• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jvirolPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJV ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Virol. Feb 1990; 64(2): 598–606.
PMCID: PMC249149

Feline leukemia virus infection as a potentiating cofactor for the primary and secondary stages of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

Abstract

Preexistent feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection greatly potentiated the severity of the transient primary and chronic secondary stages of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. Of 10 FeLV-FIV carrier cats, 5 died of experimentally induced FIV infection, compared with 2 deaths in 10 cats infected only with FeLV and 1 death in 7 cats infected only with FIV. FIV-infected cats with preexistent FeLV infections developed severe depression, anorexia, fever, diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, and leukopenia 4 to 6 weeks after infection and were moribund within 2 weeks of the onset of signs, whereas cats infected only with FIV developed much milder self-limiting gross and hematologic abnormalities. Pathologic findings in dually infected cats that died were similar to those observed previously in cats dying from uncomplicated primary FIV infection but were much more widespread and severe. Coinfection of asymptomatic FeLV carrier cats with FIV did not increase the levels of FeLV p27 antigen present in their blood over that seen in cats infected with FeLV alone. The amount of proviral FIV DNA was much higher, however, in dually infected cats than in cats infected only with FIV; there was a greater expression of FIV DNA in lymphoid tissues, where the genome was normally detected, and in nonlymphoid tissues, where FIV DNA was not usually found. Dually infedted cats that recovered from the primary stage of FIV infection remained more leukopenic than cats infected with FIV or FeLV alone, and their CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocyte ratios were inverted. One of these cats developed what was considered to be an opportunistic infection. It was concluded, therefore, that a preexistent FeLV infection in some way enhanced the expression and spread of FIV in the body and increased the severity of both the resulting transient primary and chronic secondary stages of FIV infection. This study also demonstrated the usefulness of the FIV model in studying the role of incidental infectious diseases as cofactors for immunodeficiency-causing lentiviruses.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.8M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bacon LD, Witter RL, Fadly AM. Augmentation of retrovirus-induced lymphoid leukosis by Marek's disease herpesviruses in White Leghorn chickens. J Virol. 1989 Feb;63(2):504–512. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bartholomew C, Blattner W, Cleghorn F. Progression to AIDS in homosexual men co-infected with HIV and HTLV-I in Trinidad. Lancet. 1987 Dec 19;2(8573):1469–1469. [PubMed]
  • Baskin GB, Murphey-Corb M, Watson EA, Martin LN. Necropsy findings in rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with cultured simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/delta. Vet Pathol. 1988 Nov;25(6):456–467. [PubMed]
  • Wallace RB, Miyada CG. Oligonucleotide probes for the screening of recombinant DNA libraries. Methods Enzymol. 1987;152:432–442. [PubMed]
  • Carswell JW. Clinical manifestations of AIDS in tropical countries. Trop Doct. 1988 Oct;18(4):147–150. [PubMed]
  • Collins FM. Mycobacterium avium-complex infections and development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: casual opportunist or causal cofactor? Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1986 Sep;54(3):458–474. [PubMed]
  • Conlon CP. Clinical aspects of HIV infection in developing countries. Br Med Bull. 1988 Jan;44(1):101–114. [PubMed]
  • Cooper DA, Gold J, Maclean P, Donovan B, Finlayson R, Barnes TG, Michelmore HM, Brooke P, Penny R. Acute AIDS retrovirus infection. Definition of a clinical illness associated with seroconversion. Lancet. 1985 Mar 9;1(8428):537–540. [PubMed]
  • Davis MG, Kenney SC, Kamine J, Pagano JS, Huang ES. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Dec;84(23):8642–8646. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • De Rossi A, Franchini G, Aldovini A, Del Mistro A, Chieco-Bianchi L, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F. Differential response to the cytopathic effects of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) superinfection in T4+ (helper) and T8+ (suppressor) T-cell clones transformed by HTLV-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Jun;83(12):4297–4301. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Drew WL. Is cytomegalovirus a cofactor in the pathogenesis of AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma? Mt Sinai J Med. 1986 Dec;53(8):622–626. [PubMed]
  • Buckley JG, Hinton A, Allen C. Kikuchi's disease--apparent malignancy of a neck mass. J Laryngol Otol. 1988 Oct;102(10):941–944. [PubMed]
  • Grindem CB, Corbett WT, Ammerman BE, Tomkins MT. Seroepidemiologic survey of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats of Wake County, North Carolina. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1989 Jan 15;194(2):226–228. [PubMed]
  • Hardy WD., Jr Immunopathology induced by the feline leukemia virus. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 1982;5(1):75–106. [PubMed]
  • Horvat RT, Wood C, Balachandran N. Transactivation of human immunodeficiency virus promoter by human herpesvirus 6. J Virol. 1989 Feb;63(2):970–973. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hudson CP, Hennis AJ, Kataaha P, Lloyd G, Moore AT, Sutehall GM, Whetstone R, Wreghitt T, Karpas A. Risk factors for the spread of AIDS in rural Africa: evidence from a comparative seroepidemiological survey of AIDS, hepatitis B and syphilis in southwestern Uganda. AIDS. 1988 Aug;2(4):255–260. [PubMed]
  • Ishida T, Washizu T, Toriyabe K, Motoyoshi S, Tomoda I, Pedersen NC. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats of Japan. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1989 Jan 15;194(2):221–225. [PubMed]
  • Jason J, Lui KJ, Ragni MV, Hessol NA, Darrow WW. Risk of developing AIDS in HIV-infected cohorts of hemophilic and homosexual men. JAMA. 1989 Feb 3;261(5):725–727. [PubMed]
  • Kenney S, Kamine J, Markovitz D, Fenrick R, Pagano J. An Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene product trans-activates gene expression from the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Mar;85(5):1652–1656. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Klotz FW, Cooper MD. A feline thymocyte antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody (FT2) identifies a subpopulation of non-helper cells capable of specific cytotoxicity. J Immunol. 1986 Apr 1;136(7):2510–2514. [PubMed]
  • Lamoureux G, Davignon L, Turcotte R, Laverdière M, Mankiewicz E, Walker MC. Is prior mycobacterial infection a common predisposing factor to AIDS in Haitians and Africans? Ann Inst Pasteur Immunol. 1987 Jul-Aug;138(4):521–529. [PubMed]
  • Laure F, Zagury D, Saimot AG, Gallo RC, Hahn BH, Brechot C. Hepatitis B virus DNA sequences in lymphoid cells from patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. Science. 1985 Aug 9;229(4713):561–563. [PubMed]
  • Levine PH, Blattner WA. The epidemiology of diseases associated with HTLV-I and HTLV-II. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1987 Sep;1(3):501–510. [PubMed]
  • Lopez C, Pellett P, Stewart J, Goldsmith C, Sanderlin K, Black J, Warfield D, Feorino P. Characteristics of human herpesvirus-6. J Infect Dis. 1988 Jun;157(6):1271–1273. [PubMed]
  • Lutz H, Pedersen NC, Durbin R, Theilen GH. Monoclonal antibodies to three epitopic regions of feline leukemia virus p27 and their use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of p27. J Immunol Methods. 1983 Jan 28;56(2):209–220. [PubMed]
  • Mok JQ, Giaquinto C, De Rossi A, Grosch-Wörner I, Ades AE, Peckham CS. Infants born to mothers seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus. Preliminary findings from a multicentre European study. Lancet. 1987 May 23;1(8543):1164–1168. [PubMed]
  • Mosca JD, Bednarik DP, Raj NB, Rosen CA, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA, Hayward GS, Pitha PM. Activation of human immunodeficiency virus by herpesvirus infection: identification of a region within the long terminal repeat that responds to a trans-acting factor encoded by herpes simplex virus 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Nov;84(21):7408–7412. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mullis KB, Faloona FA. Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction. Methods Enzymol. 1987;155:335–350. [PubMed]
  • Okubo S, Yasunaga K. Significance of viral co-infections by HIV, HTLV-1, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus for immunological conditions in Japanese hemophiliacs. AIDS. 1988 Aug;2(4):318–319. [PubMed]
  • Pastore G, Santantonio T, Monno L, Milella M, Luchena N, Angarano G. Effects of HIV superinfection on HBV replication in a chronic HBsAg carrier with liver disease. J Hepatol. 1988 Oct;7(2):164–168. [PubMed]
  • Pedersen NC. Virologic and immunologic aspects of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1987;218:529–550. [PubMed]
  • Pedersen NC, Johnson L, Birch D, Theilen GH. Possible immunoenhancement of persistent viremia by feline leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein vaccines in challenge-exposure situations where whole inactivated virus vaccines were protective. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1986 Feb;11(2):123–148. [PubMed]
  • Pedersen NC, Theilen G, Keane MA, Fairbanks L, Mason T, Orser B, Che CH, Allison C. Studies of naturally transmitted feline leukemia virus infection. Am J Vet Res. 1977 Oct;38(10):1523–1531. [PubMed]
  • Perkocha LA, Rodgers GM. Hematologic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus infection: laboratory and clinical considerations. Am J Hematol. 1988 Oct;29(2):94–105. [PubMed]
  • Pinching AJ. Clinical aspects of AIDS and HIV infection in the developed world. Br Med Bull. 1988 Jan;44(1):89–100. [PubMed]
  • Piot P, Caraël M. Epidemiological and sociological aspects of HIV-infection in developing countries. Br Med Bull. 1988 Jan;44(1):68–88. [PubMed]
  • Quinn TC, Mann JM, Curran JW, Piot P. AIDS in Africa: an epidemiologic paradigm. Science. 1986 Nov 21;234(4779):955–963. [PubMed]
  • Quinn TC, Piot P, McCormick JB, Feinsod FM, Taelman H, Kapita B, Stevens W, Fauci AS. Serologic and immunologic studies in patients with AIDS in North America and Africa. The potential role of infectious agents as cofactors in human immunodeficiency virus infection. JAMA. 1987 May 15;257(19):2617–2621. [PubMed]
  • Reinacher M. Feline leukemia virus-associated enteritis--a condition with features of feline panleukopenia. Vet Pathol. 1987 Jan;24(1):1–4. [PubMed]
  • Rook AH. Interactions of cytomegalovirus with the human immune system. Rev Infect Dis. 1988 Jul-Aug;10 (Suppl 3):S460–S467. [PubMed]
  • Rojko JL, Hoover EA, Mathes LE, Olsen RG, Schaller JP. Pathogenesis of experimental feline leukemia virus infection. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1979 Sep;63(3):759–768. [PubMed]
  • Rojko JL, Olsen RG. The immunobiology of the feline leukemia virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1984 May;6(1-2):107–165. [PubMed]
  • Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S, Scharf SJ, Higuchi R, Horn GT, Mullis KB, Erlich HA. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science. 1988 Jan 29;239(4839):487–491. [PubMed]
  • Selik RM, Castro KG, Pappaioanou M. Racial/ethnic differences in the risk of AIDS in the United States. Am J Public Health. 1988 Dec;78(12):1539–1545. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Siekevitz M, Josephs SF, Dukovich M, Peffer N, Wong-Staal F, Greene WC. Activation of the HIV-1 LTR by T cell mitogens and the trans-activator protein of HTLV-I. Science. 1987 Dec 11;238(4833):1575–1578. [PubMed]
  • Sunderam G, McDonald RJ, Maniatis T, Oleske J, Kapila R, Reichman LB. Tuberculosis as a manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). JAMA. 1986 Jul 18;256(3):362–366. [PubMed]
  • Talbott RL, Sparger EE, Lovelace KM, Fitch WM, Pedersen NC, Luciw PA, Elder JH. Nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of feline immunodeficiency virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Aug;86(15):5743–5747. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Van de Perre P, Clumeck N, Steens M, Zissis G, Caraël M, Lagasse R, De Wit S, Lafontaine T, De Mol P, Butzler JP. Seroepidemiological study on sexually transmitted diseases and hepatitis B in African promiscuous heterosexuals in relation to HTLV-III infection. Eur J Epidemiol. 1987 Mar;3(1):14–18. [PubMed]
  • Watkins JD, Conway-Welch C, Creedon JJ, Crenshaw TL, DeVos RM, Gebbie KM, Lee BJ, 3rd, Lilly F, O'Connor JC, Primm BJ, et al. Interim report of the Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic: Chairman's recommendations--Part I. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1988;1(1):69–103. [PubMed]
  • Wolff H, Anderson DJ. Male genital tract inflammation associated with increased numbers of potential human immunodeficiency virus host cells in semen. Andrologia. 1988 Sep-Oct;20(5):404–410. [PubMed]
  • Yamamoto JK, Hansen H, Ho EW, Morishita TY, Okuda T, Sawa TR, Nakamura RM, Pedersen NC. Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats from the continental United States and Canada and possible mode of transmission. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1989 Jan 15;194(2):213–220. [PubMed]
  • Yamamoto JK, Sparger E, Ho EW, Andersen PR, O'Connor TP, Mandell CP, Lowenstine L, Munn R, Pedersen NC. Pathogenesis of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats. Am J Vet Res. 1988 Aug;49(8):1246–1258. [PubMed]
  • Zagury D, Bernard J, Leonard R, Cheynier R, Feldman M, Sarin PS, Gallo RC. Long-term cultures of HTLV-III--infected T cells: a model of cytopathology of T-cell depletion in AIDS. Science. 1986 Feb 21;231(4740):850–853. [PubMed]
  • Zhang JY, Martin LN, Watson EA, Montelaro RC, West M, Epstein L, Murphey-Corb M. Simian immunodeficiency virus/delta-induced immunodeficiency disease in rhesus monkeys: relation of antibody response and antigenemia. J Infect Dis. 1988 Dec;158(6):1277–1286. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Virology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...