• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. Apr 1972; 110(1): 208–218.
PMCID: PMC247400

Biochemical Studies on the Thermal Dimorphism of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis1

Abstract

The biochemical and morphological changes of the yeastlike (Y) form to the mycelial (M) form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were examined. The main polysaccharide of hexoses of the Y-form cell wall was α-glucan, whereas the polysaccharides of the M-form cell wall were β-glucan and galactomannan. The α-glucan of the Y form contained mainly α-(1 → 3)-glycosidic linkage. The β-glucan of the M form contained mainly β-(1 → 3)-glycosidic linkage with a few branches at C-6 position. The incorporation of 14C-glucose into the cell wall glucans showed that synthesis of α-glucan decreased rapidly after the temperature of the culture was changed from 37 to 20 C. The synthesis of β-glucan was augmented at an early stage of the morphological change. The M-form cell wall contained 12 times more disulfide linkage than the Y form. The cell-free extracts of the whole cell of the Y form had five times more protein disulfide reductase activity than the M form, whereas extracts of the M form contained five to eight times more β-glucanase activity than the Y form. From these results, a hypothesis for the production of the M form from the Y form is proposed.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.6M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bacon JS, Farmer VC, Jones D, Taylor IF. The glucan components of the cell wall of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) considered in relation to its ultrastructure. Biochem J. 1969 Sep;114(3):557–567. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bacon JS, Jones D, Farmer VC, Webley DM. The occurrence of alpha(1-3)glucan in Cryptococcus, Schizosaccharomyces and Polyporus species, and its hydrolysis by a Streptomyces culture filtrate lysing cell walls of Cryptococcus. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1968 May;158(2):313–315. [PubMed]
  • Bacon JS, Jones D, Ottolenghi P. Cell wall residues in yeast protoplast preparations. J Bacteriol. 1969 Sep;99(3):885–887. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bartnicki-Garcia S. Cell wall chemistry, morphogenesis, and taxonomy of fungi. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1968;22:87–108. [PubMed]
  • Bartnicki-Garcia S, Lippman E. Fungal morphogenesis: cell wall construction in Mucor rouxii. Science. 1969 Jul 18;165(3890):302–304. [PubMed]
  • Brown CM, Hough JS. Protein-disulphide reductase activity in yeast. Nature. 1966 Jul 9;211(5045):201–201. [PubMed]
  • Cabib E, Bowers B. Chitin and yeast budding. Localization of chitin in yeast bud scars. J Biol Chem. 1971 Jan 10;246(1):152–159. [PubMed]
  • Carbonell LM. Ultrastructure of dimorphic transformation in paracoccidioides brasiliensis. J Bacteriol. 1969 Nov;100(2):1076–1082. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Carbonell LM, Kanetsuna F, Gil F. Chemical morphology of glucan and chitin in the cell wall of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. J Bacteriol. 1970 Feb;101(2):636–642. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • CARBONELL LM, RODRIGUEZ J. TRANSFORMATION OF MYCELIAL AND YEAST FORMS OF PARACOCCIDIOIDES BRASILIENSIS IN CULTURES AND IN EXPERIMENTAL INOCULATIONS. J Bacteriol. 1965 Aug;90:504–510. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Carbonell LM, Rodriguez J. Mycelial phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Blastomyces dermatitidis: an electron microscope study. J Bacteriol. 1968 Aug;96(2):533–543. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • ELLMAN GL. Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1959 May;82(1):70–77. [PubMed]
  • Grappel SF, Blank F, Bishop CT. Immunological studies on dermatophytes. IV. Chemical structures and serological reactivities of polysaccharides from Microsporum praecox, Trichophyton ferrugineum, Trichophyton sabouraudii, and Trichophyton tonsurans. J Bacteriol. 1969 Jan;97(1):23–26. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johnston IR. The partial acid hydrolysis of a highly dextrorotatory fragment of the cell wall of Aspergillus niger. Isolation of the alpha-(1-3)-linked dextrin series. Biochem J. 1965 Sep;96(3):659–664. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kanetsuna F, Carbonell LM. Enzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle in the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. J Bacteriol. 1966 Nov;92(5):1315–1320. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kanetsuna F, Carbonell LM. Cell wall glucans of the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. J Bacteriol. 1970 Mar;101(3):675–680. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kanetsuna F, Carbonell LM. Cell wall composition of the yeastlike and mycelial forms of Blastomyces dermatitidis. J Bacteriol. 1971 Jun;106(3):946–948. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kanetsuna F, Carbonell LM, Moreno RE, Rodriguez J. Cell wall composition of the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. J Bacteriol. 1969 Mar;97(3):1036–1041. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LOWRY OH, ROSEBROUGH NJ, FARR AL, RANDALL RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951 Nov;193(1):265–275. [PubMed]
  • Manners DJ, Masson AJ. The structures of two glucans from yeast-cell walls. FEBS Lett. 1969 Jul;4(2):122–124. [PubMed]
  • FALCONE G, NICKERSON WJ. Identification of protein disulfide reductase as a cellular division enzyme in yeasts. Science. 1956 Oct 19;124(3225):722–723. [PubMed]
  • Nordin JH, Hasegawa S, Smith F, Kirkwood S. Substrate specificity of mycodextranase. Nature. 1966 Apr 16;210(5033):303–304. [PubMed]
  • Restrepo A. A reappraisal of the microscopical appearance of the mycelial phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Sabouraudia. 1970 Aug;8(2):141–144. [PubMed]
  • Sandford PA, Conrad HE. The structure of the Aerobacter aerogenes A3(S1) polysaccharide. I. A reexamination using improved procedures for methylation analysis. Biochemistry. 1966 May;5(5):1508–1517. [PubMed]
  • SMOGYI M. Notes on sugar determination. J Biol Chem. 1952 Mar;195(1):19–23. [PubMed]
  • Spencer RL, Wold F. A new convenient method for estimation of total cystine-cysteine in proteins. Anal Biochem. 1969 Oct 15;32(1):185–190. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...