• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of aemPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalAEM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Appl Environ Microbiol. Apr 1983; 45(4): 1380–1388.
PMCID: PMC242466

Ensifer adhaerens Predatory Activity Against Other Bacteria in Soil, as Monitored by Indirect Phage Analysis


An indirect phage analysis procedure was used to detect and follow the activity of the bacterial predator Ensifer adhaerens in situ in natural soil. The soil was percolated with an aqueous suspension of washed bacterial host cells so that the E. adhaerens cells naturally present in the soil would multiply in response to the host cells. The natural phage development which ensued against these multiplying E. adhaerens cells in the soil was then monitored by noting plaques which developed when the percolation fluid was plated with laboratory strains of E. adhaerens on laboratory media. The activities of the other members of the predation system that includes E. adhaerens (Streptomyces sp. strain 34 and a myxobacter) could not be monitored directly by phage analysis because phage were not found for them. Indirect monitoring was possible, however, because they were susceptible to attack by E. adhaerens. In general, the results were in agreement with previous observations by other methods of the predation sequence. E. adhaerens attacked Micrococcus luteus, Streptomyces sp. strain 34, and the myxobacter but did not attack several other possible species of hosts. It also did not respond to percolation of the soil with various nutrient solutions. E. adhaerens phage activity was not present in half of the soils percolated with M. luteus cells. This seemed to reflect too great a phage-host specificity for the technique as regards these soils, because E. adhaerens-like bacteria other than the strains used for plaquing were present in at least some of these soils. Although E. adhaerens did not attack Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa in soil, there was an overproduction of E. adhaerens phage if these bacteria were percolated simultaneously with M. luteus cells. The possibility is discussed that this represents an activation by M. luteus (or by a heat-extractable factor from it) of other bacterial predators that attack E. coli or P. aeruginosa and that these predators subsequently are themselves attacked by E. adhaerens.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bradley DE. Ultrastructure of bacteriophage and bacteriocins. Bacteriol Rev. 1967 Dec;31(4):230–314. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bystricky V, Stotzky G, Schiffenbauer M. Electron microscopy of T1-bacteriophage adsorbed to clay minerals: application of the critical point drying method. Can J Microbiol. 1975 Aug;21(8):1278–1282. [PubMed]
  • Casida LE. Death of Micrococcus luteus in Soil. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1980 May;39(5):1031–1034. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Casida LE. Bacterial Predators of Micrococcus luteus in Soil. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1980 May;39(5):1035–1041. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Germida JJ, Casida LE., Jr Myceloid growth of Arthrobacter globiformis and other Arthrobacter species. J Bacteriol. 1980 Dec;144(3):1152–1158. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Germida JJ, Casida LE. Isolation of arthrobacter bacteriophage from soil. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1981 Jun;41(6):1389–1393. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Klein DA, Casida LE., Jr Occurrence and enumeration of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in soil capable of parasitizing Escherichia coli and indigenous soil bacteria. Can J Microbiol. 1967 Sep;13(9):1235–1241. [PubMed]
  • Klein DA, Casida LE., Jr Escherichia coli die-out from normal soil as related to nutrient availability and the indigenous microflora. Can J Microbiol. 1967 Nov;13(11):1461–1470. [PubMed]

Articles from Applied and Environmental Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...