• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jcmPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJCM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Clin Microbiol. Oct 1990; 28(10): 2210–2214.
PMCID: PMC268149

Characterization of flagella of Clostridium difficile and their role in serogrouping reactions.

Abstract

Slide agglutination with rabbit antisera allows the differentiation of 10 serogroups of Clostridium difficile, namely, A, B, C, D, F, G, H, I, K, and X. Each serogroup displays a specific protein profile in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, except for A, which displays 12 different protein profiles (A1 to A12). In the present work, electron microscopy revealed the presence of uniformly distributed flagella in the reference strains of serogroups G and K and in all strains representative of the 12 subgroups within serogroup purified by differential centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of these preparations revealed one distinct band with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 39 kilodaltons. Antiserum was prepared by immunizing a rabbit with the serogroup A flagellin, which had been eluted from the gel. In immunoblotting, this antiserum cross-reacted with the flagellin of the other strains. When the cells were deflagellated by a short sonication, the cross-reactions observed by slide agglutination with A, G, and K antisera were suppressed. Similarly, shearing of flagella allowed specific slide agglutination of the 12 subgroups of serogroup A.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bacon AE, Fekety R, Schaberg DR, Faix RG. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile colonization in newborns: results using a bacteriophage and bacteriocin typing system. J Infect Dis. 1988 Aug;158(2):349–354. [PubMed]
  • Clabots CR, Peterson LR, Gerding DN. Characterization of a nosocomial Clostridium difficile outbreak by using plasmid profile typing and clindamycin susceptibility testing. J Infect Dis. 1988 Oct;158(4):731–736. [PubMed]
  • Degl'Innocenti R, De Santis M, Berdondini I, Dei R. Outbreak of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in an orthopaedic unit: evidence by phage-typing for cross-infection. J Hosp Infect. 1989 Apr;13(3):309–314. [PubMed]
  • Delmée M, Avesani V, Ernest I, Surleraux M. Detection of specific antigens for ten serogroups of Clostridium difficile. Mol Cell Probes. 1990 Feb;4(1):1–10. [PubMed]
  • Delmee M, Homel M, Wauters G. Serogrouping of Clostridium difficile strains by slide agglutination. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Mar;21(3):323–327. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Delmée M, Laroche Y, Avesani V, Cornelis G. Comparison of serogrouping and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for typing Clostridium difficile. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Dec;24(6):991–994. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Delmée M, Vandercam B, Avesani V, Michaux JL. Epidemiology and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections in a leukemia unit. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Dec;6(6):623–627. [PubMed]
  • Heard SR, O'Farrell S, Holland D, Crook S, Barnett MJ, Tabaqchali S. The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile with use of a typing scheme: nosocomial acquisition and cross-infection among immunocompromised patients. J Infect Dis. 1986 Jan;153(1):159–162. [PubMed]
  • Heard SR, Rasburn B, Matthews RC, Tabaqchali S. Immunoblotting to demonstrate antigenic and immunogenic differences among nine standard strains of Clostridium difficile. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Sep;24(3):384–387. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kelson JS, Adler B, Chapman AJ, Faine S. Identification of leptospiral flagellar antigens by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. J Med Microbiol. 1988 May;26(1):47–53. [PubMed]
  • Kodaka H, Armfield AY, Lombard GL, Dowell VR., Jr Practical procedure for demonstrating bacterial flagella. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Nov;16(5):948–952. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuijper EJ, Oudbier JH, Stuifbergen WN, Jansz A, Zanen HC. Application of whole-cell DNA restriction endonuclease profiles to the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-induced diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Apr;25(4):751–753. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McFarland LV, Mulligan ME, Kwok RY, Stamm WE. Nosocomial acquisition of Clostridium difficile infection. N Engl J Med. 1989 Jan 26;320(4):204–210. [PubMed]
  • Mulligan ME, Halebian S, Kwok RY, Cheng WC, Finegold SM, Anselmo CR, Gerding DN, Peterson LR. Bacterial agglutination and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for typing Clostridium difficile. J Infect Dis. 1986 Feb;153(2):267–271. [PubMed]
  • Mulligan ME, Peterson LR, Kwok RY, Clabots CR, Gerding DN. Immunoblots and plasmid fingerprints compared with serotyping and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for typing Clostridium difficile. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Jan;26(1):41–46. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pantosti A, Cerquetti M, Gianfrilli PM. Electrophoretic characterization of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from antibiotic-associated colitis and other conditions. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Mar;26(3):540–543. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peel M, Donachie W, Shaw A. Temperature-dependent expression of flagella of Listeria monocytogenes studied by electron microscopy, SDS-PAGE and western blotting. J Gen Microbiol. 1988 Aug;134(8):2171–2178. [PubMed]
  • Peerbooms PG, Kuijt P, Maclaren DM. Application of chromosomal restriction endonuclease digest analysis for use as typing method for Clostridium difficile. J Clin Pathol. 1987 Jul;40(7):771–776. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Poxton IR, Aronsson B, Möllby R, Nord CE, Collee JG. Immunochemical fingerprinting of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from an outbreak of antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhoea. J Med Microbiol. 1984 Jun;17(3):317–324. [PubMed]
  • Steinberg JP, Beckerdite ME, Westenfelder GO. Plasmid profiles of Clostridium difficile isolates from patients with antibiotic-associated colitis in two community hospitals. J Infect Dis. 1987 Dec;156(6):1036–1038. [PubMed]
  • Tabaqchali S, Holland D, O'Farrell S, Silman R. Typing scheme for Clostridium difficile: its application in clinical and epidemiological studies. Lancet. 1984 Apr 28;1(8383):935–938. [PubMed]
  • Tanaka M, Hirayama N, Tamura Y. Production, characterization, and protective effect of monoclonal antibodies to Clostridium chauvoei flagella. Infect Immun. 1987 Aug;55(8):1779–1783. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Testore GP, Pantosti A, Cerquetti M, Babudieri S, Panichi G, Gianfrilli PM. Evidence for cross-infection in an outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in a surgical unit. J Med Microbiol. 1988 Jun;26(2):125–128. [PubMed]
  • Toma S, Lesiak G, Magus M, Lo HL, Delmée M. Serotyping of Clostridium difficile. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Mar;26(3):426–428. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Towbin H, Staehelin T, Gordon J. Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Sep;76(9):4350–4354. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wren BW, Tabaqchali S. Restriction endonuclease DNA analysis of Clostridium difficile. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Dec;25(12):2402–2404. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Clinical Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...