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J Virol. Nov 1991; 65(11): 6015–6023.
PMCID: PMC250267

Mechanisms of receptor-mediated rhinovirus neutralization defined by two soluble forms of ICAM-1.


The majority of human rhinoviruses use intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) as a cell surface receptor. Two soluble forms of ICAM-1, one corresponding to the entire extracellular portion [tICAM(453)] and one corresponding to the two N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domains [tICAM(185)], have been produced, and their effects on virus-receptor binding, virus infectivity, and virus integrity have been examined. Results from competitive binding experiments indicate that the virus binding site is largely contained within the two N-terminal domains of ICAM-1. Virus infectivity studies indicate that tICAM(185) prevents infection by direct competition for receptor binding sites on virus, while tICAM(453) prevents infection at concentrations 10-fold lower than that needed to inhibit binding and apparently acts at the entry or uncoating steps. Neutralization by both forms of soluble ICAM-1 requires continual presence of ICAM-1 during the infection and is largely reversible. Both forms of soluble ICAM-1 can alter rhinovirus to yield subviral noninfectious particles lacking the viral subunit VP4 and the RNA genome, thus mimicking virus uncoating in vivo, although this irreversible modification of rhinovirus is not the major mechanism of virus neutralization.

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