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J Virol. 1986 May; 58(2): 348–358.
PMCID: PMC252919

Genetic analysis of the attenuation phenotype of poliovirus type 1.

Abstract

Seven different recombinant viruses from the virulent Mahoney and the attenuated Sabin parental strains of type 1 poliovirus were constructed in vitro by using infectious cDNA clones. Monkey neurovirulence tests (lesion score, spread value, and incidence of paralysis) using these recombinant viruses revealed that the loci influencing attenuation were spread over several areas of the viral genome, including the 5' noncoding region. In vitro phenotypic marker tests corresponding to temperature sensitivity of growth (rct marker), plaque size, and dependency of growth on bicarbonate concentration (d marker) were performed to identify the genomic loci of these determinants and to investigate their correlation with attenuation. Determinants of temperature sensitivity mapped to many areas of the viral genome and expressed strong but not perfect correlation with attenuation. Recombinant viruses with Sabin-derived capsid proteins showed a small-plaque phenotype, and their growth was strongly dependent on bicarbonate concentration, suggesting that these determinants map to the genomic region encoding the viral capsid proteins. Plaque size and the d marker, however, were found to be poor indicators of attenuation. Moreover, virion surface characteristics such as immunogenicity and antigenicity had little or no correlation with neurovirulence. Nevertheless, viruses carrying Sabin-derived capsid proteins had an apparent tendency to exhibit less neurovirulence in tests on monkeys compared with recombinants carrying Mahoney-derived capsid proteins. Our results suggest that the extent of viral multiplication in the central nervous system of the test animals might be one of the most important factors determining neurovirulence. Moreover, we conclude that the expression of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 1 strain of poliovirus is the result of several different biological characteristics. Finally, none of the in vitro phenotypic markers alone can serve as a good indicator of neurovirulence or attenuation.

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Selected References

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