Logo of iaiPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalIAI ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Infect Immun. 1992 Dec; 60(12): 5057–5064.
PMCID: PMC258277

Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans adherence to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite by human secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) antibodies to cell surface protein antigen I/II: reversal by IgA1 protease cleavage.


The effect of human secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) and serum antibodies to surface protein antigen (Ag) I/II on the adherence of Ag I/II-bearing Streptococcus mutans and of free Ag I/II to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (SHA) was investigated. The inhibition by S-IgA of binding of both S. mutans and free Ag I/II to SHA was dependent on antibody to Ag I/II. Essentially no difference was found between S-IgA1 and S-IgA2 with respect to antibody-dependent inhibition of Ag I/II binding to SHA, but S-IgA1 inhibited S. mutans adherence more effectively than did either serum immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) or IgG antibodies. The antiadherence effect of S-IgA was abrogated after cleavage by IgA1 protease. Purified Fab alpha fragments containing Ag I/II-binding activity enhanced the binding of free Ag I/II to SHA and showed greater binding to SHA than did intact S-IgA1. Despite its relative inability to interact with precoated SHA, S-IgA1 containing antibody to Ag I/II was readily incorporated into the salivary pellicle during coating, but this did not promote Ag I/II binding. These data suggest that S-IgA antibodies can inhibit the initial adherence of S. mutans to salivary pellicle-coated tooth surfaces in an adhesin-specific fashion, but the presence in the oral cavity of bacterial IgA1 proteases would potentially interfere with this antiadherence mechanism.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Ahl T, Reinholdt J. Subclass distribution of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies to oral streptococci. Infect Immun. 1991 Oct;59(10):3619–3625. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Arnold RR, Mestecky J, McGhee JR. Naturally occurring secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies to Streptococcus mutans in human colostrum and saliva. Infect Immun. 1976 Aug;14(2):355–362. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bowen WH, Schilling K, Giertsen E, Pearson S, Lee SF, Bleiweis A, Beeman D. Role of a cell surface-associated protein in adherence and dental caries. Infect Immun. 1991 Dec;59(12):4606–4609. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brady LJ, Piacentini DA, Crowley PJ, Oyston PC, Bleiweis AS. Differentiation of salivary agglutinin-mediated adherence and aggregation of mutans streptococci by use of monoclonal antibodies against the major surface adhesin P1. Infect Immun. 1992 Mar;60(3):1008–1017. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brown TA, Mestecky J. Immunoglobulin A subclass distribution of naturally occurring salivary antibodies to microbial antigens. Infect Immun. 1985 Aug;49(2):459–462. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Budka H, Bernheimer H, Haaijman JJ, Radl J. Occurrence of IgA subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) in the human nervous system. Correlation with disease. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1985;76(2):107–115. [PubMed]
  • Clark WB, Bammann LL, Gibbons RJ. Comparative estimates of bacterial affinities and adsorption sites on hydroxyapatite surfaces. Infect Immun. 1978 Mar;19(3):846–853. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Demuth DR, Lammey MS, Huck M, Lally ET, Malamud D. Comparison of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis receptors for human salivary agglutinin. Microb Pathog. 1990 Sep;9(3):199–211. [PubMed]
  • Fubara ES, Freter R. Protection against enteric bacterial infection by secretory IgA antibodies. J Immunol. 1973 Aug;111(2):395–403. [PubMed]
  • Gahnberg L, Olsson J, Krasse B, Carlén A. Interference of Salivary immunoglobulin A antibodies and other salivary fractions with adherence of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite. Infect Immun. 1982 Aug;37(2):401–406. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gibbons RJ. Adherent interactions which may affect microbial ecology in the mouth. J Dent Res. 1984 Mar;63(3):378–385. [PubMed]
  • Kilian M, Mestecky J, Russell MW. Defense mechanisms involving Fc-dependent functions of immunoglobulin A and their subversion by bacterial immunoglobulin A proteases. Microbiol Rev. 1988 Jun;52(2):296–303. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kilian M, Reinholdt J, Nyvad B, Frandsen EV, Mikkelsen L. IgA1 proteases of oral streptococci: ecological aspects. Immunol Invest. 1989 Jan-May;18(1-4):161–170. [PubMed]
  • Kilian M, Roland K, Mestecky J. Interference of secretory immunoglobulin A with sorption of oral bacteria to hydroxyapatite. Infect Immun. 1981 Mar;31(3):942–951. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kishimoto E, Hay DI, Gibbons RJ. Inhibition of adhesion-promoting activity of a human salivary protein which promotes adhesion of Streptococcus mutans JBP to hydroxyapatite. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1991 Dec 15;69(1):19–22. [PubMed]
  • Koga T, Okahashi N, Takahashi I, Kanamoto T, Asakawa H, Iwaki M. Surface hydrophobicity, adherence, and aggregation of cell surface protein antigen mutants of Streptococcus mutans serotype c. Infect Immun. 1990 Feb;58(2):289–296. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kondoh H, Kobayashi K, Hagiwara K. A simple procedure for the isolation of human secretory IgA of IgA1 and IgA2 subclass by a jackfruit lectin, jacalin, affinity chromatography. Mol Immunol. 1987 Nov;24(11):1219–1222. [PubMed]
  • Ladjeva I, Peterman JH, Mestecky J. IgA subclasses of human colostral antibodies specific for microbial and food antigens. Clin Exp Immunol. 1989 Oct;78(1):85–90. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970 Aug 15;227(5259):680–685. [PubMed]
  • Lee SF, Progulske-Fox A, Erdos GW, Piacentini DA, Ayakawa GY, Crowley PJ, Bleiweis AS. Construction and characterization of isogenic mutants of Streptococcus mutans deficient in major surface protein antigen P1 (I/II). Infect Immun. 1989 Nov;57(11):3306–3313. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ma JK, Kelly CG, Munro G, Whiley RA, Lehner T. Conservation of the gene encoding streptococcal antigen I/II in oral streptococci. Infect Immun. 1991 Aug;59(8):2686–2694. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Magnusson KE, Stendahl O, Stjernström I, Edebo L. Reduction of phagocytosis, surface hydrophobicity and charge of Salmonella typhimurium 395 MR10 by reaction with secretory IgA (SIgA). Immunology. 1979 Mar;36(3):439–447. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mansa B, Kilian M. Retained antigen-binding activity of Fab alpha fragments of human monoclonal immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) cleaved by IgA1 protease. Infect Immun. 1986 Apr;52(1):171–174. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mestecky J, Kilian M. Immunoglobulin A (IgA). Methods Enzymol. 1985;116:37–75. [PubMed]
  • Mestecky J, Russell MW. IgA subclasses. Monogr Allergy. 1986;19:277–301. [PubMed]
  • Orstavik D, Kraus FW. The acquired pellicle: immunofluorescent demonstration of specific proteins. J Oral Pathol. 1973;2(1):68–76. [PubMed]
  • Orstavik D, Kraus FW. The acquired pellicle: enzyme and antibody activities. Scand J Dent Res. 1974;82(3):202–205. [PubMed]
  • Reinholdt J, Kilian M. A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgA protease activity. J Immunol Methods. 1983 Oct 28;63(3):367–376. [PubMed]
  • Reinholdt J, Kilian M. Interference of IgA protease with the effect of secretory IgA on adherence of oral streptococci to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. J Dent Res. 1987 Feb;66(2):492–497. [PubMed]
  • Reinholdt J, Tomana M, Mortensen SB, Kilian M. Molecular aspects of immunoglobulin A1 degradation by oral streptococci. Infect Immun. 1990 May;58(5):1186–1194. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Russell MW, Bergmeier LA, Zanders ED, Lehner T. Protein antigens of Streptococcus mutans: purification and properties of a double antigen and its protease-resistant component. Infect Immun. 1980 May;28(2):486–493. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Russell MW, Brown TA, Radl J, Haaijman JJ, Mestecky J. Assay of human IgA subclass antibodies in serum and secretions by means of monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol Methods. 1986 Feb 27;87(1):87–93. [PubMed]
  • Russell MW, Mansa B. Complement-fixing properties of human IgA antibodies. Alternative pathway complement activation by plastic-bound, but not specific antigen-bound, IgA. Scand J Immunol. 1989 Aug;30(2):175–183. [PubMed]
  • Russell MW, Mansson-Rahemtulla B. Interaction between surface protein antigens of Streptococcus mutans and human salivary components. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1989 Jun;4(2):106–111. [PubMed]
  • Schilling KM, Bowen WH. Glucans synthesized in situ in experimental salivary pellicle function as specific binding sites for Streptococcus mutans. Infect Immun. 1992 Jan;60(1):284–295. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Svanborg-Edén C, Svennerholm AM. Secretory immunoglobulin A and G antibodies prevent adhesion of Escherichia coli to human urinary tract epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 1978 Dec;22(3):790–797. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taylor HP, Dimmock NJ. Mechanism of neutralization of influenza virus by secretory IgA is different from that of monomeric IgA or IgG. J Exp Med. 1985 Jan 1;161(1):198–209. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tomana M, Mestecky J, Niedermeier W. Studies on human secretory immunoglobulin A. IV. Carbohydrate composition. J Immunol. 1972 Jun;108(6):1631–1636. [PubMed]
  • Westergren G, Olsson J. Hydrophobicity and adherence of oral streptococci after repeated subculture in vitro. Infect Immun. 1983 Apr;40(1):432–435. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Williams RC, Gibbons RJ. Inhibition of bacterial adherence by secretory immunoglobulin A: a mechanism of antigen disposal. Science. 1972 Aug 25;177(4050):697–699. [PubMed]

Articles from Infection and Immunity are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...