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J Clin Microbiol. 1992 May; 30(5): 1148–1155.
PMCID: PMC265240

Enhanced shedding of cytomegalovirus in semen of human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive homosexual men.


Site-specific shedding of cytomegalovirus (CMV) was assessed in a longitudinal study of homosexual and bisexual men. At initial testing, CMV was cultured from the semen of 33% (19 of 58) of asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic men who were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the time of entry into the study, whereas it was cultured from the semen of 17% (10 of 58) of the men who were HIV seronegative. CMV was isolated much more frequently from semen than from urine or throat washing specimens, and it was rarely recovered from stool or blood, regardless of the subject's HIV serostatus. CMV was cultured from the semen of 31% (16 of 52) of the men relatively early after seroconversion to HIV (mean, 12.8 months). CMV was persistently isolated from the semen of a greater proportion of the HIV-seropositive men than from the semen of the HIV-seronegative men during a 4.5-year follow-up period (52 of 110 - [47%] and 15 of 58 [26%] men, respectively). There was an increased relative risk for shedding of CMV in semen in association with decreased CD4+ cell numbers and increased levels of serum immunoglobulin A. However, there was no association of CMV shedding with an increased risk for the development of AIDS.

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