Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
Science. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2009 Jun 20.
Published in final edited form as:
PMCID: PMC2514061

Ankyrin Repeat Proteins Comprise a Diverse Family of Bacterial Type IV Effectors#


Specialized secretion systems are used by many bacteria to deliver effector proteins into host cells that can either mimic or disrupt the function of eukaryotic factors. We found that the intracellular pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii use a type IV secretion system to deliver into eukaryotic cells a large number of different bacterial proteins containing ankyrin repeat homology domains called Anks. The L. pneumophila AnkX protein prevented microtubule-dependent vesicular transport to interfere with fusion of the L. pneumophila-containing vacuole with late endosomes after infection of macrophages, demonstrating that Ank proteins possess effector functions important for bacterial infection of eukaryotic host cells.

Type IV secretion systems (TFSSs) are molecular machines used by gram-negative bacteria for protein transfer into recipient cells (1). Many bacterial pathogens and endosymbionts use TFSSs to regulate host processes important for survival and replication (2), and several of these organisms have a large number of genes encoding proteins with multiple Ankyrin Repeat Homology Domains (ARHDs) (37). Infrequently encountered in bacterial proteins but common in eukaryotic proteins, ARHDs form molecular scaffolds that mediate protein-protein interactions (8).An Anaplasma phagocytolyticum protein containing multiple ARHDs called AnkA (9), and several ARHD proteins in strains of Wolbachia (10, 11), have been proposed to be delivered into host cells by a TFSS (12); however, whether Ank proteins are bone fide TFSS effectors has not been established.

Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii are both intracellular pathogens that encode several proteins containing ARHDs and a TFSS called Dot/Icm (57). To test whether ARHD proteins are TFSS substrates, we measured host cell translocation of four L. pneumophila Ank proteins fused to a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter (Cya), using the L. pneumophila effector RalF as a positive control (13, 14). These four Ank proteins were delivered into mammalian cells as indicated by a greater than ten-fold increase in cAMP following infection (Fig. 1A). No cAMP increase was observed when the Cya-Ank proteins were produced in the L. pneumophila ΔdotA mutant lacking a functional TFSS, indicating that the Dot/Icm system is required for Ank protein delivery into host cells. Thirteen different C. burnetii proteins with ARHDs were tested for translocation using the Cya assay. Genetic manipulation of the obligate intracellular pathogen C. burnetii is not currently possible, but the C. burnetii and L. pneumophila Dot/Icm systems are functionally similar (15, 16), suggesting that L. pneumophila will deliver C. burnetii Dot/Icm substrates into host cells. C. burnetii AnkA, AnkB, AnkF and AnkG fusion proteins were efficiently translocated into host cells by a process requiring the L. pneumophila Dot/Icm system (Fig. 1B). The AnkE, AnkH, AnkI and AnkM proteins were delivered less efficiently (Fig. 1B). Specific Ank-encoding RNA transcripts were expressed during C. burnetii infection (Fig. 1C), suggesting protein products should be available for delivery into host cells by the C. burnetii Dot/Icm system.

Fig. 1
Type IV translocation of bacterial Ank proteins. (A,B) Translocation of Cya-Ank fusion proteins from L. pneumophila (A) or C. burnetii (B) into CHO-FcγRII cells was determined. Each bar represents the mean cAMP concentration ± SD from ...

An antibody generated against AnkF confirmed that this protein was secreted during C. burnetii infection of mammalian cells (Fig. 1D), whereas, the C. burnetii translation factor EF-Ts was not and remained associated with bacteria in the pellet. The amount of secreted AnkF diminished over time upon treatment with the bacterial protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol, which did not measurably affect levels of AnkF associated with bacterial cells (Fig. 1D). The short half-life of secreted AnkF revealed by chloramphenicol treatment could be the result of proteasome-mediated degradation if this protein was translocated into the host cytosol. Indeed, inhibition of the host proteasome with MG132 prevented degradation of secreted AnkF in the chloramphenicol-treated cells (Fig. 1E), indicating secreted AnkF was located in the host cytosol. Thus, multiple C. burnetii Ank proteins are substrates of the Dot/Icm system and AnkF is delivered into host cells during C. burnetii infection.

The four translocated L. pneumophila Anks were fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ectopically produced in mammalian cells to address whether these proteins possess effector functions. Each of the four Ank proteins showed a different pattern of subcellular localization in mammalian cells, suggesting that these proteins have different targets and distinct functions (Fig. 2A). Extensive fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus was observed in cells producing GFP-AnkX, which correlated with a significant defect in the release of secreted alkaline phosphatase (AP) into the tissue culture medium (Fig. 2C,D). GFP-AnkX deletion derivatives revealed that ARHDs and the amino terminal region of AnkX were both required for disrupting secretory transport (Fig. 2C,D).

Fig. 2
The L. pneumophila AnkX protein is an effector of membrane transport. (A) Micrographs indicate the differential localization of L. pneumophila Ank proteins fused to GFP in CHO FcγRII cells. (B) Giantin staining (red) in CHO FcγRII cells ...

Effectors translocated by the Dot/Icm system have predicted roles in blocking fusion of the L. pneumophila-containing vacuole with late endosomes and promoting vacuole fusion with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–derived vesicles (17). To determine whether AnkX is an effector that controls membrane transport, we further investigated the process of AnkX-mediated dispersion of the Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells by time-lapse microscopy. AnkX protein was microinjected into cells producing the resident Golgi enzyme N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-II fused to yellow fluorescent protein (GalNAcTII-YFP). Compared to control cells treated with Brefeldin A (BFA, Movie S1), which stimulated retrograde transport of Golgi membranes and cargo back to the ER, microinjected AnkX protein resulted in GalNAcTII-YFP being dispersed in peripheral vesicles formed during Golgi fragmentation, with no apparent delivery back to the ER (Fig. 3A and Movie S2). Thus, the AnkX activity more closely mimicked fragmentation of the Golgi that occurs during mitosis (Movie S2, cells marked “M”), when transport of vesicles from the ER to the Golgi is blocked.

Fig. 3
AnkX interferes with minus end-directed transport of vesicles on microtubules. (A) GalNAc-T2-YFP localization in cells treated with Brefeldin-A or injected with purified AnkX. (B) CopI and CopII localization in NRK cells injected with purified AnkX (asterix) ...

The CopI and CopII coat proteins control initial events important for ER vesicle transport to the Golgi apparatus and colocalize on early secretory vesicles (18). CopI and CopII staining revealed no defects in the morphology of vesicles at ER exit sites in AnkX-injected cells (Fig. 3B), suggesting that AnkX does not affect this early stage in vesicle production from the ER. Interfering with vesicle production from ER exit sites by production of the GDP-locked Arf1T31N protein blocked AP secretion and reduced L. pneumophila replication in mammalian cells (Fig. 3C). AnkX production blocked AP secretion but did not interfere with L. pneumophila replication (Fig. 3C). Thus, AnkX disrupts secretory transport after vesicles have exited the ER.

To address whether AnkX specifically prevented the transport of early secretory vesicles, endocytic transport of transferrin was followed in cells microinjected with AnkX protein (Movie S3). In neighboring cells that were not injected with AnkX, fluorescently-labeled transferrin was internalized and transported to perinuclear sorting compartments (Fig. 3D). In AnkX-injected cells, however, transferrin remained in peripheral endosomes that enlarged over time (Movie S3, Fig. 3D). The effects of AnkX resembled what occurs when cells are treated with the drug nocodazole (1921), which depolymerizes microtubules. However, tubulin staining in cells microinjected with AnkX revealed no morphological defects in microtubules (Fig. 3E), indicating that AnkX interfered with microtubule-dependent transport of vesicles without affecting the organization of the microtubule network.

Because microtubule-dependent transport is important for early to late endosome maturation (1921), trafficking of wild type L. pneumophila was compared to isogenic ΔdotA and ΔankX mutants to determine if AnkX was important for L. pneumophila evasion of endocytic maturation. The majority of vacuoles containing wild type L. pneumophila evaded fusion with LAMP-1-positive late endosomes at 30min and 2hr post-infection, whereas, vacuoles containing the L. pneumophila ΔdotA mutant acquired LAMP-1 within the first 30min of infection (Fig. 4A). Most vacuoles containing the L. pneumophila ΔankX mutant were LAMP-1 negative at 30min (Fig. 4A), however, there was a significant increase at 2hr in the number of LAMP-1-positive vacuoles containing the ΔankX mutant. When remodeling of the L. pneumophila-containing vacuole by ER-derived vesicles was prevented by treating cells with BFA, there was a significant increase in the number of LAMP-1-positive vacuoles containing L. pneumophila ΔankX mutants compared to wild type at 30min post-infection (Fig. 4B). The defect in avoiding LAMP-1 acquisition for vacuoles containing the ΔankX mutant was suppressed when the microtubule network was destabilized by nocodazole treatment (Fig. 4C, D). By contrast, vacuoles containing the L. pneumophila ΔdotA mutant acquired LAMP-1 rapidly in nocodazole-treated cells. Thus, microtubule depolymerization had a specific effect that restored the ability of the ΔankX mutant to efficiently avoid endocytic maturation, indicating that interfering with microtubule-dependent vesicle transport mimics a virulence activity mediated by the AnkX protein during infection.

Fig. 4
AnkX prevents microtubule-dependent endocytic maturation of vacuoles containing L. pneumophila. (A) Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages were infected with the either wild type L. pneumophila (blue), the dotA mutant (green), or the ankX mutant (pink) ...

The L. pneumophila and C. burnetii Ank proteins represent a large and diverse family of proteins containing ARHDs that we determined to be translocated into eukaryotic cells by pathogen-associated TFSSs. Similar to eukaryotic proteins, the prediction is that these bacterial proteins will have diverse cellular functions that are achieved by targeting different host factors through ARHD-dependent interactions. Finding that the L. pneumophila AnkX protein interferes with microtubule-dependent vesicular transport demonstrates that Ank proteins have effector functions. In addition to preventing endocytic maturation of the pathogen-occupied vacuole, AnkX interfered with transport of ER-derived vesicles generated at peripheral ER exit sites, an activity that will facilitate recruitment of early secretory vesicles to the vacuole and aid in construction of the specialized organelle that supports L. pneumophila replication (Fig. S1).

Supplementary Material



#This manuscript has been accepted for publication in Science. This version has not undergone final editing. Please refer to the complete version of record at http://www.sciencemag.org/. Their manuscript may not be reproduced or used in any manner that does not fall within the fair use provisions of the Copyright Act without the prior, written permission of AAAS.

References and Notes

1. Christie PJ, Atmakuri K, Krishnamoorthy V, Jakubowski S, Cascales E. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2005;59:451. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
2. Backert S, Meyer TF. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006;9:207. [PubMed]
3. McGraw EA, O’Neill SL. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004;7:67. [PubMed]
4. Ogata H, et al. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1063:26. [PubMed]
5. Seshadri R, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5455. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
6. Cazalet C, et al. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1165. [PubMed]
7. Chien M, et al. Science. 2004;305:1966. [PubMed]
8. Mosavi LK, Cammett TJ, Desrosiers DC, Peng ZY. Protein Sci. 2004;13:1435. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
9. Park J, Kim KJ, Choi KS, Grab DJ, Dumler JS. Cell Microbiol. 2004;6:743. [PubMed]
10. Iturbe-Ormaetxe I, Burke GR, Riegler M, O’Neill SL. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5136. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
11. Walker T, et al. BMC Biol. 2007;5:39. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
12. Lin M, den Dulk-Ras A, Hooykaas PJ, Rikihisa Y. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:2644. [PubMed]
13. Materials and methods are available as supporting material on Science Online.
14. Nagai H, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:826. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
15. Zamboni DS, McGrath S, Rabinovitch M, Roy CR. Mol Microbiol. 2003;49:965. [PubMed]
16. Zusman T, Yerushalmi G, Segal G. Infect Immun. 2003;71:3714. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
17. Ninio S, Roy CR. Trends Microbiol. 2007;15:372. [PubMed]
18. Scales SJ, Pepperkok R, Kreis TE. Cell. 1997;90:1137. [PubMed]
19. Goltz JS, Wolkoff AW, Novikoff PM, Stockert RJ, Satir P. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:7026. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
20. Aniento F, Emans N, Griffiths G, Gruenberg J. J Cell Biol. 1993;123:1373. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
21. Driskell OJ, Mironov A, Allan VJ, Woodman PG. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:113. [PubMed]
22. Authors contribution: X.P., A.L., A.S., and M.L. performed research; A.L. conducted studies on the C. burnetii Anks; A.S. conducted the AnkX microinjection studies; X.P., A.L., A.S. and C.R. analysed results and wrote the manuscript. We thank G. Warren, F. Gorelick, R. Heinzen, and J. Samuel for reagents. Supported by National Institutes of Health grants AI041699 and AI064559 to C.R., AG030101 and GM060919 to A.S., and Brown-Coxe and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft postdoctoral fellowships to A.L.
PubReader format: click here to try


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...