• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jvirolPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJV ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Virol. Dec 1986; 60(3): 1085–1097.
PMCID: PMC253350

Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of bovine parvovirus.


We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of bovine parvovirus (BPV), an autonomous parvovirus. The sequence is 5,491 nucleotides long. The terminal regions contain nonidentical imperfect palindromic sequences of 150 and 121 nucleotides. In the plus strand, there are three large open reading frames (left ORF, mid ORF, and right ORF) with coding capacities of 729, 255, and 685 amino acids, respectively. As with all parvoviruses studied to date, the left ORF of BPV codes for the nonstructural protein NS-1 and the right ORF codes for the major parts of the three capsid proteins. The mid ORF probably encodes the major part of the nonstructural protein NP-1. There are promoterlike sequences at map units 4.5, 12.8, and 38.7 and polyadenylation signals at map units 61.6, 64.6, and 98.5. BPV has little DNA homology with the defective parvovirus AAV, with the human autonomous parvovirus B19, or with the other autonomous parvoviruses sequenced (canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus, H-1, and minute virus of mice). Even though the overall DNA homology of BPV with other parvoviruses is low, several small regions of high homology are observed when the amino acid sequences encoded by the left and right ORFs are compared. From these comparisons, it can be shown that the evolutionary relationship among the parvoviruses is B19 in equilibrium with AAV in equilibrium with BPV in equilibrium with MVM. The highly conserved amino acid sequences observed among all parvoviruses may be useful in the identification and detection of parvoviruses and in the design of a general parvovirus vaccine.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Astell CR, Chow MB, Ward DC. Sequence analysis of the termini of virion and replicative forms of minute virus of mice DNA suggests a modified rolling hairpin model for autonomous parvovirus DNA replication. J Virol. 1985 Apr;54(1):171–177. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Astell CR, Gardiner EM, Tattersall P. DNA sequence of the lymphotropic variant of minute virus of mice, MVM(i), and comparison with the DNA sequence of the fibrotropic prototype strain. J Virol. 1986 Feb;57(2):656–669. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Astell CR, Thomson M, Merchlinsky M, Ward DC. The complete DNA sequence of minute virus of mice, an autonomous parvovirus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Feb 25;11(4):999–1018. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Banerjee PT, Olson WH, Allison DP, Bates RC, Snyder CE, Mitra S. Electron microscopic comparison of the sequences of single-stranded genomes of mammalian parvoviruses by heteroduplex mapping. J Mol Biol. 1983 May 25;166(3):257–272. [PubMed]
  • Bates RC, Snyder CE, Banerjee PT, Mitra S. Autonomous parvovirus LuIII encapsidates equal amounts of plus and minus DNA strands. J Virol. 1984 Feb;49(2):319–324. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Becerra SP, Rose JA, Hardy M, Baroudy BM, Anderson CW. Direct mapping of adeno-associated virus capsid proteins B and C: a possible ACG initiation codon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Dec;82(23):7919–7923. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ben-Asher E, Aloni Y. Transcription of minute virus of mice, an autonomous parvovirus, may be regulated by attenuation. J Virol. 1984 Oct;52(1):266–276. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bensimhon M, Gabarro-Arpa J, Ehrlich R, Reiss C. Physical characteristics in eucaryotic promoters. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Jul 11;11(13):4521–4540. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berget SM. Are U4 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins involved in polyadenylation? Nature. 1984 May 10;309(5964):179–182. [PubMed]
  • Biggin MD, Gibson TJ, Hong GF. Buffer gradient gels and 35S label as an aid to rapid DNA sequence determination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Jul;80(13):3963–3965. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Birnstiel ML, Busslinger M, Strub K. Transcription termination and 3' processing: the end is in site! Cell. 1985 Jun;41(2):349–359. [PubMed]
  • Burd PR, Mitra S, Bates RC, Thompson LD, Stout ER. Distribution of restriction enzyme sites in the bovine parvovirus genome and comparison to other autonomous parvoviruses. J Gen Virol. 1983 Nov;64(Pt 11):2521–2526. [PubMed]
  • Carlson J, Rushlow K, Maxwell I, Maxwell F, Winston S, Hahn W. Cloning and sequence of DNA encoding structural proteins of the autonomous parvovirus feline panleukopenia virus. J Virol. 1985 Sep;55(3):574–582. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cotmore SF, Sturzenbecker LJ, Tattersall P. The autonomous parvovirus MVM encodes two nonstructural proteins in addition to its capsid polypeptides. Virology. 1983 Sep;129(2):333–343. [PubMed]
  • Cotmore SF, Tattersall P. Organization of nonstructural genes of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice. J Virol. 1986 Jun;58(3):724–732. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goad WB, Kanehisa MI. Pattern recognition in nucleic acid sequences. I. A general method for finding local homologies and symmetries. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Jan 11;10(1):247–263. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hall MN, Hereford L, Herskowitz I. Targeting of E. coli beta-galactosidase to the nucleus in yeast. Cell. 1984 Apr;36(4):1057–1065. [PubMed]
  • Hanahan D. Studies on transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids. J Mol Biol. 1983 Jun 5;166(4):557–580. [PubMed]
  • Hermonat PL, Labow MA, Wright R, Berns KI, Muzyczka N. Genetics of adeno-associated virus: isolation and preliminary characterization of adeno-associated virus type 2 mutants. J Virol. 1984 Aug;51(2):329–339. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hirt B. Selective extraction of polyoma DNA from infected mouse cell cultures. J Mol Biol. 1967 Jun 14;26(2):365–369. [PubMed]
  • Jacks T, Varmus HE. Expression of the Rous sarcoma virus pol gene by ribosomal frameshifting. Science. 1985 Dec 13;230(4731):1237–1242. [PubMed]
  • Janik JE, Huston MM, Rose JA. Adeno-associated virus proteins: origin of the capsid components. J Virol. 1984 Nov;52(2):591–597. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kozak M. Comparison of initiation of protein synthesis in procaryotes, eucaryotes, and organelles. Microbiol Rev. 1983 Mar;47(1):1–45. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Labieniec-Pintel L, Pintel D. The minute virus of mice P39 transcription unit can encode both capsid proteins. J Virol. 1986 Mar;57(3):1163–1167. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lederman M, Bates RC, Stout ER. In vitro and in vivo studies of bovine parvovirus proteins. J Virol. 1983 Oct;48(1):10–17. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lederman M, Chen KC, Stout ER, Bates RC. Possible sequences for nuclear accumulation of parvoviral proteins. Cell Biol Int Rep. 1986 May;10(5):383–387. [PubMed]
  • Lederman M, Patton JT, Stout ER, Bates RC. Virally coded noncapsid protein associated with bovine parvovirus infection. J Virol. 1984 Feb;49(2):315–318. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lefebvre RB, Riva S, Berns KI. Conformation takes precedence over sequence in adeno-associated virus DNA replication. Mol Cell Biol. 1984 Jul;4(7):1416–1419. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maxam AM, Gilbert W. A new method for sequencing DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Feb;74(2):560–564. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McDevitt MA, Imperiale MJ, Ali H, Nevins JR. Requirement of a downstream sequence for generation of a poly(A) addition site. Cell. 1984 Jul;37(3):993–999. [PubMed]
  • Mount SM. A catalogue of splice junction sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Jan 22;10(2):459–472. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Paradiso PR. Identification of multiple forms of the noncapsid parvovirus protein NCVP1 in H-1 parvovirus-infected cells. J Virol. 1984 Oct;52(1):82–87. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Paradiso PR, Williams KR, Costantino RL. Mapping of the amino terminus of the H-1 parvovirus major capsid protein. J Virol. 1984 Oct;52(1):77–81. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Parris DS, Bates RC. Effect of bovine parvovirus replication on DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis in S phase cells. Virology. 1976 Aug;73(1):72–78. [PubMed]
  • Pintel D, Dadachanji D, Astell CR, Ward DC. The genome of minute virus of mice, an autonomous parvovirus, encodes two overlapping transcription units. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Feb 25;11(4):1019–1038. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pustell J, Kafatos FC. A convenient and adaptable package of computer programs for DNA and protein sequence management, analysis and homology determination. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Jan 11;12(1 Pt 2):643–655. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rhode SL., 3rd Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of canine parvovirus. J Virol. 1985 May;54(2):630–633. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rhode SL, 3rd, Paradiso PR. Parvovirus genome: nucleotide sequence of H-1 and mapping of its genes by hybrid-arrested translation. J Virol. 1983 Jan;45(1):173–184. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roychoudhury R, Wu R. Terminal transferase-catalyzed addition of nucleotides to the 3' termini of DNA. Methods Enzymol. 1980;65(1):43–62. [PubMed]
  • Sahli R, McMaster GK, Hirt B. DNA sequence comparison between two tissue-specific variants of the autonomous parvovirus, minute virus of mice. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 May 24;13(10):3617–3633. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Coulson AR, Barrell BG, Smith AJ, Roe BA. Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid DNA sequencing. J Mol Biol. 1980 Oct 25;143(2):161–178. [PubMed]
  • Shade RO, Blundell MC, Cotmore SF, Tattersall P, Astell CR. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of human parvovirus B19 isolated from the serum of a child during aplastic crisis. J Virol. 1986 Jun;58(3):921–936. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Simpson RW, McGinty L, Simon L, Smith CA, Godzeski CW, Boyd RJ. Association of parvoviruses with rheumatoid arthritis of humans. Science. 1984 Mar 30;223(4643):1425–1428. [PubMed]
  • Srivastava A, Lusby EW, Berns KI. Nucleotide sequence and organization of the adeno-associated virus 2 genome. J Virol. 1983 Feb;45(2):555–564. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tratschin JD, Miller IL, Carter BJ. Genetic analysis of adeno-associated virus: properties of deletion mutants constructed in vitro and evidence for an adeno-associated virus replication function. J Virol. 1984 Sep;51(3):611–619. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wickens M, Stephenson P. Role of the conserved AAUAAA sequence: four AAUAAA point mutants prevent messenger RNA 3' end formation. Science. 1984 Nov 30;226(4678):1045–1051. [PubMed]
  • Woychik RP, Lyons RH, Post L, Rottman FM. Requirement for the 3' flanking region of the bovine growth hormone gene for accurate polyadenylylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jul;81(13):3944–3948. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yanisch-Perron C, Vieira J, Messing J. Improved M13 phage cloning vectors and host strains: nucleotide sequences of the M13mp18 and pUC19 vectors. Gene. 1985;33(1):103–119. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Virology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Gene
    Gene links
  • Gene (nucleotide)
    Gene (nucleotide)
    Records in Gene identified from shared sequence links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • Protein
    Published protein sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...