Logo of yjbmLink to Publisher's site
Yale J Biol Med. 1979 May-Jun; 52(3): 307–329.
PMCID: PMC2595462

The Pig as a Model for the Study of Obesity and of Control of Food Intake: A Review

Abstract

The use of the pig for studies of food intake and obesity is reviewed. Effects of ambient temperature and taste on food intake as well as satiety factors impicating both neural and hormonal mechanisms originating in the gastrointestinal tract are considered; the integration of information in the central nervous system for both internal and external sources is hypothesized. Special concerns of food intake controls in the neonate are discussed, including effects of neonate sweet preference on food intake, gastrointestinal satiety factors, and hypoglycemia as a stimulus for food ingestion.

For obesity studies, pigs offer several advantages, including their general physiological similarity to humans, similar fat cell size, and body fat distribution. Lipogenesis, lipolysis, and lipid mobilization are under intensive study in swine and the information obtained may have important application in studies of human obesity. The voluminous literature on metabolic differences between genetically lean versus obese populations of pigs suggests possibilities for application in humans. Greater characterization of differences and similarities between pigs and humans in important metabolic parameters related to regulation of food intake and obesity should facilitate better understanding and control of human obesity.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.8M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Herberg L, Coleman DL. Laboratory animals exhibiting obesity and diabetes syndromes. Metabolism. 1977 Jan;26(1):59–99. [PubMed]
  • JANOWITZ HD, GROSSMAN MI. Some factors affecting the food intake of normal dogs and dogs with esophagostomy and gastric fistula. Am J Physiol. 1949 Oct;159(1):143–148. [PubMed]
  • Brobeck JR, Tepperman J, Long CN. Experimental Hypothalamic Hyperphagia in the Albino Rat. Yale J Biol Med. 1943 Jul;15(6):831–853. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • ANAND BK, DUA S, SHOENBERG K. Hypothalamic control of food intake in cats and monkeys. J Physiol. 1955 Jan 28;127(1):143–152. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Houpt TR, Anika SM, Wolff NC. Satiety effects of cholecystokinin and caerulein in rabbits. Am J Physiol. 1978 Jul;235(1):R23–R28. [PubMed]
  • Walike BC, Smith OA. Regulation of food intake during intermittent and continuous cross circulation in monkeys (Macaca mulatta). J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1972 Sep;80(3):372–381. [PubMed]
  • Gibbs J, Falasco JD, McHugh PR. Cholecystokinin-decreased food intake in rhesus monkeys. Am J Physiol. 1976 Jan;230(1):15–18. [PubMed]
  • McHugh PR, Gibbs J, Falasco JD, Moran T, Smith GP. Inhibitions of feeding examined in rhesus monkeys with hypothalamic disconnexions. Brain. 1975 Sep;98(3):441–454. [PubMed]
  • Merritt AM, Brooks FP. Basal and histamine-induced gastric acid and pepsin secretion in the conscious miniature pig. Gastroenterology. 1970 Jun;58(6):801–814. [PubMed]
  • Barlet JP. The influence of porcine calcitonin given intragastrally on restraint-induced gastric ulcers in pigs. Horm Metab Res. 1974 Nov;6(6):517–521. [PubMed]
  • Ratcliffe HL, Luginbühl H, Schnarr WR, Chacko K. Coronary arteriosclerosis in swine: evidence of a relation to behavior. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1969 Jul;68(3):385–392. [PubMed]
  • Book SA, Bustad LK. The fetal and neonatal pig in biomedical research. J Anim Sci. 1974 May;38(5):997–1002. [PubMed]
  • Barnes RH, Moore AU, Pond WG. Behavioral abnormalities in young adult pigs caused by malnutrition in early life. J Nutr. 1970 Feb;100(2):149–155. [PubMed]
  • Badger TM, Tumbleson ME, Hutcheson DP. Protein-calorie malnutrition in young Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine. Growth. 1972 Sep;36(3):235–245. [PubMed]
  • Dexter JD, Tumbleson ME, Hutcheson DP, Middleton CC. Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine as a model for the study of human alcoholism. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1976;273:188–193. [PubMed]
  • Laplace JP. Circulation sanguine croisée chronique chez le porc. Technique chirurgicale, entretien, validité. J Physiol (Paris) 1972;64(2):165–172. [PubMed]
  • Pekas JC. Permanent physiological fistula of the pancreas and other digestive glands. J Appl Physiol. 1965 Sep;20(5):1082–1084. [PubMed]
  • Stadaas J, Aune S, Haffner JF. Effects of proximal gastric vagotomy on intragastric pressure and adaptation in pigs. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1974;9(5):479–485. [PubMed]
  • BROBECK JR. Neural regulation of food intake. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1955 Jul 15;63(1):44–55. [PubMed]
  • Ingram DL, Legge KF. Effects of environmental temperature on food intake in growing pigs. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1974 Jul 1;48(3):573–581. [PubMed]
  • Ingram DL. Effects of heating and cooling the hypothalamus on food intake in the pig. Brain Res. 1968 Dec;11(3):714–716. [PubMed]
  • Spector NH, Brobeck JR, Hamilton CL. Feeding and core temperature in albino rats: changes induced by preoptic heating and cooling. Science. 1968 Jul 19;161(3838):286–288. [PubMed]
  • Carlisle HJ, Ingram DL. Effect on food intake in the pig of heating and cooling the spinal cord. Experientia. 1973 Oct 15;29(10):1241–1241. [PubMed]
  • Kare MR, Pond WC, Campbell J. Observations on the taste reactions in pigs. Anim Behav. 1965 Apr-Jul;13(2):265–269. [PubMed]
  • Kennedy JM, Baldwin BA. Taste preferences in pigs for nutritive and non-nutritive sweet solutions. Anim Behav. 1972 Nov;20(4):706–718. [PubMed]
  • Spiegel TA. Caloric regulation of food intake in man. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1973 Jul;84(1):24–37. [PubMed]
  • POND WG, BARNES RH, BRADFIELD RB, KWONG E, KROOK L. EFFECT OF DIETARY ENERGY INTAKE ON PROTEIN DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS AND BODY COMPOSITION OF BABY PIGS FED EQUALIZED BUT SUBOPTIMAL AMOUNTS OF PROTEIN. J Nutr. 1965 Jan;85:57–66. [PubMed]
  • Robinson DW. Food intake regulation in pigs. II. The relationship between dietary protein concentration, body composition, cellular development and the efficiency of protein and energy utilization. Br Vet J. 1974 Sep-Oct;130(5):424–433. [PubMed]
  • Robinson DW. Food intake regulation in pigs. III. Voluntary food selection between protein-free and protein-rich diets. Br Vet J. 1974 Nov-Dec;130(6):522–527. [PubMed]
  • MAYER J. Regulation of energy intake and the body weight: the glucostatic theory and the lipostatic hypothesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1955 Jul 15;63(1):15–43. [PubMed]
  • Smith GP, Epstein AN. Increased feeding in response to decreased glucose utilization in the rat and monkey. Am J Physiol. 1969 Oct;217(4):1083–1087. [PubMed]
  • Smith GP, Gibbs J, Strohmayer AJ, Stokes PE. Threshold doses of 2-deoxy-D-glucose for hyperglycemia and feeding in rats and monkeys. Am J Physiol. 1972 Jan;222(1):77–81. [PubMed]
  • Harper AA, Raper HS. Pancreozymin, a stimulant of the secretion of pancreatic enzymes in extracts of the small intestine. J Physiol. 1943 Jun 30;102(1):115–125. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jorpes JE. The isolation and chemistry of secretin and cholecystokinin. Gastroenterology. 1968 Aug;55(2):157–164. [PubMed]
  • Gibbs J, Young RC, Smith GP. Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in rats. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1973 Sep;84(3):488–495. [PubMed]
  • Sturdevant RA, Goetz H. Cholecystokinin both stimulates and inhibits human food intake. Nature. 1976 Jun 24;261(5562):713–715. [PubMed]
  • Go VL, Ryan RJ, Summerskill WH. Radioimmunoassay of porcine cholecystokinin-pancreozymin. J Lab Clin Med. 1971 Apr;77(4):684–689. [PubMed]
  • Muller JE, Straus E, Yalow RS. Cholecystokinin and its COOH-terminal octapeptide in the pig brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Jul;74(7):3035–3037. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Straus E, Yalow RS. Cholecystokinin in the brains of obese and nonobese mice. Science. 1979 Jan 5;203(4375):68–69. [PubMed]
  • Hunt JN, Pathak JD. The osmotic effects of some simple molecules and ions on gastric emptying. J Physiol. 1960 Dec;154(2):254–269. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Friend DW. Self-selection of feeds and water by unbred gilts. J Anim Sci. 1973 Nov;37(5):1137–1141. [PubMed]
  • MOORE ME, STUNKARD A, SROLE L. Obesity, social class, and mental illness. JAMA. 1962 Sep 15;181:962–966. [PubMed]
  • Khalaf F. Hyperphagia and aphagia in swine with induced hypothalamic lesions. Res Vet Sci. 1969 Nov;10(6):514–517. [PubMed]
  • Khalaf F, Robinson DW. Observations on the phagic response of the pig to infusions of dextrose and sodium pentobarbital into the ventromedial area of the brain. Res Vet Sci. 1972 Jan;13(1):1–4. [PubMed]
  • Khalaf F, Robinson DW. Aphagia and adipsia in pigs with induced hypothalamic lesions. Res Vet Sci. 1972 Jan;13(1):5–7. [PubMed]
  • Brobeck JR, Tepperman J, Long CN. Experimental Hypothalamic Hyperphagia in the Albino Rat. Yale J Biol Med. 1943 Jul;15(6):831–853. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Baldwin BA, Grovum WL, Baile CA, Brobeck JR. Feeding following intraventricular injection of CA++, MG++ or pentobarbital in pigs. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1975 Sep-Oct;3(5):915–918. [PubMed]
  • Dantzer R. Effect of diazepam on performance of pigs in a progressive ratio schedule. Physiol Behav. 1976 Jul;17(1):161–163. [PubMed]
  • Pond WG, Snyder W, Snook JT, Walker EF, Jr, McNeill DA, Stillings BR. Relative utilization of casein, fish protein concentrate and isolated soybean protein for growth and pancreatic enzyme regeneration of the protein-calorie malnourished baby pig. J Nutr. 1971 Sep;101(9):1193–1200. [PubMed]
  • Schneider DL, Sarett HP. Nutritional studies on hysterectomy-obtained SPF baby pigs fed infant formula products. J Nutr. 1966 Jun;89(2):158–164. [PubMed]
  • Schneider DL, Sarett HP. Use of the hysterectomy-obtained SPF pig for nutritional studies of the neonate. J Nutr. 1966 May;89(1):43–48. [PubMed]
  • Maller O, Turner RE. Taste in acceptance of sugars by human infants. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1973 Sep;84(3):496–501. [PubMed]
  • Desor JA, Greene LS, Maller O. Preferences for sweet and salty in 9- to 15-year-old and adult humans. Science. 1975 Nov 14;190(4215):686–687. [PubMed]
  • Houpt KA, Houpt TR, Pond WG. Food intake controls in the suckling pig: glucoprivation and gastrointestinal factors. Am J Physiol. 1977 May;232(5):E510–E514. [PubMed]
  • Stephens DB. Effects of gastric loading on the sucking response and voluntary milk intake in neonatal piglets. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1975 Feb;88(2):796–805. [PubMed]
  • Sizonenko PC, Paunier L, Vallotton B, Cuendet GS, Zahnd G, Marliss EB. Response to 2-deoxy-D-glucose and to glucagon in "ketotic hypoglycemia" of childhood: evidence for epinephrine deficiency and altered alanine availability. Pediatr Res. 1973 Dec;7(12):983–993. [PubMed]
  • Gurr MI, Kirtland J, Phillip M, Robinson MP. The consequences of early overnutrition for fat cell size and number: the pig as an experimental model for human obesity. Int J Obes. 1977;1(2):151–170. [PubMed]
  • O'Hea EK, Leveille GA. Significance of adipose tissue and liver as sites of fatty acid synthesis in the pig and the efficiency of utilization of various substrates for lipogenesis. J Nutr. 1969 Nov;99(3):338–344. [PubMed]
  • Sims EA. Experimental obesity, dietary-induced thermogenesis, and their clinical implications. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1976 Jul;5(2):377–395. [PubMed]
  • Steele NC, Frobish LT, Keeney M. Lipogenesis and cellularity of adipose tissue from genetically lean and obese swine. J Anim Sci. 1974 Oct;39(4):712–719. [PubMed]
  • Mersmann HJ, Phinney G, Brown LJ. Factors influencing the lipolytic response of swine (Sus domesticus) adipose tissue: ontogeny. Biol Neonate. 1976;29(1-2):104–111. [PubMed]
  • Martin RJ, Herbein JH. A comparison of the enzyme levels and the in vitro utilization of various substrates for lipogenesis in pair-fed lean and obese pigs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1976 Jan;151(1):231–235. [PubMed]
  • Steffen DG, Chai EY, Brown LJ, Mersmann HJ. Effects of diet on swine glyceride lipid metabolism. J Nutr. 1978 Jun;108(6):911–918. [PubMed]
  • Mersmann HJ, Goodman JR, Brown LJ. Development of swine adipose tissue: morphology and chemical composition. J Lipid Res. 1975 Jul;16(4):269–279. [PubMed]
  • Knittle JL, Hirsch J. Effect of early nutrition on the development of rat epididymal fat pads: cellularity and metabolism. J Clin Invest. 1968 Sep;47(9):2091–2098. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Faust IM, Johnson PR, Stern JS, Hirsch J. Diet-induced adipocyte number increase in adult rats: a new model of obesity. Am J Physiol. 1978 Sep;235(3):E279–E286. [PubMed]
  • Mersmann HJ, Underwood MC, Brown LJ, Houk JM. Adipose tissue composition and lipogenic capacity in developing swine. Am J Physiol. 1973 May;224(5):1130–1135. [PubMed]
  • Anderson DB, Kauffman RG. Cellular and enzymatic changes in porcine adipose tissue during growth. J Lipid Res. 1973 Mar;14(2):160–168. [PubMed]
  • Hood RL, Allen CE. Cellularity of porcine adipose tissue: effects of growth and adiposity. J Lipid Res. 1977 May;18(3):275–284. [PubMed]
  • Bray GA, York DA. Genetically transmitted obesity in rodents. Physiol Rev. 1971 Jul;51(3):598–646. [PubMed]
  • BIELSCHOWSKY F, BIELSCHOWSKY M. The New Zealand strain of obese mice; their response to stilboestrol and to insulin. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci. 1956 Jun;34(3):181–198. [PubMed]
  • Hunt CE, Lindsey JR, Walkley SU. Animal models of diabetes and obesity, including the PBB/Ld mouse. Fed Proc. 1976 Apr;35(5):1206–1217. [PubMed]
  • Berdanier CD. The BHE strain to rat: an example of the role of inheritance in determining metabolic controls. Fed Proc. 1976 Sep;35(11):2295–2299. [PubMed]
  • Martin RJ, Gobble JL, Hartsock TH, Graves HB, Ziegler JH. Characterization of an obese syndrome in the pig. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1973 May;143(1):198–203. [PubMed]
  • FILER LJ, Jr, CHURELLA H. RELATIONSHIP OF BODY COMPOSITION, CHEMICAL MATURATION, HOMEOSTASIS, AND DIET IN THE NEWBORN MAMMAL. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1963 Sep 26;110:380–394. [PubMed]
  • Sheng HP, Kamonsakpithak S, Naiborhu A, Chuntananukoon S, Huggins RA. Measured and calculated fat during growth in the pig and beagle. Growth. 1977 Jun;41(2):139–146. [PubMed]
  • LEWIS LA, PAGE IH. Hereditary obesity: relation to serum lipoproteins and protein concentrations in swine. Circulation. 1956 Jul;14(1):55–59. [PubMed]
  • Trygstad O, Foss I, Vold E, Standal N. Suppressed lipolysis in genetically fat pigs. FEBS Lett. 1972 Oct 1;26(1):311–314. [PubMed]
  • Althen TG, Gerrits RJ. Metabolic clearance and secretion rates of porcine growth hormone in genetically lean and obese swine. Endocrinology. 1976 Aug;99(2):511–515. [PubMed]
  • Wangsness PJ, Martin RJ, Gahagan JH. Insulin and growth hormone in lean and obese pigs. Am J Physiol. 1977 Aug;233(2):E104–E108. [PubMed]
  • Rothschild MF, Cahpman AB. Factors influencing serum cholesterol levels in swine. J Hered. 1976 Jan-Feb;67(1):47–48. [PubMed]
  • Kellogg TF, Rogers RW, Miller HW. Differences in tissue fatty acids and cholesterol of swine from different genetic backgrounds. J Anim Sci. 1977 Jan;44(1):47–52. [PubMed]
  • Mersmann HJ, Brown LJ, Beuving RD, Arakelian MC. Lipolytic activity of swine adipocytes. Am J Physiol. 1976 May;230(5):1439–1443. [PubMed]
  • Mersmann HJ, Houk JM, Phinney G, Underwood MC, Brown LJ. Lipogenesis by in vitro liver and adipose tissue preparations from neonatal swine. Am J Physiol. 1973 May;224(5):1123–1129. [PubMed]
  • Mersmann HJ, Allen CD, Steffen DG, Brown LG, Danielson DM. Effect of age, weaning and diet on swine adipose tissue and liver lipogenesis. J Anim Sci. 1976 Jul;43(1):140–150. [PubMed]
  • Leveille GA. In vivo fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue and liver of meal-fed rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1967 May;125(1):85–88. [PubMed]
  • Enser M. Clearing-factor lipase in muscle and adipose tissue of pigs. Biochem J. 1973 Oct;136(2):381–385. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • O'Hea EK, Leveille GA. Lipid metabolism in isolated adipose tissue of the domestic pig (Sus domesticus). Comp Biochem Physiol. 1968 Sep;26(3):1081–1089. [PubMed]
  • O'Hea EK, Leveille GA. Influence of fasting and refeeding on lipogenesis and enzymatic activity of pig adipose tissue. J Nutr. 1969 Nov;99(3):345–352. [PubMed]
  • Hood RL, Allen CE. Lipogenic enzyme activity in adipose tissue during the growth of swine with different propensities to fatten. J Nutr. 1973 Mar;103(3):353–362. [PubMed]
  • Anderson DB, Kauffman RG. Cellular and enzymatic changes in porcine adipose tissue during growth. J Lipid Res. 1973 Mar;14(2):160–168. [PubMed]
  • Steele NC, Frobish LT. Selected lipogenic enzyme activities of swine adipose tissue as influenced by genetic phenotype, age, feeding frequency and dietary energy source. Growth. 1976 Dec;40(4):369–378. [PubMed]
  • Davis MA, Henry R, Leslie RB. Comparative studies on porcine and human high density lipoproteins. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1974 Apr 15;47(4):831–849. [PubMed]
  • Bray GA, Glennon JA, Salans LB, Horton ES, Danforth E, Jr, Sims EA. Spontaneous and experimental human obesity: effects of diet and adipose cell size on lipolysis and lipogenesis. Metabolism. 1977 Jul;26(7):739–747. [PubMed]
  • Masoro EJ. Fat metabolism in normal and abnormal states. Am J Clin Nutr. 1977 Aug;30(8):1311–1320. [PubMed]

Articles from The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine are provided here courtesy of Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...