• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of aemPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalAEM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Appl Environ Microbiol. Mar 1984; 47(3): 449–454.
PMCID: PMC239700

Physiological Studies of Oxygen Protection Mechanisms in the Heterocysts of Anabaena cylindrica

Abstract

The mechanism of O2 protection of nitrogenase in the heterocysts of Anabaena cylindrica was studied in vivo. Resistance to O2 inhibition of nitrogenase activity correlated with the O2 tension of the medium in which heterocyst formation was induced. O2 resistance also correlated with the apparent Km for acetylene, indicating that O2 tension may influence the development of a gas diffusion barrier in the heterocysts. The role of respiratory activity in protecting nitrogenase from O2 that diffuses into the heterocyst was studied using inhibitors of carbon metabolism. Reductant limitation induced by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea increased the O2 sensitivity of in vivo acetylene reduction. Azide, at concentrations (30 mM) sufficient to completely inhibit dark nitrogenase activity (a process dependent on oxidative phosphorylation for its ATP supply), severely inhibited short-term light-dependent acetylene reduction in the presence of O2 but not in its absence. After 3 h of aerobic incubation in the presence of 20 mM azide, 75% of cross-reactive component I (Fe-Mo protein) in nitrogenase was lost; less than 35% was lost under microaerophilic conditions. Sodium malonate and monofluoroacetate, inhibitors of Krebs cycle activity, had only small inhibitory effects on nitrogenase activity in the light and on cross-reactive material. The results suggest that oxygen protection is dependent on both an O2 diffusion barrier and active respiration by the heterocyst.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Allen MB, Arnon DI. Studies on Nitrogen-Fixing Blue-Green Algae. I. Growth and Nitrogen Fixation by Anabaena Cylindrica Lemm. Plant Physiol. 1955 Jul;30(4):366–372. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Almon H, Böhme H. Components and activity of the photosynthetic electron transport system of intact heterocysts isolated from the blue-green alga Nostoc muscorum. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 Aug 5;592(1):113–120. [PubMed]
  • Bergersen FJ, Turner GL. Kinetic studies of nitrogenase from soya-bean root-nodule bacteroids. Biochem J. 1973 Jan;131(1):61–75. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cox RM, Fay P. Special aspects of nitrogen fixation by blue-green algae. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1969 Apr 1;172(1029):357–366. [PubMed]
  • Daday A, Platz RA, Smith GD. Anaerobic and aerobic hydrogen gas formation by the blue-green alga Anabaena cylindrica. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1977 Nov;34(5):478–483. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dalton H, Postgate JR. Effect of oxygen on growth of Azotobacter chroococcum in batch and continuous cultures. J Gen Microbiol. 1968 Dec;54(3):463–473. [PubMed]
  • Donze M, Haveman J, Schiereck P. Absence of photosystem 2 in heterocysts of the blue-green alga Anabaena. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1972 Jan 21;256(1):157–161. [PubMed]
  • Drozd J, Postgate JR. Effects of oxygen on acetylene reduction, cytochrome content and respiratory activity of Azotobacter chroococcum. J Gen Microbiol. 1970 Sep;63(1):63–73. [PubMed]
  • Fay P. Factors influencing dark nitrogen fixation in a blue-green alga. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1976 Mar;31(3):376–379. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fay P, Walsby AE. Metabolic activities of isolated heterocysts of the blue-green alga Anabaena cylindrica. Nature. 1966 Jan 1;209(5018):94–95. [PubMed]
  • Hallenbeck PC, Kostel PJ, Benemann Purification and properties of nitrogenase from the cyanobacterium, Anabaena cylindrica. Eur J Biochem. 1979 Jul;98(1):275–284. [PubMed]
  • Haury JF, Wolk CP. Classes of Anabaena variabilis mutants with oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase activity. J Bacteriol. 1978 Nov;136(2):688–692. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Haystead A, Robinson R, Stewart WD. Nitrogenase activity in extracts of heterocystous and non-heterocystous blue-green algae. Arch Mikrobiol. 1970;74(3):235–243. [PubMed]
  • Kellar PE, Paerl HW. Physiological adaptations in response to environmental stress during an n(2)-fixing anabaena bloom. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1980 Sep;40(3):587–595. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kulasooriya SA, Lang NJ, Fay P. The heterocysts of blue-green algae. 3. Differentiation and nitrogenase activity. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1972 Jun 6;181(1063):199–209. [PubMed]
  • Lambein F, Wolk CP. Structural studies on the glycolipids from the envelope of the heterocyst of Anabaena cylindrica. Biochemistry. 1973 Feb 27;12(5):791–798. [PubMed]
  • Lockau W, Peterson RB, Wolk CP, Burris RH. Modes of reduction of nitrogen in heterocysts isolated from Anabaena species. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 May 10;502(2):298–308. [PubMed]
  • LOWRY OH, ROSEBROUGH NJ, FARR AL, RANDALL RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951 Nov;193(1):265–275. [PubMed]
  • Neilson A, Rippka R, Kunisawa R. Heterocyst formation and nitrogenase synthesis in Anabaena sp. A kinetic study. Arch Mikrobiol. 1971;76(2):139–150. [PubMed]
  • Peterson RB, Burris RH. Properties of heterocysts isolated with colloidal silica. Arch Microbiol. 1976 May 3;108(1):35–40. [PubMed]
  • Peterson RB, Wolk CP. Localization of an uptake hydrogenase in anabaena. Plant Physiol. 1978 Apr;61(4):688–691. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pienkos PT, Bodmer S, Tabita FR. Oxygen inactivation and recovery of nitrogenase activity in cyanobacteria. J Bacteriol. 1983 Jan;153(1):182–190. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Robson RL, Postgate JR. Oxygen and hydrogen in biological nitrogen fixation. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1980;34:183–207. [PubMed]
  • Tel-Or E, Stewart WD. Photosynthetic electron transport, ATP synthesis and nitrogenase activity in isolated heterocysts of Anabaena cylindrica. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Feb 16;423(2):189–195. [PubMed]
  • Thomas J. Absence of the pigments of photosystem II of photosynthesis in heterocysts of a blue-green alga. Nature. 1970 Oct 10;228(5267):181–183. [PubMed]
  • Weare NM, Benemann JR. Nitrogen fixation by Anabaena cylindrica. II. Nitrogenase activity during induction and aging of batch cultures. Arch Mikrobiol. 1973 Oct 19;93(2):101–112. [PubMed]
  • Weeke B. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Scand J Immunol Suppl. 1973;1:37–46. [PubMed]
  • Winkenbach F, Wolk CP. Activities of enzymes of the oxidative and the reductive pentose phosphate pathways in heterocysts of a blue-green alga. Plant Physiol. 1973 Nov;52(5):480–483. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wong PP, Burris RH. Nature of oxygen inhibition of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972 Mar;69(3):672–675. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yates MG. Control of respiration and nitrogen fixation by oxygen and adenine nucleotides in N2-grown Azotobacter chroococcum. J Gen Microbiol. 1970 Mar;60(3):393–401. [PubMed]

Articles from Applied and Environmental Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...