• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jcmPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJCM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Clin Microbiol. Sep 1990; 28(9): 2035–2039.
PMCID: PMC268099

Reservoir of four organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis suggests lack of sexual transmission.

Abstract

This study consisted of a search for the possible reservoir and mode of spread of the four bacterial vaginosis-associated organisms Mobiluncus mulieris, Mobiluncus curtisii, Mycoplasma hominis, and Gardnerella vaginalis. Their occurrence in rectal, oral, and pharyngeal specimens from women with and without bacterial vaginosis, their male sexual consorts, four homosexual men, and children (altogether, 374 people) was studied. Genital samples were also obtained from all adults. All four organisms were isolated from the rectums of 45 to 62% of women with bacterial vaginosis and 10 to 14% of women without bacterial vaginosis. They also occurred in the rectums of males and children. M. hominis was recovered from the oropharynxes of 12 adults whose sexual consorts had genital occurrences of the organism. Mobiluncus spp. occurred only in the vaginas of women with bacterial vaginosis (97%). The organisms were only infrequently recovered from genital samples from 135 males. Organisms were recovered from the urethras and/or coronal sulci of 10 of 44 male consorts of women with bacterial vaginosis. However, after 2 weeks of condom use during sexual intercourse, only M. hominis remained in the urethra of one man. These findings suggest that the organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis are not spread sexually but colonize the vagina from an endogenous intestinal tract site. The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to bacterial vaginosis in a subpopulation of all women are still unknown.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (960K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Blackwell AL, Fox AR, Phillips I, Barlow D. Anaerobic vaginosis (non-specific vaginitis): clinical, microbiological, and therapeutic findings. Lancet. 1983 Dec 17;2(8364):1379–1382. [PubMed]
  • Dawson SG, Ison CA, Csonka G, Easmon CS. Male carriage of Gardnerella vaginalis. Br J Vener Dis. 1982 Aug;58(4):243–245. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eschenbach DA, Hillier S, Critchlow C, Stevens C, DeRouen T, Holmes KK. Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of bacterial vaginosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Apr;158(4):819–828. [PubMed]
  • Furr PM, Taylor-Robinson D. Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the urines of a non-venereal disease population. Epidemiol Infect. 1987 Jun;98(3):353–359. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gardner HL. Haemophilus vaginalis vaginitis after twenty-five years. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Jun 1;137(3):385–391. [PubMed]
  • Gibbs RS, Cassell GH, Davis JK, St Clair PJ. Further studies on genital mycoplasmas in intra-amniotic infection: blood cultures and serologic response. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1986 Apr;154(4):717–726. [PubMed]
  • Glupczynski Y, Labbé M, Crokaert F, Pepersack F, Van der Auwera P, Yourassowsky E. Isolation of Mobiluncus in four cases of extragenital infections in adult women. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Oct;3(5):433–435. [PubMed]
  • Hallén A, Påhlson C, Forsum U. Rectal occurrence of Mobiluncus species. Genitourin Med. 1988 Aug;64(4):273–275. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Holst E, Hofmann H, Mårdh PA. Anaerobic curved rods in genital samples of women. Performance of different selective media, comparison of detection by microscopy and culture studies, and recovery from different sampling sites. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1984;86:117–124. [PubMed]
  • Holst E, Mårdh PA, Thelin I. Recovery of anaerobic curved rods and Gardnerella vaginalis from the urethra of men, including male heterosexual consorts of female carriers. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1984;86:173–177. [PubMed]
  • Holst E, Skarin A, Mårdh PA. Characteristics of anaerobic comma-shaped bacteria recovered from the female genital tract. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Oct;1(5):310–316. [PubMed]
  • Holst E, Wathne B, Hovelius B, Mårdh PA. Bacterial vaginosis: microbiological and clinical findings. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Oct;6(5):536–541. [PubMed]
  • Ison CA, Easmon CS. Carriage of Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobes in semen. Genitourin Med. 1985 Apr;61(2):120–122. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kinghorn GR, Jones BM, Chowdhury FH, Geary I. Balanoposthitis associated with Gardnerella vaginalis infection in men. Br J Vener Dis. 1982 Apr;58(2):127–129. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Klein JO, Buckland D, Finland M. Colonization of newborn infants by mycoplasmas. N Engl J Med. 1969 May 8;280(19):1025–1030. [PubMed]
  • Mårdh PA, Weström L. Tubal and cervical cultures in acute salpingitis with special reference to Mycoplasma hominis and T-strain mycoplasmas. Br J Vener Dis. 1970 Jun;46(3):179–186. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McFadyen IR, Eykyn SJ. Suprapubic aspiration of urine in pregnancy. Lancet. 1968 May 25;1(7552):1112–1114. [PubMed]
  • Moi H, Erkkola R, Jerve F, Nelleman G, Bymose B, Alaksen K, Tornqvist E. Should male consorts of women with bacterial vaginosis be treated? Genitourin Med. 1989 Aug;65(4):263–268. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pheifer TA, Forsyth PS, Durfee MA, Pollock HM, Holmes KK. Nonspecific vaginitis: role of Haemophilus vaginalis and treatment with metronidazole. N Engl J Med. 1978 Jun 29;298(26):1429–1434. [PubMed]
  • Reimer LG, Reller LB. Gardnerella vaginalis bacteremia: a review of thirty cases. Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Aug;64(2):170–172. [PubMed]
  • Shaw DR, Lim I. Extragenital Mycoplasma hominis infection: a report of two cases. Med J Aust. 1988 Feb 1;148(3):144–145. [PubMed]
  • Spiegel CA, Davick P, Totten PA, Chen KC, Eschenbach DA, Amsel R, Holmes KK. Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in the etiology of bacterial (nonspecific) vaginosis. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;40:41–46. [PubMed]
  • Sturm AW, de Leeuw JH, de Pree NT. Post-operative wound infection with Gardnerella vaginalis. J Infect. 1983 Nov;7(3):264–266. [PubMed]
  • Tarr PI, Lee YH, Alpert S, Schumacher JR, Zinner SH, McCormack WM. Comparison of methods for the isolation of genital mycoplasmas from men. J Infect Dis. 1976 Apr;133(4):419–423. [PubMed]
  • Thomason JL, Schreckenberger PC, Spellacy WN, Riff LJ, LeBeau LJ. Clinical and microbiological characterization of patients with nonspecific vaginosis associated with motile, curved anaerobic rods. J Infect Dis. 1984 May;149(5):801–809. [PubMed]
  • Totten PA, Amsel R, Hale J, Piot P, Holmes KK. Selective differential human blood bilayer media for isolation of Gardnerella (Haemophilus) vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Jan;15(1):141–147. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vejtorp M, Bollerup AC, Vejtorp L, Fanøe E, Nathan E, Reiter A, Andersen ME, Strømsholt B, Schrøder SS. Bacterial vaginosis: a double-blind randomized trial of the effect of treatment of the sexual partner. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1988 Sep;95(9):920–926. [PubMed]
  • Watts DH, Eschenbach DA, Kenny GE. Early postpartum endometritis: the role of bacteria, genital mycoplasmas, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Obstet Gynecol. 1989 Jan;73(1):52–60. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Clinical Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...