Logo of bullwhoWHO Home PageBulletin Home PageBulletin Home PageAbout Bulletine-mail AlertSubmissions
Bull World Health Organ. 1987; 65(5): 663–737.
PMCID: PMC2491072

Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment and meta-analysis.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (13M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • de Koning HW, Smith KR, Last JM. Biomass fuel combustion and health. Bull World Health Organ. 1985;63(1):11–26. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McCormick MC. The contribution of low birth weight to infant mortality and childhood morbidity. N Engl J Med. 1985 Jan 10;312(2):82–90. [PubMed]
  • Chase HC. Infant mortality and weight at birth: 1960 United States birth cohort. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1969 Sep;59(9):1618–1628. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saugstad LF. Weight of all births and infant mortality. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1981 Sep;35(3):185–191. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pethybridge RJ, Ashford JR, Fryer JG. Some features of the distribution of birthweight of human infants. Br J Prev Soc Med. 1974 Feb;28(1):10–18. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lubchenco LO, Searls DT, Brazie JV. Neonatal mortality rate: relationship to birth weight and gestational age. J Pediatr. 1972 Oct;81(4):814–822. [PubMed]
  • Ellenberg JH, Nelson KB. Birth weight and gestational age in children with cerebral palsy or seizure disorders. Am J Dis Child. 1979 Oct;133(10):1044–1048. [PubMed]
  • Ounsted M, Taylor ME. The postnatal growth of children who were small-for-dates or large-for-dates at birth. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1971 Aug;13(4):421–434. [PubMed]
  • Fitzhardinge PM, Steven EM. The small-for-date infant. I. Later growth patterns. Pediatrics. 1972 May;49(5):671–681. [PubMed]
  • Hofvander Y. International comparisons of postnatal growth of low birthweight infants with special reference to differences between developing and affluent countries. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl. 1982;296:14–18. [PubMed]
  • Westwood M, Kramer MS, Munz D, Lovett JM, Watters GV. Growth and development of full-term nonasphyxiated small-for-gestational-age newborns: follow-up through adolescence. Pediatrics. 1983 Mar;71(3):376–382. [PubMed]
  • Villar J, Belizan JM. The timing factor in the pathophysiology of the intrauterine growth retardation syndrome. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1982 Aug;37(8):499–506. [PubMed]
  • Villar J, Smeriglio V, Martorell R, Brown CH, Klein RE. Heterogeneous growth and mental development of intrauterine growth-retarded infants during the first 3 years of life. Pediatrics. 1984 Nov;74(5):783–791. [PubMed]
  • Spiers PS, Wacholder S. Association between rates of premature delivery and intra-uterine growth retardation. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1982 Dec;24(6):808–816. [PubMed]
  • BLAIR RG. Pregnancy associated with congenital malformations of the reproductive tract. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp. 1960 Feb;67:36–42. [PubMed]
  • Meyer MB, Jonas BS, Tonascia JA. Perinatal events associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 1976 May;103(5):464–476. [PubMed]
  • Hingson R, Alpert JJ, Day N, Dooling E, Kayne H, Morelock S, Oppenheimer E, Zuckerman B. Effects of maternal drinking and marijuana use on fetal growth and development. Pediatrics. 1982 Oct;70(4):539–546. [PubMed]
  • Zuckerman B, Alpert JJ, Dooling E, Hingson R, Kayne H, Morelock S, Oppenheimer E. Neonatal outcome: is adolescent pregnancy a risk factor? Pediatrics. 1983 Apr;71(4):489–493. [PubMed]
  • Hoffman HJ, Stark CR, Lundin FE, Jr, Ashbrook JD. Analysis of birth weight, gestational age, and fetal viability, U. S. births, 1968. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1974 Sep;29(9):651–681. [PubMed]
  • Berkowitz GS. An epidemiologic study of preterm delivery. Am J Epidemiol. 1981 Jan;113(1):81–92. [PubMed]
  • Wiener G, Milton T. Demographic correlates of low birth weight. Am J Epidemiol. 1970 Mar;91(3):260–272. [PubMed]
  • Mamelle N, Laumon B, Lazar P. Prematurity and occupational activity during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 1984 Mar;119(3):309–322. [PubMed]
  • Hughes K, Tan NR, Lun KC. Low birthweight of live singletons in Singapore, 1967-1974. Int J Epidemiol. 1984 Dec;13(4):465–471. [PubMed]
  • Davies DP, Senior N, Cole G, Blass D, Simpson K. Size at birth of Asian and white Caucasian babies born in Leicester: implications for obstetric and paediatric practices. Early Hum Dev. 1982 Jul;6(3):257–263. [PubMed]
  • Horon IL, Strobino DM, MacDonald HM. Birth weights among infants born to adolescent and young adult women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1983 Jun 15;146(4):444–449. [PubMed]
  • Showstack JA, Budetti PP, Minkler D. Factors associated with birthweight: an exploration of the roles of prenatal care and length of gestation. Am J Public Health. 1984 Sep;74(9):1003–1008. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yudkin PL, Harlap S, Baras M. High birthweight in an ethnic group of low socioeconomic status. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1983 Apr;90(4):291–296. [PubMed]
  • Palti H, Adler B. Body size of Israeli newborn infants in relation to regional origin of their mothers. Hum Biol. 1977 Feb;49(1):41–50. [PubMed]
  • Munroe M, Shah CP, Badgley R, Bain HW. Birth weight, length, head circumference and bilirubin level in Indian newborns in the Sioux Lookout Zone, northwestern Ontario. Can Med Assoc J. 1984 Sep 1;131(5):453–456. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Linn S, Schoenbaum SC, Monson RR, Rosner R, Stubblefield PC, Ryan KJ. The association of marijuana use with outcome of pregnancy. Am J Public Health. 1983 Oct;73(10):1161–1164. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Niswander K, Jackson EC. Physical characteristics of the gravida and their association with birth weight and perinatal death. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1974 Jun 1;119(3):306–313. [PubMed]
  • Kaminski M, Goujard J, Rumeau-Rouquette C. Prediction of low birthweight and prematurity by a multiple regression analysis with maternal characteristics known since the beginning of the pregnancy. Int J Epidemiol. 1973 Summer;2(2):195–204. [PubMed]
  • Moodie AD, Hansen JD, Jordaan HV, Malan AF, Davey D. Low-weight cape coloured mothers and their infants. S Afr Med J. 1970 Dec 19;44(49):1400–1408. [PubMed]
  • Edwards LE, Dickes WF, Alton IR, Hakanson EY. Pregnancy in the massively obese: course, outcome, and obesity prognosis of the infant. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978 Jul 1;131(5):479–483. [PubMed]
  • Gibson HM. Plasma volume and glomerular filtration rate in pregnancy and their relation to differences in fetal growth. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1973 Dec;80(12):1067–1074. [PubMed]
  • Croall J, Sherrif S, Matthews J. Non-pregnant maternal plasma volume and fetal growth retardation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1978 Feb;85(2):90–95. [PubMed]
  • Billewicz WZ, Thomson AM. Birthweights in consecutive pregnancies. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1973 Jun;80(6):491–498. [PubMed]
  • Magnus P, Berg K, Bjerkedal T, Nance WE. Parental determinants of birth weight. Clin Genet. 1984 Nov;26(5):397–405. [PubMed]
  • Lazar P, Dreyfus J, Papiernik-Berkauer E. Individual correction of birth weight for parental stature with special reference to small-for-date and large-for-date infants. J Perinat Med. 1975;3(4):242–247. [PubMed]
  • Winikoff B, Debrovner CH. Anthropometric determinants of birth weight. Obstet Gynecol. 1981 Dec;58(6):678–684. [PubMed]
  • Johnstone F, Inglis L. Familial trends in low birth weight. Br Med J. 1974 Sep 14;3(5932):659–661. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Susser M, Stein Z. Third variable analysis: application to causal sequences among nutrient intake, maternal weight, birthweight, placental weight, and gestation. Stat Med. 1982 Apr-Jun;1(2):105–120. [PubMed]
  • Polednak AP, Janerich DT, Glebatis DM. Birth weight and birth defects in relation to maternal spermicide use. Teratology. 1982 Aug;26(1):27–38. [PubMed]
  • Mills JL, Graubard BI, Harley EE, Rhoads GG, Berendes HW. Maternal alcohol consumption and birth weight. How much drinking during pregnancy is safe? JAMA. 1984 Oct 12;252(14):1875–1879. [PubMed]
  • Pachauri S, Marwah SM. A study of the effect of certain maternal factors on birth weight. Indian J Med Sci. 1970 Oct;24(10):650–660. [PubMed]
  • Coetzee LF. Pregnancy in the South African non-white teenager. S Afr Med J. 1970 Dec 12;44(48):1373–1376. [PubMed]
  • Duenhoelter JH, Jimenez JM, Baumann G. Pregnancy performance of patients under fifteen years of age. Obstet Gynecol. 1975 Jul;46(1):49–52. [PubMed]
  • Correy JF, Kwok PC, Newman NM, Curran JT. Adolescent pregnancy in Tasmania. Med J Aust. 1984 Aug 4;141(3):150–153. [PubMed]
  • Scholl TO, Decker E, Karp RJ, Greene G, De Sales M. Early adolescent pregnancy: a comparative study of pregnancy outcome in young adolescents and mature women. J Adolesc Health Care. 1984 Jul;5(3):167–171. [PubMed]
  • Legg S, Davies AM, Prywes R, Sterk VV, Weiskopf P. Patterns of low birth weight in West Jerusalem with special reference to maternal origin. Br J Prev Soc Med. 1970 May;24(2):89–96. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eisner V, Brazie JV, Pratt MW, Hexter AC. The risk of low birthweight. Am J Public Health. 1979 Sep;69(9):887–893. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • DaVanzo J, Habicht JP, Butz WP. Assessing socioeconomic correlates of birthweight in peninsular Malaysia: ethnic differences and changes over time. Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):387–404. [PubMed]
  • Quick JD, Greenlick MR, Roghmann KJ. Prenatal care and pregnancy outcome in an HMO and general population: a multivariate cohort analysis. Am J Public Health. 1981 Apr;71(4):381–390. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Linn S, Schoenbaum SC, Monson RR, Rosner B, Stubblefield PG, Ryan KJ. No association between coffee consumption and adverse outcomes of pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 1982 Jan 21;306(3):141–145. [PubMed]
  • Lechtig A, Delgado H, Lasky RE, Klein RE, Engle PL, Yarbrough C, Habicht JP. Maternal nutrition and fetal growth in developing societies. Socioeconomic factors. Am J Dis Child. 1975 Apr;129(4):434–437. [PubMed]
  • Donaldson PJ, Billy JO. The impact of prenatal care on birth weight. Evidence from an international data set. Med Care. 1984 Feb;22(2):177–188. [PubMed]
  • Kennedy ET, Gershoff S, Reed R, Austin JE. Evaluation of the effect of WIC supplemental feeding on birth weight. J Am Diet Assoc. 1982 Mar;80(3):220–227. [PubMed]
  • Kaminski M, Papiernik E. Multifactorial study of the risk of prematurity at 32 weeks of gestation. II. A comparison between an empirical prediction and a discriminant analysis. J Perinat Med. 1974;2(1):37–44. [PubMed]
  • Tennes K, Blackard C. Maternal alcohol consumption, birth weight, and minor physical anomalies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Dec 1;138(7 Pt 1):774–780. [PubMed]
  • Newton RW, Hunt LP. Psychosocial stress in pregnancy and its relation to low birth weight. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984 Apr 21;288(6425):1191–1194. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McNeil TF, Kaij L. Reproduction among female mental patients: obstetric complications and physical size of offspring. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1974;50(1):3–15. [PubMed]
  • Berkowitz GS, Kasl SV. The role of psychosocial factors in spontaneous preterm delivery. J Psychosom Res. 1983;27(4):283–290. [PubMed]
  • Soysa PE, Jayasuriya DS. Birth weight in Ceylonese. Hum Biol. 1975 Feb;47(1):1–15. [PubMed]
  • Newton RW, Webster PA, Binu PS, Maskrey N, Phillips AB. Psychosocial stress in pregnancy and its relation to the onset of premature labour. Br Med J. 1979 Aug 18;2(6187):411–413. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Olsen J, Rachootin P, Schiødt AV. Alcohol use, conception time, and birth weight. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1983 Mar;37(1):63–65. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gortmaker SL. The effects of prenatal care upon the health of the newborn. Am J Public Health. 1979 Jul;69(7):653–660. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peters TJ, Golding J, Butler NR, Fryer JG, Lawrence CJ, Chamberlain GV. Plus ça change: predictors of birthweight in two national studies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1983 Nov;90(11):1040–1045. [PubMed]
  • Fabia J. Régression multiple du poids de naissance utilisant dix variables "prédictives". Can J Public Health. 1973 Nov-Dec;64(6):548–551. [PubMed]
  • Philipps C, Johnson NE. The impact of quality of diet and other factors on birth weight of infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 1977 Feb;30(2):215–225. [PubMed]
  • Selvin S, Janerich DT. Four factors influencing birth weight. Br J Prev Soc Med. 1971 Feb;25(1):12–16. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Naeye RL. Teenaged and pre-teenaged pregnancies: consequences of the fetal-maternal competition for nutrients. Pediatrics. 1981 Jan;67(1):146–150. [PubMed]
  • Carr-Hill R, Samphier M. Birthweight and reproductive careers. J Biosoc Sci. 1983 Oct;15(4):453–464. [PubMed]
  • Erickson JD, Bjerkedal T. Interpregnancy interval. Association with birth weight, stillbirth, and neonatal death. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1978 Jun;32(2):124–130. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Elster AB. The effect of maternal age, parity, and prenatal care on perinatal outcome in adolescent mothers. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Aug 15;149(8):845–847. [PubMed]
  • Speroff L, Ramwell PW. Prostaglandins in reproductive physiology. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1970 Aug 1;107(7):1111–1130. [PubMed]
  • Naeye RL. Coitus and associated amniotic-fluid infections. N Engl J Med. 1979 Nov 29;301(22):1198–1200. [PubMed]
  • Viegas OA, Arulkumaran S, Gibb DM, Ratnam SS. Nipple stimulation in late pregnancy causing uterine hyperstimulation and profound fetal bradycardia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1984 Apr;91(4):364–366. [PubMed]
  • Grudzinskas JG, Watson C, Chard T. Does sexual intercourse cause fetal distress? Lancet. 1979 Sep 29;2(8144):692–693. [PubMed]
  • Mills JL, Harlap S, Harley EE. Should coitus late in pregnancy be discouraged? Lancet. 1981 Jul 18;2(8238):136–138. [PubMed]
  • Rayburn WF, Wilson EA. Coital activity and premature delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Aug 15;137(8):972–974. [PubMed]
  • Guzick DS, Daikoku NH, Kaltreider DF. Predictability of pregnancy outcome in preterm delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 1984 May;63(5):645–650. [PubMed]
  • Rush D, Davis H, Susser M. Antecedents of low birthweight in Harlem, New York City. Int J Epidemiol. 1972 Winter;1(4):375–387. [PubMed]
  • Kaminski M, Rumeau-Rouquette C, Schwartz D. Consommation d'alcool chez les femmes enceintes et issue de la grossesse. Rev Epidemiol Med Soc Sante Publique. 1976 Jan-Feb;24(1):27–40. [PubMed]
  • Pantelakis SN, Papadimitriou GC, Doxiadis SA. Influence of induced and spontaneous abortions on the outcome of subsequent pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973 Jul 15;116(6):799–805. [PubMed]
  • Schoenbaum SC, Monson RR, Stubblefield PG, Darney PD, Ryan KJ. Outcome of the delivery following an induced or spontaneous abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Jan 1;136(1):19–24. [PubMed]
  • Ganguly M, Elwood JH, MacKenzie G. Factors associated with "low" and "high" birth weight. Am J Epidemiol. 1972 Aug;96(2):161–167. [PubMed]
  • Daling JR, Emanuel I. Induced abortion and subsequent outcome of pregnancy. A matched cohort study. Lancet. 1975 Jul 26;2(7926):170–173. [PubMed]
  • Daling JR, Emanuel I. Induced abortion and subsequent outcome of pregnancy in a series of American women. N Engl J Med. 1977 Dec 8;297(23):1241–1245. [PubMed]
  • Obel E. Pregnancy complications following legally induced abortion with special reference to abortion technique. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1979;58(2):147–152. [PubMed]
  • Slater PE, Davies AM, Harlap S. The effect of abortion method on the outcome of subsequent pregnancy. J Reprod Med. 1981 Mar;26(3):123–128. [PubMed]
  • Peoples MD, Siegel E. Measuring the impact of programs for mothers and infants on prenatal care and low birth weight: the value of refined analyses. Med Care. 1983 Jun;21(6):586–608. [PubMed]
  • Kaufman RH, Adam E, Binder GL, Gerthoffer E. Upper genital tract changes and pregnancy outcome in offspring exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Jun 1;137(3):299–308. [PubMed]
  • Herbst AL, Scully RE. Adenocarcinoma of the vagina in adolescence. A report of 7 cases including 6 clear-cell carcinomas (so-called mesonephromas). Cancer. 1970 Apr;25(4):745–757. [PubMed]
  • Herbst AL, Ulfelder H, Poskanzer DC. Adenocarcinoma of the vagina. Association of maternal stilbestrol therapy with tumor appearance in young women. N Engl J Med. 1971 Apr 15;284(15):878–881. [PubMed]
  • DIECKMANN WJ, DAVIS ME, RYNKIEWICZ LM, POTTINGER RE. Does the administration of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy have therapeutic value? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1953 Nov;66(5):1062–1081. [PubMed]
  • Herbst AL, Hubby MM, Blough RR, Azizi F. A comparison of pregnancy experience in DES-exposed and DES-unexposed daughters. J Reprod Med. 1980 Feb;24(2):62–69. [PubMed]
  • Herbst AL, Hubby MM, Azizi F, Makii MM. Reproductive and gynecologic surgical experience in diethylstilbestrol-exposed daughters. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981 Dec 15;141(8):1019–1028. [PubMed]
  • Barnes AB, Colton T, Gundersen J, Noller KL, Tilley BC, Strama T, Townsend DE, Hatab P, O'Brien PC. Fertility and outcome of pregnancy in women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. N Engl J Med. 1980 Mar 13;302(11):609–613. [PubMed]
  • Cousins L, Karp W, Lacey C, Lucas WE. Reproductive outcome of women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero. Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Jul;56(1):70–76. [PubMed]
  • Picone TA, Allen LH, Olsen PN, Ferris ME. Pregnancy outcome in North American women. II. Effects of diet, cigarette smoking, stress, and weight gain on placentas, and on neonatal physical and behavioral characteristics. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982 Dec;36(6):1214–1224. [PubMed]
  • Frisancho AR, Matos J, Bollettino LA. Influence of growth status and placental function on birth weight of infants born to young still-growing teenagers. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Oct;40(4):801–807. [PubMed]
  • Naeye RL. Nutritional/nonnutritional interactions that affect the outcome of pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Apr;34(Suppl 4):727–731. [PubMed]
  • Habicht JP, Yarbrough C, Lechtig A, Klein RE. Relation of maternal supplementary feeding during pregnancy to birth weight and other sociobiological factors. Curr Concepts Nutr. 1974;2:127–145. [PubMed]
  • Lechtig A, Habicht JP, Delgado H, Klein RE, Yarbrough C, Martorell R. Effect of food supplementation during pregnancy on birthweight. Pediatrics. 1975 Oct;56(4):508–520. [PubMed]
  • McDonald EC, Pollitt E, Mueller W, Hsueh AM, Sherwin R. The Bacon Chow study: maternal nutrition supplementation and birth weight of offspring. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Oct;34(10):2133–2144. [PubMed]
  • Rush D, Stein Z, Susser M. A randomized controlled trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation in New York City. Pediatrics. 1980 Apr;65(4):683–697. [PubMed]
  • Rush D. Nutritional services during pregnancy and birthweight: a retrospective matched pair analysis. Can Med Assoc J. 1981 Sep 15;125(6):567–576. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Paige DM, Cordano A, Mellits ED, Baertl JM, Davis L. Nutritional supplementation of pregnant adolescents. J Adolesc Health Care. 1981 Jun;1(4):261–267. [PubMed]
  • Papoz L, Eschwege E, Pequignot G, Barrat J, Schwartz D. Maternal smoking and birth weight in relation to dietary habits. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982 Apr 1;142(7):870–876. [PubMed]
  • Mora JO, de Paredes B, Wagner M, de Navarro L, Suescun J, Christiansen N, Herrera MG. Nutritional supplementation and the outcome of pregnancy. I. Birth weight. Am J Clin Nutr. 1979 Feb;32(2):455–462. [PubMed]
  • Prentice AM, Whitehead RG, Watkinson M, Lamb WH, Cole TJ. Prenatal dietary supplementation of African women and birth-weight. Lancet. 1983 Mar 5;1(8323):489–492. [PubMed]
  • Viegas OA, Scott PH, Cole TJ, Eaton P, Needham PG, Wharton BA. Dietary protein energy supplementation of pregnant Asian mothers at Sorrento, Birmingham. II: Selective during third trimester only. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 285(6342):592–595. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Briend A. Fetal malnutrition--the price of upright posture? Br Med J. 1979 Aug 4;2(6185):317–319. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Briend A. Feeding the fetus in the tropics: rest is best. J Trop Pediatr. 1984 Apr;30(2):126–128. [PubMed]
  • Emmanouilides GC, Hobel CJ, Yashiro K, Klyman G. Fetal responses to maternal exercise in the sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1972 Jan 1;112(1):130–137. [PubMed]
  • Suonio S, Simpanen AL, Olkkonen H, Haring P. Effect of the left lateral recumbent position compared with the supine and upright positions on placental blood flow in normal late pregnancy. Ann Clin Res. 1976 Feb;8(1):22–26. [PubMed]
  • Orr J, Ungerer T, Will J, Wernicke K, Curet LB. Effect of exercise stress on carotid, uterine, and iliac blood flow in pregnant and nonpregnant ewes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1972 Sep 15;114(2):213–217. [PubMed]
  • Prentice AM, Whitehead RG, Roberts SB, Paul AA. Long-term energy balance in child-bearing Gambian women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Dec;34(12):2790–2799. [PubMed]
  • Berkowitz GS, Kelsey JL, Holford TR, Berkowitz RL. Physical activity and the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. J Reprod Med. 1983 Sep;28(9):581–588. [PubMed]
  • Murphy JF, Dauncey M, Newcombe R, Garcia J, Elbourne D. Employment in pregnancy: prevalence, maternal characteristics, perinatal outcome. Lancet. 1984 May 26;1(8387):1163–1166. [PubMed]
  • Saurel-Cubizolles MJ, Kaminski M, Rumeau-Rouquette C. Activité professionnelle des femmes enceintes, surveillance prénatale et issue de la grossesse. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 1982;11(8):959–967. [PubMed]
  • Saurel MJ, Kaminski M. Pregnant women at work. Lancet. 1983 Feb 26;1(8322):475–475. [PubMed]
  • Paul AA, Muller EM, Whitehead RG. The quantitative effects of maternal dietary energy intake on pregnancy and lactation in rural Gambian women. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1979;73(6):686–692. [PubMed]
  • Tafari N, Naeye RL, Gobezie A. Effects of maternal undernutrition and heavy physical work during pregnancy on birth weight. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1980 Mar;87(3):222–226. [PubMed]
  • Naeye RL, Peters EC. Working during pregnancy: effects on the fetus. Pediatrics. 1982 Jun;69(6):724–727. [PubMed]
  • Osofsky HJ. Relationships between prenatal medical and nutritional measures, pregnancy outcome, and early infant development in an urban poverty setting. I. The role of nutritional intake. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1975 Dec 1;123(7):682–690. [PubMed]
  • Viegas OA, Scott PH, Cole TJ, Mansfield HN, Wharton P, Wharton BA. Dietary protein energy supplementation of pregnant Asian mothers at Sorrento, Birmingham. I: Unselective during second and third trimesters. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 285(6342):589–592. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bhargava V, Chatterjee M, Prakash A, Bhatia B, Mishra A. Fetal growth variations--I. Influence of maternal size and nutrition on identification of fetal growth retardation. Indian Pediatr. 1983 Aug;20(8):549–559. [PubMed]
  • Kitay DZ, Harbort RA. Iron and folic acid deficiency in pregnancy. Clin Perinatol. 1975 Sep;2(2):255–273. [PubMed]
  • Fleming AF, Martin JD, Hahnel R, Westlake AJ. Effects of iron and folic acid antenatal supplements on maternal haematology and fetal wellbeing. Med J Aust. 1974 Sep 21;2(12):429–436. [PubMed]
  • McLaughlin B, Kevany J. Haemoglobin concentration in pregnancy: relationships with maternal age and birth weight. Ir J Med Sci. 1982 Mar;151(3):71–74. [PubMed]
  • Baumslag N, Edelstein T, Metz J. Reduction of incidence of prematurity by folic acid supplementation in pregnancy. Br Med J. 1970 Jan 3;1(5687):16–17. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Giles PF, Harcourt AG, Whiteside MG. The effect of prescribing folic acid during pregnancy on birth-weight and duration of pregnancy. A double-blind trial. Med J Aust. 1971 Jul 3;2(1):17–21. [PubMed]
  • Rolschau J, Date J, Kristoffersen K. Folic acid supplement and intrauterine growth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1979;58(4):343–346. [PubMed]
  • Blot I, Papiernik E, Kaltwasser JP, Werner E, Tchernia G. Influence of routine administration of folic acid and iron during pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1981;12(6):294–304. [PubMed]
  • Tafari N, Ross SM, Naeye RL, Galask RP, Zaar B. Failure of bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977 May 15;128(2):187–189. [PubMed]
  • Appelbaum PC, Ross SM, Dhupelia I, Naeye RL. The effect of diet supplementation and addition of zinc in vitro on the growth-supporting property of amniotic fluid in African women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1979 Sep 1;135(1):82–84. [PubMed]
  • Widdowson EM. Trace elements in foetal and early postnatal development. Proc Nutr Soc. 1974 Dec;33(3):275–284. [PubMed]
  • Crosby WM, Metcoff J, Costiloe JP, Mameesh M, Sandstead HH, Jacob RA, McClain PE, Jacobson G, Reid W, Burns G. Fetal malnutrition: an appraisal of correlated factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977 May 1;128(1):22–31. [PubMed]
  • Gibson RS, DeWolfe MS. Copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, and iodine concentrations in the hair of Canadian low birth weight neonates. Am J Clin Nutr. 1979 Aug;32(8):1728–1733. [PubMed]
  • Raman L, Rajalakshmi K, Krishnamachari KA, Sastry JG. Effect of calcium supplementation to undernourished mothers during pregnancy on the bone density of the bone density of the neonates. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978 Mar;31(3):466–469. [PubMed]
  • Maxwell JD, Ang L, Brooke OG, Brown IR. Vitamin D supplements enhance weight gain and nutritional status in pregnant Asians. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1981 Oct;88(10):987–991. [PubMed]
  • WACHSTEIN M, GRAFFEO LW. Influence of vitamin B6 on the incidence of preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 1956 Aug;8(2):177–180. [PubMed]
  • Klieger JA, Evrard JR, Pierce R. Abnormal pyridoxine metabolism in toxemia of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1966 Feb 1;94(3):316–321. [PubMed]
  • Schuster K, Bailey LB, Mahan CS. Vitamin B6 status of low-income adolescent and adult pregnant women and the condition of their infants at birth. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Sep;34(9):1731–1735. [PubMed]
  • Lumeng L, Cleary RE, Wagner R, Yu P-L, Li T-K Adequacy of vitamin B6 supplementation during pregnancy: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Dec;29(12):1376–1383. [PubMed]
  • Mäenpä J. Congenital hypothyroidism. Aetiological and clinical aspects. Arch Dis Child. 1972 Dec;47(256):914–923. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brabin BJ. An analysis of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. Bull World Health Organ. 1983;61(6):1005–1016. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taufa T. Malaria and pregnancy. P N G Med J. 1978 Jun;21(2):197–206. [PubMed]
  • Macgregor JD, Avery JG. Malaria transmission and fetal growth. Br Med J. 1974 Aug 17;3(5928):433–436. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McGregor IA, Wilson ME, Billewicz WZ. Malaria infection of the placenta in The Gambia, West Africa; its incidence and relationship to stillbirth, birthweight and placental weight. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1983;77(2):232–244. [PubMed]
  • Naeye RL. Causes of the excessive rates of perinatal mortality and prematurity in pregnancies complicated by maternal urinary-tract infections. N Engl J Med. 1979 Apr 12;300(15):819–823. [PubMed]
  • Polk BF. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1979 Jun;22(2):285–292. [PubMed]
  • Ross JM, Furr PM, Taylor-Robinson D, Altman DG, Coid CR. The effect of genital mycoplasmas on human fetal growth. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1981 Jul;88(7):749–755. [PubMed]
  • Harrison HR, Alexander ER, Weinstein L, Lewis M, Nash M, Sim DA. Cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and mycoplasmal infections in pregnancy. Epidemiology and outcomes. JAMA. 1983 Oct 7;250(13):1721–1727. [PubMed]
  • Harrison RF, Hurley R, deLouvois J. Genital mycoplasmas and birth weight in offspring of primigravid women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1979 Jan 15;133(2):201–203. [PubMed]
  • Kass EH, McCormack WM, Lin JS, Rosner B, Munoz A. Genital mycoplasmas as a cause of excess premature delivery. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1981;94:261–266. [PubMed]
  • Minkoff H, Grunebaum AN, Schwarz RH, Feldman J, Cummings M, Crombleholme W, Clark L, Pringle G, McCormack WM. Risk factors for prematurity and premature rupture of membranes: a prospective study of the vaginal flora in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Dec 15;150(8):965–972. [PubMed]
  • Kundsin RB, Driscoll SG, Monson RR, Yeh C, Biano SA, Cochran WD. Association of Ureaplasma urealyticum in the placenta with perinatal morbidity and mortality. N Engl J Med. 1984 Apr 12;310(15):941–945. [PubMed]
  • Pirani BB. Smoking during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1978 Jan;33(1):1–13. [PubMed]
  • Longo LD. The biological effects of carbon monoxide on the pregnant woman, fetus, and newborn infant. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977 Sep 1;129(1):69–103. [PubMed]
  • Quigley ME, Sheehan KL, Wilkes MM, Yen SS. Effects of maternal smoking on circulating catecholamine levels and fetal heart rates. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1979 Mar 15;133(6):685–690. [PubMed]
  • Berkowitz GS, Holford TR, Berkowitz RL. Effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee and tea consumption on preterm delivery. Early Hum Dev. 1982 Dec 6;7(3):239–250. [PubMed]
  • Butler NR, Goldstein H, Ross EM. Cigarette smoking in pregnancy: its influence on birth weight and perinatal mortality. Br Med J. 1972 Apr 15;2(5806):127–130. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Naeye RL. Influence of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy on fetal and childhood growth. Obstet Gynecol. 1981 Jan;57(1):18–21. [PubMed]
  • Sexton M, Hebel JR. A clinical trial of change in maternal smoking and its effect on birth weight. JAMA. 1984 Feb 17;251(7):911–915. [PubMed]
  • Meyer MB. How does maternal smoking affect birth weight and maternal weight gain? Evidence from the Ontario Perinatal Mortality Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978 Aug 15;131(8):888–893. [PubMed]
  • Dary O, Pineda O, Belizán JM. Carbon monoxide contamination in dwellings in poor rural areas of Guatemala. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1981 Jan;26(1):24–30. [PubMed]
  • Mukherjee AB, Hodgen GD. Maternal ethanol exposure induces transient impairment of umbilical circulation and fetal hypoxia in monkeys. Science. 1982 Nov 12;218(4573):700–702. [PubMed]
  • Abel EL. Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy: a review of effects on growth and development of offspring. Hum Biol. 1982 Sep;54(3):421–453. [PubMed]
  • Silva VA, Laranjeira RR, Dolnikoff M, Grinfeld H, Masur J. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and newborn outcome: a study in Brazil. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 1981 Summer;3(2):169–172. [PubMed]
  • Rosett HL, Weiner L, Lee A, Zuckerman B, Dooling E, Oppenheimer E. Patterns of alcohol consumption and fetal development. Obstet Gynecol. 1983 May;61(5):539–546. [PubMed]
  • Marbury MC, Linn S, Monson R, Schoenbaum S, Stubblefield PG, Ryan KJ. The association of alcohol consumption with outcome of pregnancy. Am J Public Health. 1983 Oct;73(10):1165–1168. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Streissguth AP, Landesman-Dwyer S, Martin JC, Smith DW. Teratogenic effects of alcohol in humans and laboratory animals. Science. 1980 Jul 18;209(4454):353–361. [PubMed]
  • Russell M. Intrauterine growth in infants born to women with alcohol-related psychiatric diagnoses. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1977 Jul;1(3):225–231. [PubMed]
  • Little RE. Moderate alcohol use during pregnancy and decreased infant birth weight. Am J Public Health. 1977 Dec;67(12):1154–1156. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wright JT, Waterson EJ, Barrison IG, Toplis PJ, Lewis IG, Gordon MG, MacRae KD, Morris NF, Murray-Lyon IM. Alcohol consumption, pregnancy, and low birthweight. Lancet. 1983 Mar 26;1(8326 Pt 1):663–665. [PubMed]
  • Streissguth AP, Darby BL, Barr HM, Smith JR, Martin DC. Comparison of drinking and smoking patterns during pregnancy over a six-year interval. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1983 Mar 15;145(6):716–724. [PubMed]
  • Haworth JC, Ellestad-Sayed JJ, King J, Dilling LA. Fetal growth retardation in cigarette-smoking mothers is not due to decreased maternal food intake. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Jul 15;137(6):719–723. [PubMed]
  • Abel EL. Prenatal exposure to cannabis: a critical review of effects on growth, development, and behavior. Behav Neural Biol. 1980 Jun;29(2):137–156. [PubMed]
  • Fried PA. Marihuana use by pregnant women: neurobehavioral effects in neonates. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1980 Dec;6(6):415–424. [PubMed]
  • Goodlin RC, Keller DW, Raffin M. Orgasm during late pregnancy. Possible deleterious effects. Obstet Gynecol. 1971 Dec;38(6):916–920. [PubMed]
  • Naeye RL, Blanc W, Leblanc W, Khatamee MA. Fetal complications of maternal heroin addiction: abnormal growth, infections, and episodes of stress. J Pediatr. 1973 Dec;83(6):1055–1061. [PubMed]
  • Lifschitz MH, Wilson GS, Smith EO, Desmond MM. Fetal and postnatal growth of children born to narcotic-dependent women. J Pediatr. 1983 May;102(5):686–691. [PubMed]
  • Zelson C, Rubio E, Wasserman E. Neonatal narcotic addiction: 10 year observation. Pediatrics. 1971 Aug;48(2):178–189. [PubMed]
  • Harper RG, Solish GI, Purow HM, Sang E, Panepinto WC. The effect of a methadone treatment program upon pregnant heroin addicts and their newborn infants. Pediatrics. 1974 Sep;54(3):300–305. [PubMed]
  • Krishna K. Tobacco chewing in pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1978 Oct;85(10):726–728. [PubMed]
  • Verma RC, Chansoriya M, Kaul KK. Effect of tobacco chewing by mothers on fetal outcome. Indian Pediatr. 1983 Feb;20(2):105–111. [PubMed]
  • Vianna NJ, Polan AK. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents. Science. 1984 Dec 7;226(4679):1217–1219. [PubMed]
  • Boutaleb Y, Lahlou N, Oudghiri A, Mesbahi M. Le poids de naissance dans un pays Africain. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 1982;11(1):68–72. [PubMed]
  • Ramankutty P, Tikreeti RA, Rasaam KW, Al-Thamery DM, Yacoub AA, Mahmood DA. A study on birth weight of Iraqi children. J Trop Pediatr. 1983 Feb;29(1):5–10. [PubMed]
  • Terris M, Glasser M. A life table analysis of the relation of prenatal care to prematurity. Am J Public Health. 1974 Sep;64(9):869–875. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goujon H, Papiernik E, Maine D. The prevention of preterm delivery through prenatal care: an intervention study in Martinique. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1984 Oct;22(5):339–343. [PubMed]
  • Sokol RJ, Woolf RB, Rosen MG, Weingarden K. Risk, antepartum care, and outcome: impact of a maternity and infant care project. Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Aug;56(2):150–156. [PubMed]
  • Ershoff DH, Aaronson NK, Danaher BG, Wasserman FW. Behavioral, health, and cost outcomes of an HMO-based prenatal health education program. Public Health Rep. 1983 Nov-Dec;98(6):536–547. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peoples MD, Grimson RC, Daughtry GL. Evaluation of the effects of the North Carolina Improved Pregnancy Outcome Project: implications for state-level decision-making. Am J Public Health. 1984 Jun;74(6):549–554. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Felice ME, Granados JL, Ances IG, Hebel R, Roeder LM, Heald FP. The young pregnant teenager. Impact of comprehensive prenatal care. J Adolesc Health Care. 1981 Mar;1(3):193–197. [PubMed]
  • Jekel JF, Currie JB, Klerman LV, McCarthy CP, Sarrel PM, Greenberg RA. An analysis of statistical methods for comparing obstetric outcomes: infant health in three samples of school-age pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1972 Jan 1;112(1):9–19. [PubMed]
  • Bruzzi P, Green SB, Byar DP, Brinton LA, Schairer C. Estimating the population attributable risk for multiple risk factors using case-control data. Am J Epidemiol. 1985 Nov;122(5):904–914. [PubMed]
  • Edozien JC, Switzer BR, Bryan RB. Medical evaluation of the special supplemental food program for women, infants, and children. Am J Clin Nutr. 1979 Mar;32(3):677–692. [PubMed]
  • Kotelchuck M, Schwartz JB, Anderka MT, Finison KS. WIC participation and pregnancy outcomes: Massachusetts Statewide Evaluation Project. Am J Public Health. 1984 Oct;74(10):1086–1092. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Bulletin of the World Health Organization are provided here courtesy of World Health Organization


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...