061. [PubMed]
  • Kaufmann U, Zapf J, Torretti B, Froesch ER. Demonstration of a specific serum carrier protein of nonsuppressible insulin-like activity in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1977 Jan;44(1):160–166. [PubMed]
  • Kimura K, Matsubara H, Sogoh S, Kita Y, Sakata T, Nishitani Y, Watanabe S, Hamaoka T, Fujiwara H. Role of glycosaminoglycans in the regulation of T cell proliferation induced by thymic stroma-derived T cell growth factor. J Immunol. 1991 Apr 15;146(8):2618–2624. [PubMed]
  • Knabbe C, Lippman ME, Wakefield LM, Flanders KC, Kasid A, Derynck R, Dickson RB. Evidence that transforming growth factor-beta is a hormonally regulated negative growth factor in human breast cancer cells. Cell. 1987 Feb 13;48(3):417–428. [PubMed]
  • Knauer DJ, Smith GL. Inhibition of biological activity of multiplication-stimulating activity by binding to its carrier protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Dec;77(12):7252–7256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LaMarre J, Hayes MA, Wollenberg GK, Hussaini I, Hall SW, Gonias SL. An alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor-dependent mechanism for the plasma clearance of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in mice. J Clin Invest. 1991 Jan;87(1):39–44. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LaRochelle WJ, May-Siroff M, Robbins KC, Aaronson SA. A novel mechanism regulating growth factor association with the cell surface: identification of a PDGF retention domain. Genes Dev. 1991 Jul;5(7):1191–1199. [PubMed]
  • Lawrence DA, Pircher R, Jullien P. Conversion of a high molecular weight latent beta-TGF from chicken embryo fibroblasts into a low molecular weight active beta-TGF under acidic conditions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1985 Dec 31;133(3):1026–1034. [PubMed]
  • Lee DC, Rose TM, Webb NR, Todaro GJ. Cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA for rat transforming growth factor-alpha. Nature. 1985 Feb 7;313(6002):489–491. [PubMed]
  • Leung DW, Cachianes G, Kuang WJ, Goeddel DV, Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor is a secreted angiogenic mitogen. Science. 1989 Dec 8;246(4935):1306–1309. [PubMed]
  • Lyons RM, Gentry LE, Purchio AF, Moses HL. Mechanism of activation of latent recombinant transforming growth factor beta 1 by plasmin. J Cell Biol. 1990 Apr;110(4):1361–1367. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lyons RM, Keski-Oja J, Moses HL. Proteolytic activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta from fibroblast-conditioned medium. J Cell Biol. 1988 May;106(5):1659–1665. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marcon L, Fritz ME, Kurman CC, Jensen JC, Nelson DL. Soluble Tac peptide is present in the urine of normal individuals and at elevated levels in patients with adult T cell leukaemia (ATL). Clin Exp Immunol. 1988 Jul;73(1):29–33. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Massagué J. Transforming growth factor-alpha. A model for membrane-anchored growth factors. J Biol Chem. 1990 Dec 15;265(35):21393–21396. [PubMed]
  • Matsuda T, Hirano T, Nagasawa S, Kishimoto T. Identification of alpha 2-macroglobulin as a carrier protein for IL-6. J Immunol. 1989 Jan 1;142(1):148–152. [PubMed]
  • McCaffrey TA, Falcone DJ, Brayton CF, Agarwal LA, Welt FG, Weksler BB. Transforming growth factor-beta activity is potentiated by heparin via dissociation of the transforming growth factor-beta/alpha 2-macroglobulin inactive complex. J Cell Biol. 1989 Jul;109(1):441–448. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Miyazono K, Heldin CH. Role for carbohydrate structures in TGF-beta 1 latency. Nature. 1989 Mar 9;338(6211):158–160. [PubMed]
  • Moscatelli D. High and low affinity binding sites for basic fibroblast growth factor on cultured cells: absence of a role for low affinity binding in the stimulation of plasminogen activator production by bovine capillary endothelial cells. J Cell Physiol. 1987 Apr;131(1):123–130. [PubMed]
  • Mosley B, Beckmann MP, March CJ, Idzerda RL, Gimpel SD, VandenBos T, Friend D, Alpert A, Anderson D, Jackson J, et al. The murine interleukin-4 receptor: molecular cloning and characterization of secreted and membrane bound forms. Cell. 1989 Oct 20;59(2):335–348. [PubMed]
  • Mroczkowski B, Reich M, Chen K, Bell GI, Cohen S. Recombinant human epidermal growth factor precursor is a glycosylated membrane protein with biological activity. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Jul;9(7):2771–2778. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mueller SG, Paterson AJ, Kudlow JE. Transforming growth factor alpha in arterioles: cell surface processing of its precursor by elastases. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Sep;10(9):4596–4602. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nathan C, Sporn M. Cytokines in context. J Cell Biol. 1991 Jun;113(5):981–986. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Novick D, Engelmann H, Wallach D, Rubinstein M. Soluble cytokine receptors are present in normal human urine. J Exp Med. 1989 Oct 1;170(4):1409–1414. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • O'Connor-McCourt MD, Wakefield LM. Latent transforming growth factor-beta in serum. A specific complex with alpha 2-macroglobulin. J Biol Chem. 1987 Oct 15;262(29):14090–14099. [PubMed]
  • Okuda S, Languino LR, Ruoslahti E, Border WA. Elevated expression of transforming growth factor-beta and proteoglycan production in experimental glomerulonephritis. Possible role in expansion of the mesangial extracellular matrix. J Clin Invest. 1990 Aug;86(2):453–462. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Oreffo RO, Mundy GR, Seyedin SM, Bonewald LF. Activation of the bone-derived latent TGF beta complex by isolated osteoclasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Feb 15;158(3):817–823. [PubMed]
  • Ortega S, Schaeffer MT, Soderman D, DiSalvo J, Linemeyer DL, Gimenez-Gallego G, Thomas KA. Conversion of cysteine to serine residues alters the activity, stability, and heparin dependence of acidic fibroblast growth factor. J Biol Chem. 1991 Mar 25;266(9):5842–5846. [PubMed]
  • Pandiella A, Massagué J. Cleavage of the membrane precursor for transforming growth factor alpha is a regulated process. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Mar 1;88(5):1726–1730. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Papkoff J, Schryver B. Secreted int-1 protein is associated with the cell surface. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Jun;10(6):2723–2730. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Perez C, Albert I, DeFay K, Zachariades N, Gooding L, Kriegler M. A nonsecretable cell surface mutant of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) kills by cell-to-cell contact. Cell. 1990 Oct 19;63(2):251–258. [PubMed]
  • Pfeilschifter J, Bonewald L, Mundy GR. Characterization of the latent transforming growth factor beta complex in bone. J Bone Miner Res. 1990 Jan;5(1):49–58. [PubMed]
  • Piao YF, Ichijo H, Miyagawa K, Ohashi H, Takaku F, Miyazono K. Latent form of transforming growth factor-beta 1 acts as a potent growth inhibitor on a human erythroleukemia cell line. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 Feb 28;167(1):27–32. [PubMed]
  • Plowman GD, Green JM, McDonald VL, Neubauer MG, Disteche CM, Todaro GJ, Shoyab M. The amphiregulin gene encodes a novel epidermal growth factor-related protein with tumor-inhibitory activity. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 May;10(5):1969–1981. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Raines EW, Ross R. Compartmentalization of PDGF on extracellular binding sites dependent on exon-6-encoded sequences. J Cell Biol. 1992 Jan;116(2):533–543. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rapraeger AC, Krufka A, Olwin BB. Requirement of heparan sulfate for bFGF-mediated fibroblast growth and myoblast differentiation. Science. 1991 Jun 21;252(5013):1705–1708. [PubMed]
  • Rathjen PD, Toth S, Willis A, Heath JK, Smith AG. Differentiation inhibiting activity is produced in matrix-associated and diffusible forms that are generated by alternate promoter usage. Cell. 1990 Sep 21;62(6):1105–1114. [PubMed]
  • Robbins KC, Leal F, Pierce JH, Aaronson SA. The v-sis/PDGF-2 transforming gene product localizes to cell membranes but is not a secretory protein. EMBO J. 1985 Jul;4(7):1783–1792. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roberts R, Gallagher J, Spooncer E, Allen TD, Bloomfield F, Dexter TM. Heparan sulphate bound growth factors: a mechanism for stromal cell mediated haemopoiesis. Nature. 1988 Mar 24;332(6162):376–378. [PubMed]
  • Ronne H, Anundi H, Rask L, Peterson PA. Nerve growth factor binds to serum alpha-2-macroglobulin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1979 Mar 15;87(1):330–336. [PubMed]
  • Rosengart TK, Johnson WV, Friesel R, Clark R, Maciag T. Heparin protects heparin-binding growth factor-I from proteolytic inactivation in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Apr 15;152(1):432–440. [PubMed]
  • Ruoslahti E, Pierschbacher MD. New perspectives in cell adhesion: RGD and integrins. Science. 1987 Oct 23;238(4826):491–497. [PubMed]
  • Ruoslahti E, Yamaguchi Y. Proteoglycans as modulators of growth factor activities. Cell. 1991 Mar 8;64(5):867–869. [PubMed]
  • Saksela O, Moscatelli D, Sommer A, Rifkin DB. Endothelial cell-derived heparan sulfate binds basic fibroblast growth factor and protects it from proteolytic degradation. J Cell Biol. 1988 Aug;107(2):743–751. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saksela O, Rifkin DB. Release of basic fibroblast growth factor-heparan sulfate complexes from endothelial cells by plasminogen activator-mediated proteolytic activity. J Cell Biol. 1990 Mar;110(3):767–775. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sasaki M, Yamada Y. The laminin B2 chain has a multidomain structure homologous to the B1 chain. J Biol Chem. 1987 Dec 15;262(35):17111–17117. [PubMed]
  • Sato Y, Rifkin DB. Inhibition of endothelial cell movement by pericytes and smooth muscle cells: activation of a latent transforming growth factor-beta 1-like molecule by plasmin during co-culture. J Cell Biol. 1989 Jul;109(1):309–315. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sato Y, Tsuboi R, Lyons R, Moses H, Rifkin DB. Characterization of the activation of latent TGF-beta by co-cultures of endothelial cells and pericytes or smooth muscle cells: a self-regulating system. J Cell Biol. 1990 Aug;111(2):757–763. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schall TJ, Lewis M, Koller KJ, Lee A, Rice GC, Wong GH, Gatanaga T, Granger GA, Lentz R, Raab H, et al. Molecular cloning and expression of a receptor for human tumor necrosis factor. Cell. 1990 Apr 20;61(2):361–370. [PubMed]
  • Shi DL, Savona C, Gagnon J, Cochet C, Chambaz EM, Feige JJ. Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates the expression of alpha 2-macroglobulin by cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. J Biol Chem. 1990 Feb 15;265(5):2881–2887. [PubMed]
  • Sommer A, Rifkin DB. Interaction of heparin with human basic fibroblast growth factor: protection of the angiogenic protein from proteolytic degradation by a glycosaminoglycan. J Cell Physiol. 1989 Jan;138(1):215–220. [PubMed]
  • Sporn MB, Todaro GJ. Autocrine secretion and malignant transformation of cells. N Engl J Med. 1980 Oct 9;303(15):878–880. [PubMed]
  • Stein J, Borzillo GV, Rettenmier CW. Direct stimulation of cells expressing receptors for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) by a plasma membrane-bound precursor of human CSF-1. Blood. 1990 Oct 1;76(7):1308–1314. [PubMed]
  • Stroobant P, Rice AP, Gullick WJ, Cheng DJ, Kerr IM, Waterfield MD. Purification and characterization of vaccinia virus growth factor. Cell. 1985 Aug;42(1):383–393. [PubMed]
  • Symons JA, Duff GW. A soluble form of the interleukin-1 receptor produced by a human B cell line. FEBS Lett. 1990 Oct 15;272(1-2):133–136. [PubMed]
  • Tashiro K, Hagiya M, Nishizawa T, Seki T, Shimonishi M, Shimizu S, Nakamura T. Deduced primary structure of rat hepatocyte growth factor and expression of the mRNA in rat tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Apr;87(8):3200–3204. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thornton SC, Mueller SN, Levine EM. Human endothelial cells: use of heparin in cloning and long-term serial cultivation. Science. 1983 Nov 11;222(4624):623–625. [PubMed]
  • Twardzik DR, Mikovits JA, Ranchalis JE, Purchio AF, Ellingsworth L, Ruscetti FW. Gamma-interferon-induced activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta by human monocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;593:276–284. [PubMed]
  • van Ooyen A, Nusse R. Structure and nucleotide sequence of the putative mammary oncogene int-1; proviral insertions leave the protein-encoding domain intact. Cell. 1984 Nov;39(1):233–240. [PubMed]
  • Wakefield LM, Winokur TS, Hollands RS, Christopherson K, Levinson AD, Sporn MB. Recombinant latent transforming growth factor beta 1 has a longer plasma half-life in rats than active transforming growth factor beta 1, and a different tissue distribution. J Clin Invest. 1990 Dec;86(6):1976–1984. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wallick SC, Figari IS, Morris RE, Levinson AD, Palladino MA. Immunoregulatory role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in development of killer cells: comparison of active and latent TGF-beta 1. J Exp Med. 1990 Dec 1;172(6):1777–1784. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weber W, Gill GN, Spiess J. Production of an epidermal growth factor receptor-related protein. Science. 1984 Apr 20;224(4646):294–297. [PubMed]
  • Wollenberg GK, LaMarre J, Rosendal S, Gonias SL, Hayes MA. Binding of tumor necrosis factor alpha to activated forms of human plasma alpha 2 macroglobulin. Am J Pathol. 1991 Feb;138(2):265–272. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wong ST, Winchell LF, McCune BK, Earp HS, Teixidó J, Massagué J, Herman B, Lee DC. The TGF-alpha precursor expressed on the cell surface binds to the EGF receptor on adjacent cells, leading to signal transduction. Cell. 1989 Feb 10;56(3):495–506. [PubMed]
  • Yamaguchi Y, Mann DM, Ruoslahti E. Negative regulation of transforming growth factor-beta by the proteoglycan decorin. Nature. 1990 Jul 19;346(6281):281–284. [PubMed]
  • Yayon A, Klagsbrun M, Esko JD, Leder P, Ornitz DM. Cell surface, heparin-like molecules are required for binding of basic fibroblast growth factor to its high affinity receptor. Cell. 1991 Feb 22;64(4):841–848. [PubMed]
  • Zapf J, Hauri C, Waldvogel M, Froesch ER. Acute metabolic effects and half-lives of intravenously administered insulinlike growth factors I and II in normal and hypophysectomized rats. J Clin Invest. 1986 Jun;77(6):1768–1775. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zupan AA, Osborne PA, Smith CE, Siegel NR, Leimgruber RM, Johnson EM., Jr Identification, purification, and characterization of truncated forms of the human nerve growth factor receptor. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jul 15;264(20):11714–11720. [PubMed]

Articles from Molecular Biology of the Cell are provided here courtesy of American Society for Cell Biology

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...