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Bull World Health Organ. 1981; 59(1): 75–78.
PMCID: PMC2396022

Evidence for the natural transmission of influenza A virus from wild ducks to swine and its potential importance for man*


In 1979, epidemics of influenza occurred in pigs in Belgium from which were isolated strains of influenza A (Hsw1N1) virus antigenically closely related to Hsw1N1 strains previously isolated from ducks in North America and the Federal Republic of Germany. This finding is considered as the first supportive evidence that an influenza A virus in an avian species might have been transmitted to mammals.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Kaplan MM, Webster RG. The epidemiology of influenza. Sci Am. 1977 Dec;237(6):88–106. [PubMed]
  • Aymard-Henry M, Coleman MT, Dowdle WR, Laver WG, Schild GC, Webster RG. Influenzavirus neuraminidase and neuraminidase-inhibition test procedures. Bull World Health Organ. 1973;48(2):199–202. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kendal AP, Noble GR, Dowdle WR. Swine influenza viruses isolated in 1976 from man and pig contain two coexisting subpopulations with antigenically distinguishable hemagglutinins. Virology. 1977 Oct 1;82(1):111–121. [PubMed]
  • Ottis K, Bachmann PA. Occurrence of Hsw 1 N 1 subtype influenza A viruses in wild ducks in Europe. Arch Virol. 1980;63(3-4):185–190. [PubMed]

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