• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jvirolPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJV ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Virol. Nov 1992; 66(11): 6489–6495.
PMCID: PMC240141

Role of vif in replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes.


The viral infectivity factor gene vif of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has been shown to affect the infectivity but not the production of virus particles. In this study, the effect of vif in the context of the HXB2 virus on virus replication in several CD4+ T-cell lines was investigated. vif was found to be required for replication in the CD4+ T-cell lines CEM and H9 as well as in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. vif was not required for replication in the SupT1, C8166, and Jurkat T-cell lines. The infectivity of vif-defective viruses depended on the cell type in which the virus was produced. In CEM cells, vif was required for production of virus capable of initiating infection in all cell lines studied. vif-defective virus produced by SupT1, C8166, and Jurkat cells and the monkey cell line COS-1 could initiate infection in multiple cell lines, including CEM and H9. These results suggest that vif can compensate for cellular factors required for production of infectious virus particles that are present in some cell lines such as SupT1, C8166, and Jurkat but are absent in others such as CEM and H9 as well as peripheral blood T lymphocytes. The effect of vif was not altered by deletion of the carboxyl terminus of gp41, a proposed target for vif (B. Guy, M. Geist, K. Dott, D. Spehner, M.-P. Kieny, and J.-P. Lecocq, J. Virol. 65:1325-1331, 1991). These studies demonstrate that vif enhances viral infectivity during virus production and also suggest that vif is likely to be important for natural infections.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Akari H, Sakuragi J, Takebe Y, Tomonaga K, Kawamura M, Fukasawa M, Miura T, Shinjo T, Hayami M. Biological characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and type 2 mutants in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arch Virol. 1992;123(1-2):157–167. [PubMed]
  • Arya SK, Gallo RC. Three novel genes of human T-lymphotropic virus type III: immune reactivity of their products with sera from acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Apr;83(7):2209–2213. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chakrabarti L, Guyader M, Alizon M, Daniel MD, Desrosiers RC, Tiollais P, Sonigo P. Sequence of simian immunodeficiency virus from macaque and its relationship to other human and simian retroviruses. Nature. 1987 Aug 6;328(6130):543–547. [PubMed]
  • Cullen BR. Use of eukaryotic expression technology in the functional analysis of cloned genes. Methods Enzymol. 1987;152:684–704. [PubMed]
  • Dedera D, Hu W, Vander Heyden N, Ratner L. Viral protein R of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 is dispensable for replication and cytopathogenicity in lymphoid cells. J Virol. 1989 Jul;63(7):3205–3208. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Emmrich F, Horneff G, Becker W, Lüke W, Potocnik A, Kanzy U, Kalden JR, Burmester G. An anti-CD4 antibody for treatment of chronic inflammatory arthritis. Agents Actions Suppl. 1991;32:165–170. [PubMed]
  • Fisher AG, Ensoli B, Ivanoff L, Chamberlain M, Petteway S, Ratner L, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F. The sor gene of HIV-1 is required for efficient virus transmission in vitro. Science. 1987 Aug 21;237(4817):888–893. [PubMed]
  • Gabuzda DH, Lever A, Terwilliger E, Sodroski J. Effects of deletions in the cytoplasmic domain on biological functions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins. J Virol. 1992 Jun;66(6):3306–3315. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Garrett ED, Tiley LS, Cullen BR. Rev activates expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vif and vpr gene products. J Virol. 1991 Mar;65(3):1653–1657. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Guy B, Geist M, Dott K, Spehner D, Kieny MP, Lecocq JP. A specific inhibitor of cysteine proteases impairs a Vif-dependent modification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env protein. J Virol. 1991 Mar;65(3):1325–1331. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Helseth E, Kowalski M, Gabuzda D, Olshevsky U, Haseltine W, Sodroski J. Rapid complementation assays measuring replicative potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein mutants. J Virol. 1990 May;64(5):2416–2420. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kan NC, Franchini G, Wong-Staal F, DuBois GC, Robey WG, Lautenberger JA, Papas TS. Identification of HTLV-III/LAV sor gene product and detection of antibodies in human sera. Science. 1986 Mar 28;231(4745):1553–1555. [PubMed]
  • Langhoff E, Terwilliger EF, Bos HJ, Kalland KH, Poznansky MC, Bacon OM, Haseltine WA. Replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in primary dendritic cell cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Sep 15;88(18):7998–8002. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lee TH, Coligan JE, Allan JS, McLane MF, Groopman JE, Essex M. A new HTLV-III/LAV protein encoded by a gene found in cytopathic retroviruses. Science. 1986 Mar 28;231(4745):1546–1549. [PubMed]
  • Luciw PA, Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA. Mutational analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus: the orf-B region down-regulates virus replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Mar;84(5):1434–1438. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Popovic M, Sarngadharan MG, Read E, Gallo RC. Detection, isolation, and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS. Science. 1984 May 4;224(4648):497–500. [PubMed]
  • Queen C, Baltimore D. Immunoglobulin gene transcription is activated by downstream sequence elements. Cell. 1983 Jul;33(3):741–748. [PubMed]
  • Ratner L, Haseltine W, Patarca R, Livak KJ, Starcich B, Josephs SF, Doran ER, Rafalski JA, Whitehorn EA, Baumeister K, et al. Complete nucleotide sequence of the AIDS virus, HTLV-III. Nature. 1985 Jan 24;313(6000):277–284. [PubMed]
  • Rho HM, Poiesz B, Ruscetti FW, Gallo RC. Characterization of the reverse transcriptase from a new retrovirus (HTLV) produced by a human cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell line. Virology. 1981 Jul 15;112(1):355–360. [PubMed]
  • Sakai K, Ma XY, Gordienko I, Volsky DJ. Recombinational analysis of a natural noncytopathic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate: role of the vif gene in HIV-1 infection kinetics and cytopathicity. J Virol. 1991 Nov;65(11):5765–5773. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Salahuddin SZ, Markham PD, Wong-Staal F, Franchini G, Kalyanaraman VS, Gallo RC. Restricted expression of human T-cell leukemia--lymphoma virus (HTLV) in transformed human umbilical cord blood lymphocytes. Virology. 1983 Aug;129(1):51–64. [PubMed]
  • Schwartz S, Felber BK, Pavlakis GN. Expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vif and vpr mRNAs is Rev-dependent and regulated by splicing. Virology. 1991 Aug;183(2):677–686. [PubMed]
  • Shin J, Dunbrack RL, Jr, Lee S, Strominger JL. Signals for retention of transmembrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum studied with CD4 truncation mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Mar 1;88(5):1918–1922. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smith SD, Shatsky M, Cohen PS, Warnke R, Link MP, Glader BE. Monoclonal antibody and enzymatic profiles of human malignant T-lymphoid cells and derived cell lines. Cancer Res. 1984 Dec;44(12 Pt 1):5657–5660. [PubMed]
  • Sodroski J, Goh WC, Rosen C, Tartar A, Portetelle D, Burny A, Haseltine W. Replicative and cytopathic potential of HTLV-III/LAV with sor gene deletions. Science. 1986 Mar 28;231(4745):1549–1553. [PubMed]
  • Sonigo P, Alizon M, Staskus K, Klatzmann D, Cole S, Danos O, Retzel E, Tiollais P, Haase A, Wain-Hobson S. Nucleotide sequence of the visna lentivirus: relationship to the AIDS virus. Cell. 1985 Aug;42(1):369–382. [PubMed]
  • Strebel K, Daugherty D, Clouse K, Cohen D, Folks T, Martin MA. The HIV 'A' (sor) gene product is essential for virus infectivity. Nature. 1987 Aug 20;328(6132):728–730. [PubMed]
  • Talbott RL, Sparger EE, Lovelace KM, Fitch WM, Pedersen NC, Luciw PA, Elder JH. Nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of feline immunodeficiency virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Aug;86(15):5743–5747. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Terwilliger EF, Godin B, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA. Construction and use of a replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) that expresses the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 May;86(10):3857–3861. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thiele B, Braig HR, Ehm I, Kunze R, Ruf B. Influence of sulfated carbohydrates on the accessibility of CD4 and other CD molecules on the cell surface and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Eur J Immunol. 1989 Jun;19(6):1161–1164. [PubMed]
  • Weiss A, Wiskocil RL, Stobo JD. The role of T3 surface molecules in the activation of human T cells: a two-stimulus requirement for IL 2 production reflects events occurring at a pre-translational level. J Immunol. 1984 Jul;133(1):123–128. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Virology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...