• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of microrevMicrobiol Mol Biol Rev ArchivePermissionsJournals.ASM.orgMMBR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Microbiol Rev. Mar 1996; 60(1): 151–166.
PMCID: PMC239423

Significance of bacterial surface-active compounds in interaction of bacteria with interfaces.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (301K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Allison DG, Brown MR, Evans DE, Gilbert P. Surface hydrophobicity and dispersal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from biofilms. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1990 Sep 1;59(1-2):101–104. [PubMed]
  • Allison DG, Evans DJ, Brown MR, Gilbert P. Possible involvement of the division cycle in dispersal of Escherichia coli from biofilms. J Bacteriol. 1990 Mar;172(3):1667–1669. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Amiji M, Park K. Prevention of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion on surfaces by PEO/PPO/PEO triblock copolymers. Biomaterials. 1992;13(10):682–692. [PubMed]
  • Bar-Ness R, Avrahamy N, Matsuyama T, Rosenberg M. Increased cell surface hydrophobicity of a Serratia marcescens NS 38 mutant lacking wetting activity. J Bacteriol. 1988 Sep;170(9):4361–4364. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Beachey EH. Bacterial adherence: adhesin-receptor interactions mediating the attachment of bacteria to mucosal surface. J Infect Dis. 1981 Mar;143(3):325–345. [PubMed]
  • Beebe JL, Umbreit WW. Extracellular lipid of Thiobacillus thiooxidans. J Bacteriol. 1971 Oct;108(1):612–614. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Belsky I, Gutnick DL, Rosenberg E. Emulsifier of Arthrobacter RAG-1: determination of emulsifier-bound fatty acids. FEBS Lett. 1979 May 1;101(1):175–178. [PubMed]
  • Bendinger B, Rijnaarts HH, Altendorf K, Zehnder AJ. Physicochemical cell surface and adhesive properties of coryneform bacteria related to the presence and chain length of mycolic acids. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 Nov;59(11):3973–3977. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bibel DJ, Aly R, Shinefield HR. Inhibition of microbial adherence by sphinganine. Can J Microbiol. 1992 Sep;38(9):983–985. [PubMed]
  • Bridgett MJ, Davies MC, Denyer SP. Control of staphylococcal adhesion to polystyrene surfaces by polymer surface modification with surfactants. Biomaterials. 1992;13(7):411–416. [PubMed]
  • Bryant RD, Costerton JW, Laishley EJ. The role of Thiobacillus albertis glycocalyx in the adhesion of cells to elemental sulfur. Can J Microbiol. 1984 Jan;30(1):81–90. [PubMed]
  • Bugg TD, Brandish PE. From peptidoglycan to glycoproteins: common features of lipid-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1994 Jun 15;119(3):255–262. [PubMed]
  • Bunster L, Fokkema NJ, Schippers B. Effect of Surface-Active Pseudomonas spp. on Leaf Wettability. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Jun;55(6):1340–1345. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Caparon MG, Stephens DS, Olsén A, Scott JR. Role of M protein in adherence of group A streptococci. Infect Immun. 1991 May;59(5):1811–1817. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Christensen BE, Kjosbakken J, Smidsrød O. Partial Chemical and Physical Characterization of Two Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Marine, Periphytic Pseudomonas sp. Strain NCMB 2021. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1985 Oct;50(4):837–845. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cooper S. Synthesis of the cell surface during the division cycle of rod-shaped, gram-negative bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1991 Dec;55(4):649–674. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Courtney HS, Simpson WA, Beachey EH. Binding of streptococcal lipoteichoic acid to fatty acid-binding sites on human plasma fibronectin. J Bacteriol. 1983 Feb;153(2):763–770. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cowan M, Busscher HJ. Flow chamber study of the adhesion of Prevotella intermedia to glass after preconditioning with mutans streptococcal species: kinetics and spatial arrangement. Microbios. 1993;73(295):135–144. [PubMed]
  • Desai NP, Hossainy SF, Hubbell JA. Surface-immobilized polyethylene oxide for bacterial repellence. Biomaterials. 1992;13(7):417–420. [PubMed]
  • Doyle RJ, Chaloupka J, Vinter V. Turnover of cell walls in microorganisms. Microbiol Rev. 1988 Dec;52(4):554–567. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dworkin M, Keller KH, Weisberg D. Experimental observations consistent with a surface tension model of gliding motility of Myxococcus xanthus. J Bacteriol. 1983 Sep;155(3):1367–1371. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dyar MT. Electrokinetical Studies on Bacterial Surfaces: II. Studies on Surface Lipids, Amphoteric Material, and Some Other Surface Properties. J Bacteriol. 1948 Dec;56(6):821–834. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Falkowski W, Edwards M, Schaeffer AJ. Inhibitory effect of substituted aromatic hydrocarbons on adherence of Escherichia coli to human epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 1986 Jun;52(3):863–866. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fiechter A. Biosurfactants: moving towards industrial application. Trends Biotechnol. 1992 Jun;10(6):208–217. [PubMed]
  • Frosch M, Müller A. Phospholipid substitution of capsular polysaccharides and mechanisms of capsule formation in Neisseria meningitidis. Mol Microbiol. 1993 May;8(3):483–493. [PubMed]
  • Godchaux W, 3rd, Gorski L, Leadbetter ER. Outer membrane polysaccharide deficiency in two nongliding mutants of Cytophaga johnsonae. J Bacteriol. 1990 Mar;172(3):1250–1255. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Godchaux W, 3rd, Lynes MA, Leadbetter ER. Defects in gliding motility in mutants of Cytophaga johnsonae lacking a high-molecular-weight cell surface polysaccharide. J Bacteriol. 1991 Dec;173(23):7607–7614. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goldberg S, Konis Y, Rosenberg M. Effect of cetylpyridinium chloride on microbial adhesion to hexadecane and polystyrene. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Jun;56(6):1678–1682. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goldman S, Shabtai Y, Rubinovitz C, Rosenberg E, Gutnick DL. Emulsan in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1: Distribution of Cell-Free and Cell-Associated Cross-Reacting Material. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1982 Jul;44(1):165–170. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gotschlich EC, Fraser BA, Nishimura O, Robbins JB, Liu TY. Lipid on capsular polysaccharides of gram-negative bacteria. J Biol Chem. 1981 Sep 10;256(17):8915–8921. [PubMed]
  • Hasty DL, Ofek I, Courtney HS, Doyle RJ. Multiple adhesins of streptococci. Infect Immun. 1992 Jun;60(6):2147–2152. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hazen BW, Hazen KC. Isolation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic variants of Candida albicans. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1989 Jan 15;48(2):167–171. [PubMed]
  • Höltje JV. From growth to autolysis: the murein hydrolases in Escherichia coli. Arch Microbiol. 1995 Oct;164(4):243–254. [PubMed]
  • Hommel RK. Formation and physiological role of biosurfactants produced by hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms. Biosurfactants in hydrocarbon utilization. Biodegradation. 1990;1(2-3):107–119. [PubMed]
  • Humphrey BA, Marshall KC. The triggering effect of surfaces and surfactants on heat output, oxygen consumption and size reduction of a starving marine Vibrio. Arch Microbiol. 1984 Dec;140(2-3):166–170. [PubMed]
  • Isquith AJ, Abbott EA, Walters PA. Surface-bonded antimicrobial activity of an organosilicon quaternary ammonium chloride. Appl Microbiol. 1972 Dec;24(6):859–863. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Isquith AJ, McCollum CJ. Surface kinetic test method for determining rate of kill by an antimicrobial solid. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1978 Nov;36(5):700–704. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Iwasaki H, Araki Y, Ito E, Nagaoka M, Yokokura T. Structure of macroamphiphiles from several Bifidobacterium strains. J Bacteriol. 1990 Feb;172(2):845–852. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jacques NA, Hardy L, Knox KW, Wicken AJ. Effect of Tween 80 on the morphology and physiology of Lactobacillus salivarius strain IV CL-37 grown in a chemostat under glucose limitation. J Gen Microbiol. 1980 Jul;119(1):195–201. [PubMed]
  • Jenkinson HF. Adherence, coaggregation, and hydrophobicity of Streptococcus gordonii associated with expression of cell surface lipoproteins. Infect Immun. 1992 Mar;60(3):1225–1228. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • JONES GE, STARKEY RL. Surface-active substances produced by Thiobacillus thiooxidans. J Bacteriol. 1961 Nov;82:788–789. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jones MV, Herd TM, Christie HJ. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to amphoteric and quaternary ammonium biocides. Microbios. 1989;58(234):49–61. [PubMed]
  • Kaplan N, Rosenberg E. Exopolysaccharide Distribution of and Bioemulsifier Production by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD4 and BD413. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1982 Dec;44(6):1335–1341. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Karaborni S, Esselink K, Hilbers PA, Smit B, Karthauser J, van Os NM, Zana R. Simulating the self-assembly of gemini (dimeric) surfactants. Science. 1994 Oct 14;266(5183):254–256. [PubMed]
  • Keller KH, Grady M, Dworkin M. Surface tension gradients: feasible model for gliding motility of Myxococcus xanthus. J Bacteriol. 1983 Sep;155(3):1358–1366. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kennedy MJ, Rogers AL, Yancey RJ., Jr Environmental alteration and phenotypic regulation of Candida albicans adhesion to plastic. Infect Immun. 1989 Dec;57(12):3876–3881. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Klotz SA. Surface-active properties of Candida albicans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Sep;55(9):2119–2122. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Knox KW, Wicken AJ. Immunological properties of teichoic acids. Bacteriol Rev. 1973 Jun;37(2):215–257. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Koch AL. Biophysics of bacterial walls viewed as stress-bearing fabric. Microbiol Rev. 1988 Sep;52(3):337–353. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuhn HM, Meier-Dieter U, Mayer H. ECA, the enterobacterial common antigen. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1988 Sep;4(3):195–222. [PubMed]
  • Kuo JS, Doelling VW, Graveline JF, McCoy DW. Evidence for covalent attachment of phospholipid to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b. J Bacteriol. 1985 Aug;163(2):769–773. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuo MS, Mort AJ. Location and identity of the acyl substituents on the extracellular polysaccharides of Rhizobium trifolii and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Carbohydr Res. 1986 Jan 1;145(2):247–265. [PubMed]
  • Lee JH, Kopecek J, Andrade JD. Protein-resistant surfaces prepared by PEO-containing block copolymer surfactants. J Biomed Mater Res. 1989 Mar;23(3):351–368. [PubMed]
  • Liljemark WF, Schauer SV, Bloomquist CG. Compounds which affect the adherence of Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite. J Dent Res. 1978 Feb;57(2):373–379. [PubMed]
  • Liu Z, Jacobson AM, Luthy RG. Biodegradation of naphthalene in aqueous nonionic surfactant systems. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995 Jan;61(1):145–151. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • López GP, Ratner BD, Tidwell CD, Haycox CL, Rapoza RJ, Horbett TA. Glow discharge plasma deposition of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether for fouling-resistant biomaterial surfaces. J Biomed Mater Res. 1992 Apr;26(4):415–439. [PubMed]
  • Marchesi JR, Owen SA, White GF, House WA, Russell NJ. SDS-degrading bacteria attach to riverine sediment in response to the surfactant or its primary biodegradation product dodecan-1-ol. Microbiology. 1994 Nov;140(Pt 11):2999–3006. [PubMed]
  • Marchesi JR, Russell NJ, White GF, House WA. Effects of surfactant adsorption and biodegradability on the distribution of bacteria between sediments and water in a freshwater microcosm. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Sep;57(9):2507–2513. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marshall PA, Loeb GI, Cowan MM, Fletcher M. Response of microbial adhesives and biofilm matrix polymers to chemical treatments as determined by interference reflection microscopy and light section microscopy. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Nov;55(11):2827–2831. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matsuda T, Ito S. Surface coating of hydrophilic-hydrophobic block co-polymers on a poly(acrylonitrile) haemodialyser reduces platelet adhesion and its transmembrane stimulation. Biomaterials. 1994 May;15(6):417–422. [PubMed]
  • Matsuyama T, Bhasin A, Harshey RM. Mutational analysis of flagellum-independent surface spreading of Serratia marcescens 274 on a low-agar medium. J Bacteriol. 1995 Feb;177(4):987–991. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matsuyama T, Kaneda K, Ishizuka I, Toida T, Yano I. Surface-active novel glycolipid and linked 3-hydroxy fatty acids produced by Serratia rubidaea. J Bacteriol. 1990 Jun;172(6):3015–3022. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matsuyama T, Kaneda K, Nakagawa Y, Isa K, Hara-Hotta H, Yano I. A novel extracellular cyclic lipopeptide which promotes flagellum-dependent and -independent spreading growth of Serratia marcescens. J Bacteriol. 1992 Mar;174(6):1769–1776. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matsuyama T, Sogawa M, Nakagawa Y. Fractal spreading growth of Serratia marcescens which produces surface active exolipids. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1989 Oct 15;52(3):243–246. [PubMed]
  • McEldowney S, Fletcher M. Variability of the influence of physicochemical factors affecting bacterial adhesion to polystyrene substrata. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Sep;52(3):460–465. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McIntire FC, Crosby LK, Vatter AE. Inhibitors of coaggregation between Actinomyces viscosus T14V and Streptococcus sanguis 34: beta-galactosides, related sugars, and anionic amphipathic compounds. Infect Immun. 1982 Apr;36(1):371–378. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Miller RD, Brown KE, Morse SA. Inhibitory action of fatty acids on the growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect Immun. 1977 Aug;17(2):303–312. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Miörner H, Johansson G, Kronvall G. Lipoteichoic acid is the major cell wall component responsible for surface hydrophobicity of group A streptococci. Infect Immun. 1983 Jan;39(1):336–343. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nakagawa Y, Hayashi H, Tawaratani T, Kourai H, Horie T, Shibasaki I. Disinfection of water with quaternary ammonium salts insolubilized on a porous glass surface. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Mar;47(3):513–518. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nakagawa Y, Tawaratani T, Kourai H, Horie T, Shibasaki I. Adsorption of Escherichia coli onto insolubilized lauryl pyridinium iodide and its bacteriostatic action. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Jan;47(1):88–93. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nakagawa Y, Yamano Y, Tawaratani T, Kourai H, Horie T, Shibasaki I. Antimicrobial characteristic of insoluble alkylpyridinium iodide. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1982 May;43(5):1041–1050. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nesbitt WE, Doyle RJ, Taylor KG. Hydrophobic interactions and the adherence of Streptococcus sanguis to hydroxylapatite. Infect Immun. 1982 Nov;38(2):637–644. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Neu TR, Dengler T, Jann B, Poralla K. Structural studies of an emulsion-stabilizing exopolysaccharide produced by an adhesive, hydrophobic Rhodococcus strain. J Gen Microbiol. 1992 Dec;138(12):2531–2537. [PubMed]
  • Neu TR, Marshall KC. Bacterial polymers: physicochemical aspects of their interactions at interfaces. J Biomater Appl. 1990 Oct;5(2):107–133. [PubMed]
  • Noda Y, Kanemasa Y. Determination of hydrophobicity on bacterial surfaces by nonionic surfactants. J Bacteriol. 1986 Sep;167(3):1016–1019. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ofek I, Simpson WA, Beachey EH. Formation of molecular complexes between a structurally defined M protein and acylated or deacylated lipoteichoic acid of Streptococcus pyogenes. J Bacteriol. 1982 Feb;149(2):426–433. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Owens NF, Gingell D, Rutter PR. Inhibition of cell adhesion by a synthetic polymer adsorbed to glass shown under defined hydrodynamic stress. J Cell Sci. 1987 Jun;87(Pt 5):667–675. [PubMed]
  • Pines O, Bayer EA, Gutnick DL. Localization of emulsan-like polymers associated with the cell surface of acinetobacter calcoaceticus. J Bacteriol. 1983 May;154(2):893–905. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pitta TP, Leadbetter ER, Godchaux W., 3rd Increase of ornithine amino lipid content in a sulfonolipid-deficient mutant of Cytophaga johnsonae. J Bacteriol. 1989 Feb;171(2):952–957. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Powell DA, Duckworth M, Baddiley J. A membrane-associated lipomannan in micrococci. Biochem J. 1975 Nov;151(2):387–397. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pugsley AP. The complete general secretory pathway in gram-negative bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1993 Mar;57(1):50–108. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reese ET, Maguire A. Surfactants as stimulants of enzyme production by microorganisms. Appl Microbiol. 1969 Feb;17(2):242–245. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reusch VM., Jr Lipopolymers, isoprenoids, and the assembly of the gram-positive cell wall. Crit Rev Microbiol. 1984;11(2):129–155. [PubMed]
  • Rosenberg E, Gottlieb A, Rosenberg M. Inhibition of bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons and epithelial cells by emulsan. Infect Immun. 1983 Mar;39(3):1024–1028. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rosenberg M, Bayer EA, Delarea J, Rosenberg E. Role of Thin Fimbriae in Adherence and Growth of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 on Hexadecane. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1982 Oct;44(4):929–937. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roy B, Ackermann HW, Pandian S, Picard G, Goulet J. Biological inactivation of adhering Listeria monocytogenes by listeriaphages and a quaternary ammonium compound. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 Sep;59(9):2914–2917. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sar N, Rosenberg E. Drag reduction by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD4. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1987 Sep;53(9):2269–2270. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Satta G, Fontana R, Canepari P. The two-competing site (TCS) model for cell shape regulation in bacteria: the envelope as an integration point for the regulatory circuits of essential physiological events. Adv Microb Physiol. 1994;36:181–245. [PubMed]
  • Schott H, Young CY. Electrokinetic studies of bacteria. II. Effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on Streptococcus faecalis. J Pharm Sci. 1972 May;61(5):762–765. [PubMed]
  • Shabtai Y, Gutnick DL. Exocellular esterase and emulsan release from the cell surface of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. J Bacteriol. 1985 Mar;161(3):1176–1181. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shabtai Y, Gutnick DL. Tolerance of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 to the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: role of the bioemulsifier emulsan. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1985 Jan;49(1):192–197. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shoham Y, Rosenberg E. Enzymatic depolymerization of emulsan. J Bacteriol. 1983 Oct;156(1):161–167. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Singleton P. N-mating in Escherichia coli is promoted by foaming. J Gen Microbiol. 1983 Dec;129(12):3697–3699. [PubMed]
  • Spaink HP, Sheeley DM, van Brussel AA, Glushka J, York WS, Tak T, Geiger O, Kennedy EP, Reinhold VN, Lugtenberg BJ. A novel highly unsaturated fatty acid moiety of lipo-oligosaccharide signals determines host specificity of Rhizobium. Nature. 1991 Nov 14;354(6349):125–130. [PubMed]
  • Tetz VV, Rybalchenko OV, Savkova GA. Surface films of Escherichia coli colonies. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1993 Mar 1;107(2-3):231–239. [PubMed]
  • Thimon L, Peypoux F, Wallach J, Michel G. Effect of the lipopeptide antibiotic, iturin A, on morphology and membrane ultrastructure of yeast cells. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995 May 1;128(2):101–106. [PubMed]
  • Thomashow MF, Rittenberg SC. Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: attachment of long-chain fatty acids to escherichia coli peptidoglycan. J Bacteriol. 1978 Sep;135(3):1015–1023. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thwaites JJ, Mendelson NH. Mechanical behaviour of bacterial cell walls. Adv Microb Physiol. 1991;32:173–222. [PubMed]
  • Tubbing DM, Admiraal W. Inhibition of bacterial and phytoplanktonic metabolic activity in the lower River Rhine by ditallowdimethylammonium chloride. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Dec;57(12):3616–3622. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ventullo RM, Larson RJ. Adaptation of aquatic microbial communities to quaternary ammonium compounds. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Feb;51(2):356–361. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Volkering F, Breure AM, van Andel JG, Rulkens WH. Influence of nonionic surfactants on bioavailability and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995 May;61(5):1699–1705. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wächtershäuser G. Before enzymes and templates: theory of surface metabolism. Microbiol Rev. 1988 Dec;52(4):452–484. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Walters PA, Abbott EA, Isquith AJ. Algicidal activity of a surface-bonded organosilicon quaternary ammonium chloride. Appl Microbiol. 1973 Feb;25(2):253–256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wesslén B, Kober M, Freij-Larsson C, Ljungh A, Paulsson M. Protein adsorption of poly(ether urethane) surfaces modified by amphiphilic and hydrophilic polymers. Biomaterials. 1994 Mar;15(4):278–284. [PubMed]
  • Westphal O, Jann K, Himmelspach K. Chemistry and immunochemistry of bacterial lipopolysaccharides as cell wall antigens and endotoxins. Prog Allergy. 1983;33:9–39. [PubMed]
  • Whitfield C, Valvano MA. Biosynthesis and expression of cell-surface polysaccharides in gram-negative bacteria. Adv Microb Physiol. 1993;35:135–246. [PubMed]
  • Whittaker C, Ridgway H, Olson BH. Evaluation of cleaning strategies for removal of biofilms from reverse-osmosis membranes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Aug;48(2):395–403. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wicken AJ, Evans JD, Knox KW. Critical micelle concentrations of lipoteichoic acids. J Bacteriol. 1986 Apr;166(1):72–77. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wicken AJ, Knox KW. Bacterial cell surface amphiphiles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 May 27;604(1):1–26. [PubMed]
  • Wiencek KM, Fletcher M. Bacterial adhesion to hydroxyl- and methyl-terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers. J Bacteriol. 1995 Apr;177(8):1959–1966. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hunter SW, Brennan PJ. Evidence for the presence of a phosphatidylinositol anchor on the lipoarabinomannan and lipomannan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jun 5;265(16):9272–9279. [PubMed]
  • Yamamoto T, Koga T, Mizuno J, Hamada S. Chemical and immunological characterization of a novel amphipathic antigen from biotype B Streptococcus sanguis. J Gen Microbiol. 1985 Aug;131(8):1981–1988. [PubMed]
  • Yoon WB, Rosson RA. Improved method of enumeration of attached bacteria for study of fluctuation in the abundance of attached and free-living bacteria in response to diel variation in seawater turbidity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Mar;56(3):595–600. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zajjc JE, Panchal CJ. Bio-emulsifiers. CRC Crit Rev Microbiol. 1976 Nov;5(1):39–66. [PubMed]
  • Zhang Y, Miller RM. Effect of a Pseudomonas rhamnolipid biosurfactant on cell hydrophobicity and biodegradation of octadecane. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994 Jun;60(6):2101–2106. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Microbiological Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...