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Infect Immun. Oct 1988; 56(10): 2731–2735.
PMCID: PMC259636

Comparative analysis of immunological responses to oral (Ty21a) and parenteral (TAB) typhoid vaccines.


The clinical and immunological responses to typhoid vaccination with parenteral (TAB) and oral (Ty21a) vaccines in two groups of 30 adult male subjects were studied. Parameters monitored included specific anti-Salmonella typhi cell-mediated immunity and total and specific antilipopolysaccharide fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) titers in Ty21a-vaccinated subjects. Peripheral blood lymphocytes antibacterial activity was significantly increased only in Ty21a-vaccinated subjects. Serum arming activity and results of human F(ab')2 anti-IgG and -IgA inhibition tests suggest antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mediated by IgA in those vaccinated with Ty21a. Interestingly enough, the cells of TAB-vaccinated subjects were able to mediate IgG-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, as was observable from the results of blocking experiments. Moreover, total and specific antilipopolysaccharide fecal IgA levels were observed to be significantly increased with Ty21a, up to 8 months post-vaccination schedule. An early-onset, transitory increase in serum IgM rheumatoid factor was also found, exclusively in subjects treated with TAB, and was no longer detectable on day 240. Ty21a was well tolerated and free of side effects, whereas 65% of subjects administered TAB reported fever, headache, malaise, and local tenderness at the injection site. Our data show that the two typhoid vaccines induce different cell-mediated specific immune responses. The role of these responses in protection against Salmonella infection, however, requires further investigation.

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Selected References

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