• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jnmaLink to Publisher's site
J Natl Med Assoc. Mar 1999; 91(3): 159–164.
PMCID: PMC2608450

Increased incidence of prostate cancer in Nigerians.


An increased incidence of prostate cancer among African-American men (now the second most common cause of cancer death) has been attributed mainly to the introduction of screening techniques, which have enabled earlier diagnosis of patients. This study reviewed male cancer patients recorded in a Nigerian cancer registry to assess the current trends in prostate cancer in Nigeria. For comparison, data were broken into two groups: 1980-1988 and 1989-1996. Only the top 10 cancers occurring in both periods were considered initially in this report. For emphasis, an analysis of adult male cancers was done per decade since 1960. Results show that prostate cancer has become the number one cancer in Nigerian men and constitutes 11% of all male cancers. The median age of patients was 67.5 years (variance 5.6), and the mean age was 71.4 years (variance 14.3). These results indicate that despite the absence of screening programs in Nigeria, the number of prostate cancer cases has increased. The known risk factors probably contribute to a varying degree among Nigerians, who are generally of average build or in the low-normal range for body mass index. Moreover, the role of genetics cannot be underplayed. Given its biological characteristics, more cases of prostate cancer probably would be recorded among this population if screening were undertaken.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (800K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Haas GP, Sakr WA. Epidemiology of prostate cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 1997 Sep-Oct;47(5):273–287. [PubMed]
  • Potosky AL, Miller BA, Albertsen PC, Kramer BS. The role of increasing detection in the rising incidence of prostate cancer. JAMA. 1995 Feb 15;273(7):548–552. [PubMed]
  • Parker SL, Tong T, Bolden S, Wingo PA. Cancer statistics, 1997. CA Cancer J Clin. 1997 Jan-Feb;47(1):5–27. [PubMed]
  • Boring CC, Squires TS, Health CW., Jr Cancer statistics for African Americans. CA Cancer J Clin. 1992 Jan-Feb;42(1):7–17. [PubMed]
  • Baquet CR, Horm JW, Gibbs T, Greenwald P. Socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence among blacks and whites. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991 Apr 17;83(8):551–557. [PubMed]
  • Akhtar SS, Abu Bakr MA, Dawi SA, Huq IU. Cancer in Libya--a retrospective study (1981-1985). Afr J Med Med Sci. 1993 Mar;22(1):17–24. [PubMed]
  • Grönberg H, Damber L, Damber JE. Studies of genetic factors in prostate cancer in a twin population. J Urol. 1994 Nov;152(5 Pt 1):1484–1489. [PubMed]
  • Carter BS, Bova GS, Beaty TH, Steinberg GD, Childs B, Isaacs WB, Walsh PC. Hereditary prostate cancer: epidemiologic and clinical features. J Urol. 1993 Sep;150(3):797–802. [PubMed]
  • Isaacs SD, Kiemeney LA, Baffoe-Bonnie A, Beaty TH, Walsh PC. Risk of cancer in relatives of prostate cancer probands. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995 Jul 5;87(13):991–996. [PubMed]
  • Grönberg H, Damber L, Damber JE. Familial prostate cancer in Sweden. A nationwide register cohort study. Cancer. 1996 Jan 1;77(1):138–143. [PubMed]
  • Armstrong B, Doll R. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer. 1975 Apr 15;15(4):617–631. [PubMed]
  • Ross R, Bernstein L, Judd H, Hanisch R, Pike M, Henderson B. Serum testosterone levels in healthy young black and white men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986 Jan;76(1):45–48. [PubMed]
  • Nkposong EO, Lawani J. Primary carcinoma of the prostate in Ibadan. West Afr Med J Niger Med Dent Pract. 1973 Dec;22(6):108–111. [PubMed]
  • Adetuyibi A, Akisanya JB, Onadeko BO. Analysis of the causes of death on the medical wards of the University College Hospital, Ibadan over a 14-year period (1960-1973). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1976;70(5-6):466–473. [PubMed]
  • Junaid TA. Mortality in middle-aged Nigerians: an autopsy study. Trop Geogr Med. 1979 Sep;31(3):389–394. [PubMed]
  • Sakr WA, Haas GP, Cassin BF, Pontes JE, Crissman JD. The frequency of carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the prostate in young male patients. J Urol. 1993 Aug;150(2 Pt 1):379–385. [PubMed]
  • Pienta KJ, Esper PS. Risk factors for prostate cancer. Ann Intern Med. 1993 May 15;118(10):793–803. [PubMed]
  • Osegbe DN. Prostate cancer in Nigerians: facts and nonfacts. J Urol. 1997 Apr;157(4):1340–1343. [PubMed]
  • Parker SL, Davis KJ, Wingo PA, Ries LA, Heath CW., Jr Cancer statistics by race and ethnicity. CA Cancer J Clin. 1998 Jan-Feb;48(1):31–48. [PubMed]
  • Steinberg GD, Carter BS, Beaty TH, Childs B, Walsh PC. Family history and the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate. 1990;17(4):337–347. [PubMed]
  • Carter BS, Beaty TH, Steinberg GD, Childs B, Walsh PC. Mendelian inheritance of familial prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Apr 15;89(8):3367–3371. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Neuhausen SL, Skolnick MH, Cannon-Albright L. Familial prostate cancer studies in Utah. Br J Urol. 1997 Mar;79 (Suppl 1):15–20. [PubMed]
  • Prevalence of selected risk factors for chronic disease by education level in racial/ethnic populations--United States, 1991-1992. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994 Dec 9;43(48):894–899. [PubMed]
  • Kaufman JS, Owoaje EE, James SA, Rotimi CN, Cooper RS. Determinants of hypertension in West Africa: contribution of anthropometric and dietary factors to urban-rural and socioeconomic gradients. Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Jun 15;143(12):1203–1218. [PubMed]
  • Angwafo FF, Yomi J, Mbakop A. Is cancer of the prostate rare in tropical (black) Africa? Case series from the Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire and the Hospital General de Yaounde from 1986 to 1990. Bull Cancer Radiother. 1994;81(2):155–159. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the National Medical Association are provided here courtesy of National Medical Association


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...