Logo of bullwhoWHO Home PageBulletin Home PageBulletin Home PageAbout Bulletine-mail AlertSubmissions
Bull World Health Organ. 1993; 71(5): 561–569.
PMCID: PMC2393482

The reasons for early weaning among mothers in Teheran.


In order to identify the reasons for early weaning in Teheran, we interviewed 900 mothers using a systematic randomized sampling method. A total of 15% of the mothers were illiterate, 93% were housewives, and 97% had given birth in hospitals. Only 3% of the newborns benefited from rooming-in facilities in hospital, and 68% were bottle-fed while still in hospital. In 3.1% of cases the mother had not breast-fed her newborn at all. Of those who had breast-fed their infant, 38% used only their own milk, whereas 62% used a combination of breast milk and infant formula. The median duration of breast-feeding was 16 months (mean, 14 months). A total of 74% of mothers who used supplementary formula and 39% of those who had completely stopped breast-feeding blamed milk insufficiency, although 67% of these mothers had reached this conclusion only because their infants cried or were irritable. The following factors had a negative influence on the duration of breast-feeding: use of supplementary formula and of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives; fathers with high incomes; and mothers with a high educational level. In contrast, the mother's religious motive to breast-feed and her insistence on breast-feeding had a positive impact. Unfortunately, 21% of the mothers started using supplementary formula during the first month postpartum, and two-thirds before the end of the fourth month. Every month that bottle-feeding was started prematurely shortened the duration of breast-feeding by 20 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Morrow-Tlucak M, Haude RH, Ernhart CB. Breastfeeding and cognitive development in the first 2 years of life. Soc Sci Med. 1988;26(6):635–639. [PubMed]
  • Chandra RK. Prospective studies of the effect of breast feeding on incidence of infection and allergy. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1979 Sep;68(5):691–694. [PubMed]
  • Unni JC, Richard J. Growth and morbidity of breast-fed and artificially-fed infants in urban south Indian families. J Trop Pediatr. 1988 Aug;34(4):179–181. [PubMed]
  • Kennedy KI, Rivera R, McNeilly AS. Consensus statement on the use of breastfeeding as a family planning method. Contraception. 1989 May;39(5):477–496. [PubMed]
  • Saadeh R, Benbouzid D. Breast-feeding and child-spacing: importance of information collection for public health policy. Bull World Health Organ. 1990;68(5):625–631. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rea MF, Berquó ES. Impact of the Brazilian national breast-feeding programme on mothers in greater São Paulo. Bull World Health Organ. 1990;68(3):365–371. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Almroth S, Bidinger PD. No need for water supplementation for exclusively breast-fed infants under hot and arid conditions. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990 Jul-Aug;84(4):602–604. [PubMed]
  • Fallot ME, Boyd JL, 3rd, Oski FA. Breast-feeding reduces incidence of hospital admissions for infection in infants. Pediatrics. 1980 Jun;65(6):1121–1124. [PubMed]
  • Relucio-clavano N. The results of a change in hospital practices: a paediatrician's campaign for breast-feeding in the Philippines. Assignment Child. 1981 Feb;55-56:139–165. [PubMed]
  • Goodine LA, Fried PA. Infant feeding practices: pre- and postnatal factors affecting choice of method and the duration of breastfeeding. Can J Public Health. 1984 Nov-Dec;75(6):439–444. [PubMed]

Articles from Bulletin of the World Health Organization are provided here courtesy of World Health Organization


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...