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Bull World Health Organ. 1966; 35(6): 863–871.
PMCID: PMC2476295

The use of toxoid for the prevention of tetanus neonatorum

Final report of a double-blind controlled field trial*

Abstract

With a view to determining the effectiveness of a method for the control of tetanus neonatorum which would be independent of medical examination or care, a double-blind field trial covering 1618 women was conducted between 1961 and 1966 in a rural area of Colombia with an estimated existing tetanus neonatorum death rate of 11.6 per 100 births. The study group was given 1-3 injections of 1 ml of an aluminium-phosphate-adsorbed tetanus toxoid more than 6 weeks apart, and the control group a similar number of injections of an influenza-virus vaccine.

There was no statistically significant difference between those in the two groups given one injection. Those in the control group given 2 or 3 injections had a tetanus neonatorum death rate of 7.8 deaths per 100 births, and the corresponding subjects in the study group had none. This difference is unlikely to have occurred by chance.

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Selected References

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  • EARLE AM, MELLON WL., Jr Tetanus neonatorum; a report of thirty two cases. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1958 May;7(3):315–316. [PubMed]
  • JELLIFFE DB. Tetanus neonatorum. Arch Dis Child. 1950 Jun;25(122):190–192. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • NEWELL KW, LEHMANN AD, LEBLANC DR, GARCESOSORIO N. THE USE OF TOXOID FOR THE PREVENTION OF TETANUS NEONATORUM: PRELIMINARY REPORT OF A DOUBLE-BLIND CONTROLLED FIELD TRIAL. Bull World Health Organ. 1964;30:439–444. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • SCHOFIELD FD, TUCKER VM, WESTBROOK GR. Neonatal tetanus in New Guinea. Effect of active immunization in pregnancy. Br Med J. 1961 Sep 23;2(5255):785–789. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

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