• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jvirolPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJV ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Virol. Jan 1984; 49(1): 183–189.
PMCID: PMC255440

Characterization of enhancer elements in the long terminal repeat of Moloney murine sarcoma virus.

Abstract

A series of recombinant molecules were constructed which direct the expression of the easily assayed gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. We have used these recombinants to show that the 73/72-base-pair tandem repeat unit from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat shares a number of properties with the prototypic enhancer element, the simian virus 40 72-base-pair repeat. Specifically, the Moloney murine sarcoma virus sequence significantly enhances the level of gene expression at both 5' and 3' locations and in either orientation relative to the test gene. It is able to enhance gene activity both from its own promoter and from a heterologous (simian virus 40) promoter. The 73/72-base-pair subunits of the Moloney murine sarcoma virus enhancer differ in sequence by four nucleotides and also in the strength of their enhancer function. The promoter distal A repeat is at least three times as active as the promoter proximal B repeat in enhancing chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression. Results of these studies also show that the enhancer sequence alone is unable to induce gene activity but requires other promoter elements, including a proximal GC-rich sequence and the Goldberg-Hogness box.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Banerji J, Rusconi S, Schaffner W. Expression of a beta-globin gene is enhanced by remote SV40 DNA sequences. Cell. 1981 Dec;27(2 Pt 1):299–308. [PubMed]
  • Benoist C, Chambon P. Deletions covering the putative promoter region of early mRNAs of simian virus 40 do not abolish T-antigen expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jul;77(7):3865–3869. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Benoist C, Chambon P. In vivo sequence requirements of the SV40 early promotor region. Nature. 1981 Mar 26;290(5804):304–310. [PubMed]
  • Berg PE, Yu JK, Popovic Z, Schumperli D, Johansen H, Rosenberg M, Anderson WF. Differential activation of the mouse beta-globin promoter by enhancers. Mol Cell Biol. 1983 Jul;3(7):1246–1254. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Blair DG, McClements WL, Oskarsson MK, Fischinger PJ, Vande Woude GF. Biological activity of cloned Moloney sarcoma virus DNA: Terminally redundant sequences may enhance transformation efficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jun;77(6):3504–3508. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Blair DG, Oskarsson M, Wood TG, McClements WL, Fischinger PJ, Vande Woude GG. Activation of the transforming potential of a normal cell sequence: a molecular model for oncogenesis. Science. 1981 May 22;212(4497):941–943. [PubMed]
  • Byrne BJ, Davis MS, Yamaguchi J, Bergsma DJ, Subramanian KN. Definition of the simian virus 40 early promoter region and demonstration of a host range bias in the enhancement effect of the simian virus 40 72-base-pair repeat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Feb;80(3):721–725. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chang EH, Ellis RW, Scolnick EM, Lowy DR. Transformation by cloned Harvey murine sarcoma virus DNA: efficiency increased by long terminal repeat DNA. Science. 1980 Dec 12;210(4475):1249–1251. [PubMed]
  • de Villiers J, Olson L, Tyndall C, Schaffner W. Transcriptional 'enhancers' from SV40 and polyoma virus show a cell type preference. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Dec 20;10(24):7965–7976. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • de Villiers J, Schaffner W. A small segment of polyoma virus DNA enhances the expression of a cloned beta-globin gene over a distance of 1400 base pairs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Dec 11;9(23):6251–6264. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dhar R, McClements WL, Enquist LW, Vande Woude GF. Nucleotide sequences of integrated Moloney sarcoma provirus long terminal repeats and their host and viral junctions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jul;77(7):3937–3941. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • DiMaio D, Nathans D. Cold-sensitive regulatory mutants of simian virus 40. J Mol Biol. 1980 Jun 15;140(1):129–142. [PubMed]
  • Even J, Anderson SJ, Hampe A, Galibert F, Lowy D, Khoury G, Sherr CJ. Mutant feline sarcoma proviruses containing the viral oncogene (v-fes) and either feline or murine control elements. J Virol. 1983 Mar;45(3):1004–1016. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Everett RD, Baty D, Chambon P. The repeated GC-rich motifs upstream from the TATA box are important elements of the SV40 early promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Apr 25;11(8):2447–2464. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fromm M, Berg P. Deletion mapping of DNA regions required for SV40 early region promoter function in vivo. J Mol Appl Genet. 1982;1(5):457–481. [PubMed]
  • Fromm M, Berg P. Simian virus 40 early- and late-region promoter functions are enhanced by the 72-base-pair repeat inserted at distant locations and inverted orientations. Mol Cell Biol. 1983 Jun;3(6):991–999. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ghosh PK, Lebowitz P, Frisque RJ, Gluzman Y. Identification of a promoter component involved in positioning the 5' termini of simian virus 40 early mRNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Jan;78(1):100–104. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gluzman Y, Sambrook JF, Frisque RJ. Expression of early genes of origin-defective mutants of simian virus 40. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jul;77(7):3898–3902. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gorman CM, Moffat LF, Howard BH. Recombinant genomes which express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1982 Sep;2(9):1044–1051. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Graham FL, van der Eb AJ. A new technique for the assay of infectivity of human adenovirus 5 DNA. Virology. 1973 Apr;52(2):456–467. [PubMed]
  • Grosschedl R, Birnstiel ML. Identification of regulatory sequences in the prelude sequences of an H2A histone gene by the study of specific deletion mutants in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Mar;77(3):1432–1436. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gruss P, Dhar R, Khoury G. Simian virus 40 tandem repeated sequences as an element of the early promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Feb;78(2):943–947. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Huang AL, Ostrowski MC, Berard D, Hager GL. Glucocorticoid regulation of the Ha-MuSV p21 gene conferred by sequences from mouse mammary tumor virus. Cell. 1981 Dec;27(2 Pt 1):245–255. [PubMed]
  • Jolly DJ, Esty AC, Subramani S, Friedmann T, Verma IM. Elements in the long terminal repeat of murine retroviruses enhance stable transformation by thymidine kinase gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Mar 25;11(6):1855–1872. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Khoury G, Gruss P. Enhancer elements. Cell. 1983 Jun;33(2):313–314. [PubMed]
  • Kriegler M, Botchan M. Enhanced transformation by a simian virus 40 recombinant virus containing a Harvey murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat. Mol Cell Biol. 1983 Mar;3(3):325–339. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laimins LA, Khoury G, Gorman C, Howard B, Gruss P. Host-specific activation of transcription by tandem repeats from simian virus 40 and Moloney murine sarcoma virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Nov;79(21):6453–6457. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Levinson B, Khoury G, Vande Woude G, Gruss P. Activation of SV40 genome by 72-base pair tandem repeats of Moloney sarcoma virus. Nature. 1982 Feb 18;295(5850):568–572. [PubMed]
  • Lusky M, Berg L, Weiher H, Botchan M. Bovine papilloma virus contains an activator of gene expression at the distal end of the early transcription unit. Mol Cell Biol. 1983 Jun;3(6):1108–1122. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lusky M, Botchan M. Inhibition of SV40 replication in simian cells by specific pBR322 DNA sequences. Nature. 1981 Sep 3;293(5827):79–81. [PubMed]
  • Maxam AM, Gilbert W. Sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages. Methods Enzymol. 1980;65(1):499–560. [PubMed]
  • Moreau P, Hen R, Wasylyk B, Everett R, Gaub MP, Chambon P. The SV40 72 base repair repeat has a striking effect on gene expression both in SV40 and other chimeric recombinants. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Nov 25;9(22):6047–6068. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Neel BG, Hayward WS, Robinson HL, Fang J, Astrin SM. Avian leukosis virus-induced tumors have common proviral integration sites and synthesize discrete new RNAs: oncogenesis by promoter insertion. Cell. 1981 Feb;23(2):323–334. [PubMed]
  • Payne GS, Bishop JM, Varmus HE. Multiple arrangements of viral DNA and an activated host oncogene in bursal lymphomas. Nature. 1982 Jan 21;295(5846):209–214. [PubMed]
  • Tyndall C, La Mantia G, Thacker CM, Favaloro J, Kamen R. A region of the polyoma virus genome between the replication origin and late protein coding sequences is required in cis for both early gene expression and viral DNA replication. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Dec 11;9(23):6231–6250. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weeks DL, Jones NC. E1A control of gene expression is mediated by sequences 5' to the transcriptional starts of the early viral genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1983 Jul;3(7):1222–1234. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weiher H, König M, Gruss P. Multiple point mutations affecting the simian virus 40 enhancer. Science. 1983 Feb 11;219(4585):626–631. [PubMed]
  • Wood TG, McGeady ML, Blair DG, Vande Woude GF. Long terminal repeat enhancement of v-mos transforming activity: identification of essential regions. J Virol. 1983 Jun;46(3):726–736. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Virology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...