• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of microrevMicrobiol Mol Biol Rev ArchivePermissionsJournals.ASM.orgMMBR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Microbiol Rev. Mar 1996; 60(1): 21–43.
PMCID: PMC239416

Molecular biology of the symbiotic-pathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (470K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Akhurst RJ. Antibiotic activity of Xenorhabdus spp., bacteria symbiotically associated with insect pathogenic nematodes of the families Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae. J Gen Microbiol. 1982 Dec;128(12):3061–3065. [PubMed]
  • Akhurst RJ. Neoaplectana species: specificity of association with bacteria of the genus Xenorhabdus. Exp Parasitol. 1983 Apr;55(2):258–263. [PubMed]
  • Andersen J, Forst SA, Zhao K, Inouye M, Delihas N. The function of micF RNA. micF RNA is a major factor in the thermal regulation of OmpF protein in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1989 Oct 25;264(30):17961–17970. [PubMed]
  • Bernardini ML, Fontaine A, Sansonetti PJ. The two-component regulatory system ompR-envZ controls the virulence of Shigella flexneri. J Bacteriol. 1990 Nov;172(11):6274–6281. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boemare NE, Boyer-Giglio MH, Thaler JO, Akhurst RJ, Brehelin M. Lysogeny and bacteriocinogeny in Xenorhabdus nematophilus and other Xenorhabdus spp. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992 Sep;58(9):3032–3037. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brinton CC., Jr The structure, function, synthesis and genetic control of bacterial pili and a molecular model for DNA and RNA transport in gram negative bacteria. Trans N Y Acad Sci. 1965 Jun;27(8):1003–1054. [PubMed]
  • Carlsson A, Engström P, Palva ET, Bennich H. Attacin, an antibacterial protein from Hyalophora cecropia, inhibits synthesis of outer membrane proteins in Escherichia coli by interfering with omp gene transcription. Infect Immun. 1991 Sep;59(9):3040–3045. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chou JH, Greenberg JT, Demple B. Posttranscriptional repression of Escherichia coli OmpF protein in response to redox stress: positive control of the micF antisense RNA by the soxRS locus. J Bacteriol. 1993 Feb;175(4):1026–1031. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Clarke DJ, Dowds BC. The gene coding for polynucleotide phosphorylase in Photorhabdus sp. strain K122 is induced at low temperatures. J Bacteriol. 1994 Jun;176(12):3775–3784. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cochrum L, Hruska KS, Rucker EB, Johnston TC. The nucleotide sequence of the luxD gene of Xenorhabdus luminescens Hm. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Sep 25;18(18):5570–5570. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Colepicolo P, Cho KW, Poinar GO, Hastings JW. Growth and luminescence of the bacterium Xenorhabdus luminescens from a human wound. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Oct;55(10):2601–2606. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Couche GA, Gregson RP. Protein inclusions produced by the entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophilus subsp. nematophilus. J Bacteriol. 1987 Nov;169(11):5279–5288. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cowan SW, Schirmer T, Rummel G, Steiert M, Ghosh R, Pauptit RA, Jansonius JN, Rosenbusch JP. Crystal structures explain functional properties of two E. coli porins. Nature. 1992 Aug 27;358(6389):727–733. [PubMed]
  • Dunphy GB. Interaction of mutants of Xenorhabdus nematophilus (Enterobacteriaceae) with antibacterial systems of Galleria mellonella larvae (Insecta: Pyralidae). Can J Microbiol. 1994 Mar;40(3):161–168. [PubMed]
  • DUTKY SR. Insect microbiology. Adv Appl Microbiol. 1959;1:175–200. [PubMed]
  • Engebrecht J, Nealson K, Silverman M. Bacterial bioluminescence: isolation and genetic analysis of functions from Vibrio fischeri. Cell. 1983 Mar;32(3):773–781. [PubMed]
  • Esterling L, Delihas N. The regulatory RNA gene micF is present in several species of gram-negative bacteria and is phylogenetically conserved. Mol Microbiol. 1994 May;12(4):639–646. [PubMed]
  • Farmer JJ, 3rd, Jorgensen JH, Grimont PA, Akhurst RJ, Poinar GO, Jr, Ageron E, Pierce GV, Smith JA, Carter GP, Wilson KL, et al. Xenorhabdus luminescens (DNA hybridization group 5) from human clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Jul;27(7):1594–1600. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Faye I. Acquired immunity in insects: the recognition of nonself and the subsequent onset of immune protein genes. Res Immunol. 1990 Nov-Dec;141(9):927–932. [PubMed]
  • Forst SA, Delgado J, Inouye M. DNA-binding properties of the transcription activator (OmpR) for the upstream sequences of ompF in Escherichia coli are altered by envZ mutations and medium osmolarity. J Bacteriol. 1989 Jun;171(6):2949–2955. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Forst S, Delgado J, Inouye M. Phosphorylation of OmpR by the osmosensor EnvZ modulates expression of the ompF and ompC genes in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Aug;86(16):6052–6056. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Forst S, Delgado J, Rampersaud A, Inouye M. In vivo phosphorylation of OmpR, the transcription activator of the ompF and ompC genes in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990 Jun;172(6):3473–3477. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Forst S, Inouye M. Environmentally regulated gene expression for membrane proteins in Escherichia coli. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1988;4:21–42. [PubMed]
  • Forst SA, Roberts DL. Signal transduction by the EnvZ-OmpR phosphotransfer system in bacteria. Res Microbiol. 1994 Jun-Aug;145(5-6):363–373. [PubMed]
  • Forst S, Waukau J, Leisman G, Exner M, Hancock R. Functional and regulatory analysis of the OmpF-like porin, OpnP, of the symbiotic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophilus. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Nov;18(4):779–789. [PubMed]
  • Frackman S, Anhalt M, Nealson KH. Cloning, organization, and expression of the bioluminescence genes of Xenorhabdus luminescens. J Bacteriol. 1990 Oct;172(10):5767–5773. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Francis MS, Parker AF, Morona R, Thomas CJ. Bacteriophage Lambda as a Delivery Vector for Tn10-Derived Transposons in Xenorhabdus bovienii. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 Sep;59(9):3050–3055. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fuqua WC, Winans SC, Greenberg EP. Quorum sensing in bacteria: the LuxR-LuxI family of cell density-responsive transcriptional regulators. J Bacteriol. 1994 Jan;176(2):269–275. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gerritsen LJ, de Raay G, Smits PH. Characterization of form variants of Xenorhabdus luminescens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992 Jun;58(6):1975–1979. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Givaudan A, Baghdiguian S, Lanois A, Boemare N. Swarming and Swimming Changes Concomitant with Phase Variation in Xenorhabdus nematophilus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995 Apr;61(4):1408–1413. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hengge-Aronis R. Survival of hunger and stress: the role of rpoS in early stationary phase gene regulation in E. coli. Cell. 1993 Jan 29;72(2):165–168. [PubMed]
  • Hopwood DA, Sherman DH. Molecular genetics of polyketides and its comparison to fatty acid biosynthesis. Annu Rev Genet. 1990;24:37–66. [PubMed]
  • Hurlbert RE, Xu J, Small CL. Colonial and Cellular Polymorphism in Xenorhabdus luminescens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 May;55(5):1136–1143. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Igo MM, Slauch JM, Silhavy TJ. Signal transduction in bacteria: kinases that control gene expression. New Biol. 1990 Jan;2(1):5–9. [PubMed]
  • Johnston TC, Rucker EB, Cochrum L, Hruska KS, Vandegrift V. The nucleotide sequence of the luxA and luxB genes of Xenorhabdus luminescens HM and a comparison of the amino acid sequences of luciferases from four species of bioluminescent bacteria. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 Jul 31;170(2):407–415. [PubMed]
  • Katz L, Donadio S. Polyketide synthesis: prospects for hybrid antibiotics. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1993;47:875–912. [PubMed]
  • Leclerc MC, Boemare NE. Plasmids and phase variation in Xenorhabdus spp. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Sep;57(9):2597–2601. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Leisman GB, Waukau J, Forst SA. Characterization and environmental regulation of outer membrane proteins in Xenorhabdus nematophilus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995 Jan;61(1):200–204. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Massad G, Lockatell CV, Johnson DE, Mobley HL. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae: construction of an isogenic pmfA mutant and analysis of virulence in a CBA mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. Infect Immun. 1994 Feb;62(2):536–542. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maxwell PW, Chen G, Webster JM, Dunphy GB. Stability and Activities of Antibiotics Produced during Infection of the Insect Galleria mellonella by Two Isolates of Xenorhabdus nematophilus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994 Feb;60(2):715–721. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McInerney BV, Gregson RP, Lacey MJ, Akhurst RJ, Lyons GR, Rhodes SH, Smith DR, Engelhardt LM, White AH. Biologically active metabolites from Xenorhabdus spp., Part 1. Dithiolopyrrolone derivatives with antibiotic activity. J Nat Prod. 1991 May-Jun;54(3):774–784. [PubMed]
  • McInerney BV, Taylor WC, Lacey MJ, Akhurst RJ, Gregson RP. Biologically active metabolites from Xenorhabdus spp., Part 2. Benzopyran-1-one derivatives with gastroprotective activity. J Nat Prod. 1991 May-Jun;54(3):785–795. [PubMed]
  • Meighen EA. Molecular biology of bacterial bioluminescence. Microbiol Rev. 1991 Mar;55(1):123–142. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Meighen EA, Szittner RB. Multiple repetitive elements and organization of the lux operons of luminescent terrestrial bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1992 Aug;174(16):5371–5381. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matsuyama S, Mizuno T, Mizushima S. Interaction between two regulatory proteins in osmoregulatory expression of ompF and ompC genes in Escherichia coli: a novel ompR mutation suppresses pleiotropic defects caused by an envZ mutation. J Bacteriol. 1986 Dec;168(3):1309–1314. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nealson KH. Autoinduction of bacterial luciferase. Occurrence, mechanism and significance. Arch Microbiol. 1977 Feb 4;112(1):73–79. [PubMed]
  • Nealson KH, Platt T, Hastings JW. Cellular control of the synthesis and activity of the bacterial luminescent system. J Bacteriol. 1970 Oct;104(1):313–322. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nikaido H. Porins and specific diffusion channels in bacterial outer membranes. J Biol Chem. 1994 Feb 11;269(6):3905–3908. [PubMed]
  • Poinar GO, Jr, Hess RT, Lanier W, Kinney S, White JH. Preliminary observations of a bacteriophage infecting Xenorhabdus luminescens (Enterobacteriaceae). Experientia. 1989 Feb 15;45(2):191–192. [PubMed]
  • Pütz J, Meinert F, Wyss U, Ehlers RU, Stackebrandt E. Development and application of oligonucleotide probes for molecular identification of Xenorhabdus species. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Jan;56(1):181–186. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rainey FA, Ehlers RU, Stackebrandt E. Inability of the polyphasic approach to systematics to determine the relatedness of the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1995 Apr;45(2):379–381. [PubMed]
  • Ramani N, Hedeshian M, Freundlich M. micF antisense RNA has a major role in osmoregulation of OmpF in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994 Aug;176(16):5005–5010. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rampersaud A, Harlocker SL, Inouye M. The OmpR protein of Escherichia coli binds to sites in the ompF promoter region in a hierarchical manner determined by its degree of phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 29;269(17):12559–12566. [PubMed]
  • Richardson WH, Schmidt TM, Nealson KH. Identification of an anthraquinone pigment and a hydroxystilbene antibiotic from Xenorhabdus luminescens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Jun;54(6):1602–1605. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roberts DL, Bennett DW, Forst SA. Identification of the site of phosphorylation on the osmosensor, EnvZ, of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 25;269(12):8728–8733. [PubMed]
  • Robertson BD, Meyer TF. Genetic variation in pathogenic bacteria. Trends Genet. 1992 Dec;8(12):422–427. [PubMed]
  • Russo FD, Silhavy TJ. EnvZ controls the concentration of phosphorylated OmpR to mediate osmoregulation of the porin genes. J Mol Biol. 1991 Dec 5;222(3):567–580. [PubMed]
  • Schmidt TM, Kopecky K, Nealson KH. Bioluminescence of the insect pathogen Xenorhabdus luminescens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Oct;55(10):2607–2612. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schmidt M, Zheng P, Delihas N. Secondary structures of Escherichia coli antisense micF RNA, the 5'-end of the target ompF mRNA, and the RNA/RNA duplex. Biochemistry. 1995 Mar 21;34(11):3621–3631. [PubMed]
  • Smigielski AJ, Akhurst RJ, Boemare NE. Phase Variation in Xenorhabdus nematophilus and Photorhabdus luminescens: Differences in Respiratory Activity and Membrane Energization. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994 Jan;60(1):120–125. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sundar L, Chang FN. The role of guanosine-3',5'-bis-pyrophosphate in mediating antimicrobial activity of the antibiotic 3,5-dihydroxy-4-ethyl-trans-stilbene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992 Dec;36(12):2645–2651. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sundar L, Chang FN. Antimicrobial activity and biosynthesis of indole antibiotics produced by Xenorhabdus nematophilus. J Gen Microbiol. 1993 Dec;139(12):3139–3148. [PubMed]
  • Swartzman E, Miyamoto C, Graham A, Meighen E. Delineation of the transcriptional boundaries of the lux operon of Vibrio harveyi demonstrates the presence of two new lux genes. J Biol Chem. 1990 Feb 25;265(6):3513–3517. [PubMed]
  • Tabatabai N, Forst S. Molecular analysis of the two-component genes, ompR and envZ, in the symbiotic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophilus. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Aug;17(4):643–652. [PubMed]
  • Tilney LG, Tilney MS. The wily ways of a parasite: induction of actin assembly by Listeria. Trends Microbiol. 1993 Apr;1(1):25–31. [PubMed]
  • Wang H, Dowds BC. Molecular cloning and characterization of the lux genes from the secondary form of Xenorhabdus luminescens, K122. Biochem Soc Trans. 1992 Feb;20(1):68S–68S. [PubMed]
  • Wang H, Dowds BC. Phase variation in Xenorhabdus luminescens: cloning and sequencing of the lipase gene and analysis of its expression in primary and secondary phases of the bacterium. J Bacteriol. 1993 Mar;175(6):1665–1673. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Waukau J, Forst S. Molecular analysis of the signaling pathway between EnvZ and OmpR in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992 Mar;174(5):1522–1527. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wimpee CF, Nadeau TL, Nealson KH. Development of species-specific hybridization probes for marine luminous bacteria by using in vitro DNA amplification. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 May;57(5):1319–1324. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Xi L, Cho KW, Tu SC. Cloning and nucleotide sequences of lux genes and characterization of luciferase of Xenorhabdus luminescens from a human wound. J Bacteriol. 1991 Feb;173(4):1399–1405. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Xu J, Hurlbert RE. Toxicity of Irradiated Media for Xenorhabdus spp. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Mar;56(3):815–818. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Xu J, Lohrke S, Hurlbert IM, Hurlbert RE. Transformation of Xenorhabdus nematophilus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Apr;55(4):806–812. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Xu J, Olson ME, Kahn ML, Hurlbert RE. Characterization of Tn5-Induced Mutants of Xenorhabdus nematophilus ATCC 19061. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Apr;57(4):1173–1180. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Microbiological Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...