• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of plntcellLink to Publisher's site
Plant Cell. 2004; 16 (Suppl): S170–S180.
Published online Mar 9, 2004. doi:  10.1105/tpc.019158
PMCID: PMC2643394

Genetic regulation of fruit development and ripening.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (191K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Aharoni Asaph, O'Connell Ann P. Gene expression analysis of strawberry achene and receptacle maturation using DNA microarrays. J Exp Bot. 2002 Oct;53(377):2073–2087. [PubMed]
  • Alba R, Cordonnier-Pratt MM, Pratt LH. Fruit-localized phytochromes regulate lycopene accumulation independently of ethylene production in tomato. Plant Physiol. 2000 May;123(1):363–370. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Alvarez-Buylla ER, Liljegren SJ, Pelaz S, Gold SE, Burgeff C, Ditta GS, Vergara-Silva F, Yanofsky MF. MADS-box gene evolution beyond flowers: expression in pollen, endosperm, guard cells, roots and trichomes. Plant J. 2000 Nov;24(4):457–466. [PubMed]
  • Ampomah-Dwamena Charles, Morris Bret A, Sutherland Paul, Veit Bruce, Yao Jia-Long. Down-regulation of TM29, a tomato SEPALLATA homolog, causes parthenocarpic fruit development and floral reversion. Plant Physiol. 2002 Oct;130(2):605–617. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Barry CS, Blume B, Bouzayen M, Cooper W, Hamilton AJ, Grierson D. Differential expression of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase gene family of tomato. Plant J. 1996 Apr;9(4):525–535. [PubMed]
  • Barry CS, Llop-Tous MI, Grierson D. The regulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene expression during the transition from system-1 to system-2 ethylene synthesis in tomato. Plant Physiol. 2000 Jul;123(3):979–986. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bleecker AB, Kende H. Ethylene: a gaseous signal molecule in plants. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2000;16:1–18. [PubMed]
  • Bowman JL, Smyth DR, Meyerowitz EM. Genes directing flower development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 1989 Jan;1(1):37–52. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boylan MT, Quail PH. Oat Phytochrome Is Biologically Active in Transgenic Tomatoes. Plant Cell. 1989 Aug;1(8):765–773. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bramley Peter M. Regulation of carotenoid formation during tomato fruit ripening and development. J Exp Bot. 2002 Oct;53(377):2107–2113. [PubMed]
  • Brazma A, Hingamp P, Quackenbush J, Sherlock G, Spellman P, Stoeckert C, Aach J, Ansorge W, Ball CA, Causton HC, et al. Minimum information about a microarray experiment (MIAME)-toward standards for microarray data. Nat Genet. 2001 Dec;29(4):365–371. [PubMed]
  • Brummell DA, Harpster MH. Cell wall metabolism in fruit softening and quality and its manipulation in transgenic plants. Plant Mol Biol. 2001 Sep;47(1-2):311–340. [PubMed]
  • Brummell DA, Hall BD, Bennett AB. Antisense suppression of tomato endo-1,4-beta-glucanase Cel2 mRNA accumulation increases the force required to break fruit abscission zones but does not affect fruit softening. Plant Mol Biol. 1999 Jul;40(4):615–622. [PubMed]
  • Brummell DA, Harpster MH, Civello PM, Palys JM, Bennett AB, Dunsmuir P. Modification of expansin protein abundance in tomato fruit alters softening and cell wall polymer metabolism during ripening. Plant Cell. 1999 Nov;11(11):2203–2216. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chao Q, Rothenberg M, Solano R, Roman G, Terzaghi W, Ecker JR. Activation of the ethylene gas response pathway in Arabidopsis by the nuclear protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 and related proteins. Cell. 1997 Jun 27;89(7):1133–1144. [PubMed]
  • Clark KL, Larsen PB, Wang X, Chang C. Association of the Arabidopsis CTR1 Raf-like kinase with the ETR1 and ERS ethylene receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Apr 28;95(9):5401–5406. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Deikman J, Kline R, Fischer RL. Organization of Ripening and Ethylene Regulatory Regions in a Fruit-Specific Promoter from Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Plant Physiol. 1992 Dec;100(4):2013–2017. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dellapenna D, Lincoln JE, Fischer RL, Bennett AB. Transcriptional Analysis of Polygalacturonase and Other Ripening Associated Genes in Rutgers, rin, nor, and Nr Tomato Fruit. Plant Physiol. 1989 Aug;90(4):1372–1377. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Drews GN, Bowman JL, Meyerowitz EM. Negative regulation of the Arabidopsis homeotic gene AGAMOUS by the APETALA2 product. Cell. 1991 Jun 14;65(6):991–1002. [PubMed]
  • Ewing RM, Ben Kahla A, Poirot O, Lopez F, Audic S, Claverie JM. Large-scale statistical analyses of rice ESTs reveal correlated patterns of gene expression. Genome Res. 1999 Oct;9(10):950–959. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Favaro Rebecca, Pinyopich Anusak, Battaglia Raffaella, Kooiker Maarten, Borghi Lorenzo, Ditta Gary, Yanofsky Martin F, Kater Martin M, Colombo Lucia. MADS-box protein complexes control carpel and ovule development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2003 Nov;15(11):2603–2611. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ferrándiz C, Liljegren SJ, Yanofsky MF. Negative regulation of the SHATTERPROOF genes by FRUITFULL during Arabidopsis fruit development. Science. 2000 Jul 21;289(5478):436–438. [PubMed]
  • Fray RG, Grierson D. Identification and genetic analysis of normal and mutant phytoene synthase genes of tomato by sequencing, complementation and co-suppression. Plant Mol Biol. 1993 Jul;22(4):589–602. [PubMed]
  • Gao Zhiyong, Chen Yi-Feng, Randlett Melynda D, Zhao Xue-Chu, Findell Jennifer L, Kieber Joseph J, Schaller G Eric. Localization of the Raf-like kinase CTR1 to the endoplasmic reticulum of Arabidopsis through participation in ethylene receptor signaling complexes. J Biol Chem. 2003 Sep 5;278(36):34725–34732. [PubMed]
  • Giovannoni Jim. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF FRUIT MATURATION AND RIPENING. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol. 2001 Jun;52(NaN):725–749. [PubMed]
  • Giovannoni JJ, DellaPenna D, Bennett AB, Fischer RL. Expression of a chimeric polygalacturonase gene in transgenic rin (ripening inhibitor) tomato fruit results in polyuronide degradation but not fruit softening. Plant Cell. 1989 Jan;1(1):53–63. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Giovannoni JJ, Noensie EN, Ruezinsky DM, Lu X, Tracy SL, Ganal MW, Martin GB, Pillen K, Alpert K, Tanksley SD. Molecular genetic analysis of the ripening-inhibitor and non-ripening loci of tomato: a first step in genetic map-based cloning of fruit ripening genes. Mol Gen Genet. 1995 Jul 28;248(2):195–206. [PubMed]
  • Hua J, Chang C, Sun Q, Meyerowitz EM. Ethylene insensitivity conferred by Arabidopsis ERS gene. Science. 1995 Sep 22;269(5231):1712–1714. [PubMed]
  • Hua J, Meyerowitz EM. Ethylene responses are negatively regulated by a receptor gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cell. 1998 Jul 24;94(2):261–271. [PubMed]
  • Isaacson Tal, Ronen Gil, Zamir Dani, Hirschberg Joseph. Cloning of tangerine from tomato reveals a carotenoid isomerase essential for the production of beta-carotene and xanthophylls in plants. Plant Cell. 2002 Feb;14(2):333–342. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kieber JJ, Rothenberg M, Roman G, Feldmann KA, Ecker JR. CTR1, a negative regulator of the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis, encodes a member of the raf family of protein kinases. Cell. 1993 Feb 12;72(3):427–441. [PubMed]
  • Kneissl ML, Deikman J. The Tomato E8 Gene Influences Ethylene Biosynthesis in Fruit but Not in Flowers. Plant Physiol. 1996 Oct;112(2):537–547. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lanahan MB, Yen HC, Giovannoni JJ, Klee HJ. The never ripe mutation blocks ethylene perception in tomato. Plant Cell. 1994 Apr;6(4):521–530. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lashbrook CC, Tieman DM, Klee HJ. Differential regulation of the tomato ETR gene family throughout plant development. Plant J. 1998 Jul;15(2):243–252. [PubMed]
  • Leclercq Julie, Adams-Phillips Lori C, Zegzouti Hicham, Jones Brian, Latché Alain, Giovannoni James J, Pech Jean-Claude, Bouzayen Mondher. LeCTR1, a tomato CTR1-like gene, demonstrates ethylene signaling ability in Arabidopsis and novel expression patterns in tomato. Plant Physiol. 2002 Nov;130(3):1132–1142. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Liljegren SJ, Ditta GS, Eshed Y, Savidge B, Bowman JL, Yanofsky MF. SHATTERPROOF MADS-box genes control seed dispersal in Arabidopsis. Nature. 2000 Apr 13;404(6779):766–770. [PubMed]
  • Lincoln JE, Fischer RL. Regulation of Gene Expression by Ethylene in Wild-Type and rin Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Fruit. Plant Physiol. 1988 Oct;88(2):370–374. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Liu Yong-Sheng, Gur Amit, Ronen Gil, Causse Mathilde, Damidaux René, Buret Michel, Hirschberg Joseph, Zamir Dani. There is more to tomato fruit colour than candidate carotenoid genes. Plant Biotechnol J. 2003 May;1(3):195–207. [PubMed]
  • Lohmann Jan U, Weigel Detlef. Building beauty: the genetic control of floral patterning. Dev Cell. 2002 Feb;2(2):135–142. [PubMed]
  • Lois LM, Rodríguez-Concepción M, Gallego F, Campos N, Boronat A. Carotenoid biosynthesis during tomato fruit development: regulatory role of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase. Plant J. 2000 Jun;22(6):503–513. [PubMed]
  • Manning K. Isolation of a set of ripening-related genes from strawberry: their identification and possible relationship to fruit quality traits. Planta. 1998 Aug;205(4):622–631. [PubMed]
  • Mao L, Begum D, Chuang HW, Budiman MA, Szymkowiak EJ, Irish EE, Wing RA. JOINTLESS is a MADS-box gene controlling tomato flower abscission zone development. Nature. 2000 Aug 24;406(6798):910–913. [PubMed]
  • Mustilli AC, Fenzi F, Ciliento R, Alfano F, Bowler C. Phenotype of the tomato high pigment-2 mutant is caused by a mutation in the tomato homolog of DEETIOLATED1. Plant Cell. 1999 Feb;11(2):145–157. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Oeller PW, Lu MW, Taylor LP, Pike DA, Theologis A. Reversible inhibition of tomato fruit senescence by antisense RNA. Science. 1991 Oct 18;254(5030):437–439. [PubMed]
  • Ogihara Yasunari, Mochida Keiichi, Nemoto Yasue, Murai Koji, Yamazaki Yukiko, Shin-I Tadasu, Kohara Yuji. Correlated clustering and virtual display of gene expression patterns in the wheat life cycle by large-scale statistical analyses of expressed sequence tags. Plant J. 2003 Mar;33(6):1001–1011. [PubMed]
  • Orfila C, Seymour GB, Willats WG, Huxham IM, Jarvis MC, Dover CJ, Thompson AJ, Knox JP. Altered middle lamella homogalacturonan and disrupted deposition of (1-->5)-alpha-L-arabinan in the pericarp of Cnr, a ripening mutant of tomato. Plant Physiol. 2001 May;126(1):210–221. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Payton S, Fray RG, Brown S, Grierson D. Ethylene receptor expression is regulated during fruit ripening, flower senescence and abscission. Plant Mol Biol. 1996 Sep;31(6):1227–1231. [PubMed]
  • Pelaz S, Ditta GS, Baumann E, Wisman E, Yanofsky MF. B and C floral organ identity functions require SEPALLATA MADS-box genes. Nature. 2000 May 11;405(6783):200–203. [PubMed]
  • Penarrubia L, Aguilar M, Margossian L, Fischer RL. An Antisense Gene Stimulates Ethylene Hormone Production during Tomato Fruit Ripening. Plant Cell. 1992 Jun;4(6):681–687. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Périn Christophe, Gomez-Jimenez MariCarmen, Hagen Lynda, Dogimont Catherine, Pech Jean-Claude, Latché Alain, Pitrat Michel, Lelièvre Jean-Marc. Molecular and genetic characterization of a non-climacteric phenotype in melon reveals two loci conferring altered ethylene response in fruit. Plant Physiol. 2002 May;129(1):300–309. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pinyopich Anusak, Ditta Gary S, Savidge Beth, Liljegren Sarah J, Baumann Elvira, Wisman Ellen, Yanofsky Martin F. Assessing the redundancy of MADS-box genes during carpel and ovule development. Nature. 2003 Jul 3;424(6944):85–88. [PubMed]
  • Pnueli L, Hareven D, Broday L, Hurwitz C, Lifschitz E. The TM5 MADS Box Gene Mediates Organ Differentiation in the Three Inner Whorls of Tomato Flowers. Plant Cell. 1994 Feb;6(2):175–186. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pnueli L, Hareven D, Rounsley SD, Yanofsky MF, Lifschitz E. Isolation of the tomato AGAMOUS gene TAG1 and analysis of its homeotic role in transgenic plants. Plant Cell. 1994 Feb;6(2):163–173. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rodríguez FI, Esch JJ, Hall AE, Binder BM, Schaller GE, Bleecker AB. A copper cofactor for the ethylene receptor ETR1 from Arabidopsis. Science. 1999 Feb 12;283(5404):996–998. [PubMed]
  • Roeder Adrienne H K, Ferrándiz Cristina, Yanofsky Martin F. The role of the REPLUMLESS homeodomain protein in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit. Curr Biol. 2003 Sep 16;13(18):1630–1635. [PubMed]
  • Ronen G, Carmel-Goren L, Zamir D, Hirschberg J. An alternative pathway to beta -carotene formation in plant chromoplasts discovered by map-based cloning of beta and old-gold color mutations in tomato. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Sep 26;97(20):11102–11107. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ronen G, Cohen M, Zamir D, Hirschberg J. Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during tomato fruit development: expression of the gene for lycopene epsilon-cyclase is down-regulated during ripening and is elevated in the mutant Delta. Plant J. 1999 Feb;17(4):341–351. [PubMed]
  • Rose JK, Lee HH, Bennett AB. Expression of a divergent expansin gene is fruit-specific and ripening-regulated. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 May 27;94(11):5955–5960. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rottmann WH, Peter GF, Oeller PW, Keller JA, Shen NF, Nagy BP, Taylor LP, Campbell AD, Theologis A. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in tomato is encoded by a multigene family whose transcription is induced during fruit and floral senescence. J Mol Biol. 1991 Dec 20;222(4):937–961. [PubMed]
  • Seymour Graham B, Manning Kenneth, Eriksson Emma M, Popovich Alexandra H, King Graham J. Genetic identification and genomic organization of factors affecting fruit texture. J Exp Bot. 2002 Oct;53(377):2065–2071. [PubMed]
  • Smith David L, Abbott Judith A, Gross Kenneth C. Down-regulation of tomato beta-galactosidase 4 results in decreased fruit softening. Plant Physiol. 2002 Aug;129(4):1755–1762. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tanksley SD, Ganal MW, Prince JP, de Vicente MC, Bonierbale MW, Broun P, Fulton TM, Giovannoni JJ, Grandillo S, Martin GB, et al. High density molecular linkage maps of the tomato and potato genomes. Genetics. 1992 Dec;132(4):1141–1160. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Theologis A. One rotten apple spoils the whole bushel: the role of ethylene in fruit ripening. Cell. 1992 Jul 24;70(2):181–184. [PubMed]
  • Thompson AJ, Tor M, Barry CS, Vrebalov J, Orfila C, Jarvis MC, Giovannoni JJ, Grierson D, Seymour GB. Molecular and genetic characterization of a novel pleiotropic tomato-ripening mutant . Plant Physiol. 1999 Jun;120(2):383–390. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tieman DM, Klee HJ. Differential expression of two novel members of the tomato ethylene-receptor family. Plant Physiol. 1999 May;120(1):165–172. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tieman DM, Ciardi JA, Taylor MG, Klee HJ. Members of the tomato LeEIL (EIN3-like) gene family are functionally redundant and regulate ethylene responses throughout plant development. Plant J. 2001 Apr;26(1):47–58. [PubMed]
  • Tieman DM, Harriman RW, Ramamohan G, Handa AK. An Antisense Pectin Methylesterase Gene Alters Pectin Chemistry and Soluble Solids in Tomato Fruit. Plant Cell. 1992 Jun;4(6):667–679. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tieman DM, Taylor MG, Ciardi JA, Klee HJ. The tomato ethylene receptors NR and LeETR4 are negative regulators of ethylene response and exhibit functional compensation within a multigene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 May 9;97(10):5663–5668. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Van der Hoeven Rutger, Ronning Catherine, Giovannoni James, Martin Gregory, Tanksley Steven. Deductions about the number, organization, and evolution of genes in the tomato genome based on analysis of a large expressed sequence tag collection and selective genomic sequencing. Plant Cell. 2002 Jul;14(7):1441–1456. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vrebalov Julia, Ruezinsky Diane, Padmanabhan Veeraragavan, White Ruth, Medrano Diana, Drake Rachel, Schuch Wolfgang, Giovannoni Jim. A MADS-box gene necessary for fruit ripening at the tomato ripening-inhibitor (rin) locus. Science. 2002 Apr 12;296(5566):343–346. [PubMed]
  • Wilkinson JQ, Lanahan MB, Yen HC, Giovannoni JJ, Klee HJ. An ethylene-inducible component of signal transduction encoded by never-ripe. Science. 1995 Dec 15;270(5243):1807–1809. [PubMed]
  • Wilkinson JQ, Lanahan MB, Clark DG, Bleecker AB, Chang C, Meyerowitz EM, Klee HJ. A dominant mutant receptor from Arabidopsis confers ethylene insensitivity in heterologous plants. Nat Biotechnol. 1997 May;15(5):444–447. [PubMed]
  • Wilkinson JQ, Lanahan MB, Conner TW, Klee HJ. Identification of mRNAs with enhanced expression in ripening strawberry fruit using polymerase chain reaction differential display. Plant Mol Biol. 1995 Mar;27(6):1097–1108. [PubMed]
  • Woolley LC, James DJ, Manning K. Purification and properties of an endo-beta-1,4-glucanase from strawberry and down-regulation of the corresponding gene, cel1. Planta. 2001 Nov;214(1):11–21. [PubMed]
  • Yao J, Dong Y, Morris BA. Parthenocarpic apple fruit production conferred by transposon insertion mutations in a MADS-box transcription factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jan 30;98(3):1306–1311. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yen HC, Lee S, Tanksley SD, Lanahan MB, Klee HJ, Giovannoni JJ. The tomato Never-ripe locus regulates ethylene-inducible gene expression and is linked to a homolog of the Arabidopsis ETR1 gene. Plant Physiol. 1995 Apr;107(4):1343–1353. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zhou D, Kalaitzís P, Mattoo AK, Tucker ML. The mRNA for an ETR1 homologue in tomato is constitutively expressed in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Plant Mol Biol. 1996 Mar;30(6):1331–1338. [PubMed]

Articles from The Plant Cell are provided here courtesy of American Society of Plant Biologists


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...