Logo of jnmaLink to Publisher's site
J Natl Med Assoc. Dec 2004; 96(12): 1599–1605.
PMCID: PMC2568677

Fruit, vegetable and fat intake in a population-based sample of African Americans.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: African Americans experience high rates of obesity and other chronic diseases, which may be related, in part, to diet. However, little is known about dietary patterns in this population, particularly from population-based data sources. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 2,172 African-American adults in Project DIRECT (Diabetes Interventions Reaching and Educating Communities Together). A baseline assessment was conducted using a multistaged population-based probability sample from Raleigh and Greensboro, NC. Daily fruit, vegetable and fat intake was evaluated using a modified version of the Block questionnaire, and then stratified results were analyzed by sociodemographic, health and behavior characteristics. STATA Survey commands were used to account for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Overall, a very small number of participants met national recommendations for > or = 2 servings of fruit (8%) and > or = 3 servings of vegetables (16%) per day. Many participants reported eating high-fat foods; the average daily fat intake was 86 g, and the average daily intake from saturated fat was 24 g. People with more education and higher incomes had a higher average daily fruit intake (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that participants' fruit, vegetable and fat intake deviated greatly from national guidelines; older people, women, participants with higher socioeconomic status and those who were physically active consumed healthier foods. These data may be useful in developing dietary and weight loss interventions for African Americans.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Bowman BA, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemic of obesity in the United States. JAMA. 2000 Oct 4;284(13):1650–1651. [PubMed]
  • Mokdad AH, Bowman BA, Ford ES, Vinicor F, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. JAMA. 2001 Sep 12;286(10):1195–1200. [PubMed]
  • Flegal Katherine M, Carroll Margaret D, Ogden Cynthia L, Johnson Clifford L. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. JAMA. 2002 Oct 9;288(14):1723–1727. [PubMed]
  • Dreeben O. Health status of African Americans. J Health Soc Policy. 2001;14(1):1–17. [PubMed]
  • Hunter KI, Linn MW. Cultural and sex differences in dietary patterns of the urban elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1979 Aug;27(8):359–363. [PubMed]
  • Swanson CA, Gridley G, Greenberg RS, Schoenberg JB, Swanson GM, Brown LM, Hayes R, Silverman D, Pottern L. A comparison of diets of blacks and whites in three areas of the United States. Nutr Cancer. 1993;20(2):153–165. [PubMed]
  • Dacosta KO, Wilson JF. Food preferences and eating attitudes in three generations of black and white women. Appetite. 1996 Oct;27(2):183–191. [PubMed]
  • Kayrooz K, Moy TF, Yanek LR, Becker DM. Dietary fat patterns in urban African American women. J Community Health. 1998 Dec;23(6):453–469. [PubMed]
  • Champagne Catherine M, Bogle Margaret L, McGee Bernestine B, Yadrick Kathy, Allen H Raymond, Kramer Tim R, Simpson Pippa, Gossett Jeffrey, Weber Judith. Dietary intake in the lower Mississippi delta region: results from the Foods of our Delta Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Feb;104(2):199–207. [PubMed]
  • Block G, Rosenberger WF, Patterson BH. Calories, fat and cholesterol: intake patterns in the US population by race, sex and age. Am J Public Health. 1988 Sep;78(9):1150–1155. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Briefel RR, McDowell MA, Alaimo K, Caughman CR, Bischof AL, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Total energy intake of the US population: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Nov;62(5 Suppl):1072S–1080S. [PubMed]
  • Ernst ND, Sempos CT, Briefel RR, Clark MB. Consistency between US dietary fat intake and serum total cholesterol concentrations: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Oct;66(4 Suppl):965S–972S. [PubMed]
  • Popkin BM, Siega-Riz AM, Haines PS. A comparison of dietary trends among racial and socioeconomic groups in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1996 Sep 5;335(10):716–720. [PubMed]
  • Kumanyika S. Improving our diet--still a long way to go. N Engl J Med. 1996 Sep 5;335(10):738–740. [PubMed]
  • Engelgau MM, Narayan KM, Geiss LS, Thompson TJ, Beckles GL, Lopez L, Hartwell T, Visscher W, Liburd L. A project to reduce the burden of diabetes in the African-American Community: Project DIRECT. J Natl Med Assoc. 1998 Oct;90(10):605–613. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gregg EW, Geiss LS, Saaddine J, Fagot-Campagna A, Beckles G, Parker C, Visscher W, Hartwell T, Liburd L, Narayan KM, et al. Use of diabetes preventive care and complications risk in two African-American communities. Am J Prev Med. 2001 Oct;21(3):197–202. [PubMed]
  • Narayan K M Venkat, Gregg Edward W, Fagot-Campagna Anne, Gary Tiffany L, Saaddine Jinan B, Parker Corette, Imperatore Giuseppina, Valdez Rodolfo, Beckles Gloria, Engelgau Michael M. Relationship between quality of diabetes care and patient satisfaction. J Natl Med Assoc. 2003 Jan;95(1):64–70. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Harlan LC, Block G. Use of adjustment factors with a brief food frequency questionnaire to obtain nutrient values. Epidemiology. 1990 May;1(3):224–231. [PubMed]
  • Block G, Gillespie C, Rosenbaum EH, Jenson C. A rapid food screener to assess fat and fruit and vegetable intake. Am J Prev Med. 2000 May;18(4):284–288. [PubMed]
  • Serdula M, Coates R, Byers T, Mokdad A, Jewell S, Chávez N, Mares-Perlman J, Newcomb P, Ritenbaugh C, Treiber F, et al. Evaluation of a brief telephone questionnaire to estimate fruit and vegetable consumption in diverse study populations. Epidemiology. 1993 Sep;4(5):455–463. [PubMed]
  • Coates RJ, Serdula MK, Byers T, Mokdad A, Jewell S, Leonard SB, Ritenbaugh C, Newcomb P, Mares-Perlman J, Chavez N, et al. A brief, telephone-administered food frequency questionnaire can be useful for surveillance of dietary fat intakes. J Nutr. 1995 Jun;125(6):1473–1483. [PubMed]
  • Shea S, Stein AD, Lantigua R, Basch CE. Reliability of the behavioral risk factor survey in a triethnic population. Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Mar 1;133(5):489–500. [PubMed]
  • Stein AD, Lederman RI, Shea S. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System questionnaire: its reliability in a statewide sample. Am J Public Health. 1993 Dec;83(12):1768–1772. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bowlin SJ, Morrill BD, Nafziger AN, Jenkins PL, Lewis C, Pearson TA. Validity of cardiovascular disease risk factors assessed by telephone survey: the Behavioral Risk Factor Survey. J Clin Epidemiol. 1993 Jun;46(6):561–571. [PubMed]
  • Schneider D, Greenberg MR, Lu LL. Region of birth and mortality from circulatory diseases among black Americans. Am J Public Health. 1997 May;87(5):800–804. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Knowler William C, Barrett-Connor Elizabeth, Fowler Sarah E, Hamman Richard F, Lachin John M, Walker Elizabeth A, Nathan David M. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7;346(6):393–403. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the National Medical Association are provided here courtesy of National Medical Association

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...