• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jcmPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJCM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Clin Microbiol. Jul 1989; 27(7): 1594–1600.
PMCID: PMC267621

Xenorhabdus luminescens (DNA hybridization group 5) from human clinical specimens.


An unusual isolate from a human leg wound was identified as Xenorhabdus luminescens. This finding led to the discovery or isolation of four additional strains, two from blood and two from wounds. Three of the five strains were from patients in San Antonio, Tex. Three strains were studied by DNA-DNA hybridization (S1 nuclease-trichloroacetic acid method) and were 77 to 100% related to each other, 34% related to the type strain of X. luminescens, 35 to 40% related to three of Grimont's other DNA hybridization groups of X. luminescens, and 9% related to the type strain of Xenorhabdus nematophilus. The new group of five strains was designated X. luminescens DNA hybridization group 5. All five strains were very inactive biochemically and fermented only D-glucose and D-mannose. The key reactions for recognizing this new organism are yellow pigment production, negative test for nitrate reduction to nitrite, weak bioluminescence (10 to 15 min of dark adaptation is required to see the weak light produced), and a unique hemolytic reaction on sheep blood agar plates incubated at 25 degrees C. Two case histories of strains from wounds are given; these suggest that X. luminescens DNA hybridization group 5 may be a new bacterial agent that causes wound infections. The two cases of wound infection, along with the two blood isolates, suggest that the new organism is clinically significant.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Akhurst RJ, Boemare NE. A numerical taxonomic study of the genus Xenorhabdus (Enterobacteriaceae) and proposed elevation of the subspecies of X. nematophilus to species. J Gen Microbiol. 1988 Jul;134(7):1835–1845. [PubMed]
  • Akhurst RJ. Antibiotic activity of Xenorhabdus spp., bacteria symbiotically associated with insect pathogenic nematodes of the families Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae. J Gen Microbiol. 1982 Dec;128(12):3061–3065. [PubMed]
  • Farmer JJ, 3rd, Davis BR, Hickman-Brenner FW, McWhorter A, Huntley-Carter GP, Asbury MA, Riddle C, Wathen-Grady HG, Elias C, Fanning GR, et al. Biochemical identification of new species and biogroups of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Jan;21(1):46–76. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lysenko O, Weiser J. Bacteria associated with the nematode Neoplectana carpocapsae and the pathogenicity of this complex for Galleria mellonella larvae. J Invertebr Pathol. 1974 Nov;24(3):332–336. [PubMed]
  • Nealson KH, Hastings JW. Bacterial bioluminescence: its control and ecological significance. Microbiol Rev. 1979 Dec;43(4):496–518. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Poinar GO, Jr, Thomas GM. Significance of Achromobacter nematophilus Poinar and Thomas (Achromobacteraceae: Eubacteriales) in the development of the nematode, DD-136 (Neoaplectana sp. Steinernematidae). Parasitology. 1966 May;56(2):385–390. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Clinical Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...