• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of iaiPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalIAI ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Infect Immun. Apr 1992; 60(4): 1322–1328.
PMCID: PMC256999

Lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of some Haemophilus species mimic human glycosphingolipids, and some LOS are sialylated.


The lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of strains of Haemophilus ducreyi, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Neisseria lactamica contain epitopes that are antigenically and structurally similar to carbohydrates present in human glycosphingolipids. LOS from strains of Haemophilus influenzae and H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius were tested for the binding of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that bind to human glycosphingolipids possessing Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc (MAb 3F11) and Gal alpha 1-4Gal beta 1-4Glc (MAb anti-Pk). In solid-phase radioimmunoassays, the LOS of 18 of 19 H. influenzae type b (Hib), 8 of 19 nontypeable H. influenzae, and 10 of 20 H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius strains bound MAb anti-Pk. The LOS of 13 of 19 Hib, 10 of 16 nontypeable H. influenzae, and 2 of 18 H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius strains bound MAb 3F11. Neuraminidase treatment of the strains increased the binding of MAb 3F11 by more than twofold in 47% of the H. influenzae strains, suggesting that sialic acid occluded the LOS structure recognized by MAb 3F11. The material released from neuraminidase-treated Hib LOS was confirmed to be sialic acid by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. A recombinant plasmid containing genes involved in Hib LOS biosynthesis directed the expression (assembly) of the 3F11 epitope in Escherichia coli. These studies demonstrate that H. influenzae and H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius express at least two LOS epitopes that are similar to those present in human glycosphingolipids. Sialic acid was present on the LOS of some H. influenzae strains and prevented the binding of MAb 3F11 to its epitope. The oligosaccharide portion of sialylated LOS may also resemble sialylated oligosaccharides present in human glycosphingolipids (gangliosides).

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Abu Kwaik Y, McLaughlin RE, Apicella MA, Spinola SM. Analysis of Haemophilus influenzae type b lipooligosaccharide-synthesis genes that assemble or expose a 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid epitope. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Oct;5(10):2475–2480. [PubMed]
  • Apicella MA, Mandrell RE, Shero M, Wilson ME, Griffiss JM, Brooks GF, Lammel C, Breen JF, Rice PA. Modification by sialic acid of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide epitope expression in human urethral exudates: an immunoelectron microscopic analysis. J Infect Dis. 1990 Aug;162(2):506–512. [PubMed]
  • Apicella MA, Shero M, Jarvis GA, Griffiss JM, Mandrell RE, Schneider H. Phenotypic variation in epitope expression of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide. Infect Immun. 1987 Aug;55(8):1755–1761. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Campagnari AA, Spinola SM, Lesse AJ, Kwaik YA, Mandrell RE, Apicella MA. Lipooligosaccharide epitopes shared among gram-negative non-enteric mucosal pathogens. Microb Pathog. 1990 May;8(5):353–362. [PubMed]
  • Darveau RP, Hancock RE. Procedure for isolation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides from both smooth and rough Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium strains. J Bacteriol. 1983 Aug;155(2):831–838. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Drickamer K. Two distinct classes of carbohydrate-recognition domains in animal lectins. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jul 15;263(20):9557–9560. [PubMed]
  • Frosch M, Weisgerber C, Meyer TF. Molecular characterization and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene complex encoding the polysaccharide capsule of Neisseria meningitidis group B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Mar;86(5):1669–1673. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • John CM, Griffiss JM, Apicella MA, Mandrell RE, Gibson BW. The structural basis for pyocin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharides. J Biol Chem. 1991 Oct 15;266(29):19303–19311. [PubMed]
  • Kuratana M, Inzana TJ, Anderson P. Sources of low-molecular-weight host factors that phenotypically increase the resistance of Haemophilus influenzae type b to bacteriolysis: non-identity with a factor active in gonococci. Microb Pathog. 1989 Jul;7(1):73–77. [PubMed]
  • Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970 Aug 15;227(5259):680–685. [PubMed]
  • Mandrell RE, Griffiss JM, Macher BA. Lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis have components that are immunochemically similar to precursors of human blood group antigens. Carbohydrate sequence specificity of the mouse monoclonal antibodies that recognize crossreacting antigens on LOS and human erythrocytes. J Exp Med. 1988 Jul 1;168(1):107–126. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mandrell RE, Kim JJ, John CM, Gibson BW, Sugai JV, Apicella MA, Griffiss JM, Yamasaki R. Endogenous sialylation of the lipooligosaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis. J Bacteriol. 1991 May;173(9):2823–2832. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mandrell RE, Lesse AJ, Sugai JV, Shero M, Griffiss JM, Cole JA, Parsons NJ, Smith H, Morse SA, Apicella MA. In vitro and in vivo modification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide epitope structure by sialylation. J Exp Med. 1990 May 1;171(5):1649–1664. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mandrell R, Schneider H, Apicella M, Zollinger W, Rice PA, Griffiss JM. Antigenic and physical diversity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharides. Infect Immun. 1986 Oct;54(1):63–69. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mandrell RE, Zollinger WD. Measurement of antibodies to meningococcal group B polysaccharide: low avidity binding and equilibrium binding constants. J Immunol. 1982 Nov;129(5):2172–2178. [PubMed]
  • Parsons NJ, Patel PV, Tan EL, Andrade JR, Nairn CA, Goldner M, Cole JA, Smith H. Cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetyl neuraminic acid and a low molecular weight factor from human blood cells induce lipopolysaccharide alteration in gonococci when conferring resistance to killing by human serum. Microb Pathog. 1988 Oct;5(4):303–309. [PubMed]
  • Spinola SM, Kwaik YA, Lesse AJ, Campagnari AA, Apicella MA. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a Haemophilus influenzae type b lipooligosaccharide synthesis gene(s) that encodes a 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid epitope. Infect Immun. 1990 Jun;58(6):1558–1564. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Virji M, Weiser JN, Lindberg AA, Moxon ER. Antigenic similarities in lipopolysaccharides of Haemophilus and Neisseria and expression of a digalactoside structure also present on human cells. Microb Pathog. 1990 Dec;9(6):441–450. [PubMed]
  • Yamasaki R, Bacon BE, Nasholds W, Schneider H, Griffiss JM. Structural determination of oligosaccharides derived from lipooligosaccharide of Neisseria gonorrhoeae F62 by chemical, enzymatic, and two-dimensional NMR methods. Biochemistry. 1991 Oct 29;30(43):10566–10575. [PubMed]
  • Yamasaki R, Nasholds W, Schneider H, Apicella MA. Epitope expression and partial structural characterization of F62 lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: IgM monoclonal antibodies (3F11 and 1-1-M) recognize non-reducing termini of the LOS components. Mol Immunol. 1991 Nov;28(11):1233–1242. [PubMed]
  • Zollinger WD, Dalrymple JM, Artenstein MS. Analysis of parameters affecting the solid phase radioimmunoassay quantitation of antibody to meningococcal antigens. J Immunol. 1976 Nov;117(5 PT2):1788–1798. [PubMed]

Articles from Infection and Immunity are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...