Logo of aemPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalAEM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1985 Aug; 50(2): 364–372.
PMCID: PMC238629

Formation of Filaments by Pseudomonas putida

Abstract

When Pseudomonas putida 40 was grown on a variety of liquid media in which oxygen became a limiting factor during growth, the latter stages of growth involved the elongation of cells without septation, which can result in the complete filamentation of the culture (up to several hundred micrometers long). The filaments appeared to consist of a chain of protoplasts within a common sacculus. Later these filaments were capable of a rapid fragmentation by septation to give a population of ordinary rods with a corresponding increase in the number of viable particles but no appreciable change in total bacterial mass. Filamentation did not occur if slow growth rates were maintained by restriction of oxygen availability from the beginning of growth. In complex media filaments were not formed during growth on 1% peptone alone, but the addition of 0.1 M phosphate or 6.6 × 10−4 M EDTA induced extensive filamentation that was reversed by the addition of 6.6 × 10−4 M Mg2+. In minimal media a much higher Mg2+ concentration than that required for active growth or present in the complex media was usually required for filamentation. A very narrow range of Mg2+ concentration promoted filamentation, and this optimum differed markedly depending on the carbon source used. Other medium variations which influenced the level of filamentation are reported. We found that most strains of P. putida (including the neotype strain) and P. fluorescens gave filaments under the conditions developed with strain 40, whereas several strains of P. aeruginosa failed to give filaments on the same media.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Botta GA, Park JT. Evidence for involvement of penicillin-binding protein 3 in murein synthesis during septation but not during cell elongation. J Bacteriol. 1981 Jan;145(1):333–340. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Burdett ID, Murray RG. Septum formation in Escherichia coli: characterization of septal structure and the effects of antibiotics on cell division. J Bacteriol. 1974 Jul;119(1):303–324. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Falkinham JO, 3rd, Hoffman PS. Unique developmental characteristics of the swarm and short cells of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. J Bacteriol. 1984 Jun;158(3):1037–1040. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goodwin SD, Shedlarski JG., Jr Purification of cell wall peptidoglycan of the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1975 Sep;170(1):23–36. [PubMed]
  • Gottesman S, Zipser D. Deg phenotype of Escherichia coli lon mutants. J Bacteriol. 1978 Feb;133(2):844–851. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Heptinstall J, Rittenhouse HG, McFadden BA, Shumway LK. Effect of growth conditions on morphology of Hydrogenomonas facilis and on yield of a phospholipoprotein. J Bacteriol. 1972 Apr;110(1):363–367. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Higgins ML, Shockman GD. Procaryotic cell division with respect to wall and membranes. CRC Crit Rev Microbiol. 1971 May;1(1):29–72. [PubMed]
  • Hua SS, Markovitz A. Multiple regulator gene control of the galactose operon in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1972 Jun;110(3):1089–1099. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Huisman O, D'Ari R. An inducible DNA replication-cell division coupling mechanism in E. coli. Nature. 1981 Apr 30;290(5809):797–799. [PubMed]
  • Ishino F, Matsuhashi M. Peptidoglycan synthetic enzyme activities of highly purified penicillin-binding protein 3 in Escherichia coli: a septum-forming reaction sequence. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1981 Aug 14;101(3):905–911. [PubMed]
  • Johnson BF. Fine structure mapping and properties of mutations suppressing the lon mutation in Escherichia coli K-12 and B strains. Genet Res. 1977 Dec;30(3):273–286. [PubMed]
  • Kennell D, Kotoulas A. Magnesium starvation of Aerobacter aerogenes. IV. Cytochemical changes. J Bacteriol. 1967 Jan;93(1):367–378. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wells JS, Krieg NR. Cultivation of Spirillum volutans in a Bacteria-Free Environment. J Bacteriol. 1965 Sep;90(3):817–818. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mandel M. Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition in the genus Pseudomonas. J Gen Microbiol. 1966 May;43(2):273–292. [PubMed]
  • Mendelson NH. Bacterial growth and division: genes, structures, forces, and clocks. Microbiol Rev. 1982 Sep;46(3):341–375. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Metzger K. Killing of azlocillin- and mezlocillin-induced filamentous forms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by decreasing concentrations of penicillin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1982 Jan;9 (Suppl A):11–14. [PubMed]
  • Payne JW. The utilization of prolyl peptides by Escherichia coli. Biochem J. 1971 Jun;123(2):255–260. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pritchard RH. Review lecture on the growth and form of a bacterial cell. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1974 Feb 21;267(886):303–336. [PubMed]
  • Sargent MG. Control of cell length in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1975 Jul;123(1):7–19. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Siegel LS, Hylemon PB, Phibbs PV., Jr Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels and activities of adenylate cyclase and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase in Pseudomonas and Bacteroides. J Bacteriol. 1977 Jan;129(1):87–96. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stanier RY, Palleroni NJ, Doudoroff M. The aerobic pseudomonads: a taxonomic study. J Gen Microbiol. 1966 May;43(2):159–271. [PubMed]
  • Walker JR, Ussery CL, Allen JS. Bacterial cell division regulation: lysogenization of conditional cell division lon - mutants of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage. J Bacteriol. 1973 Mar;113(3):1326–1332. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • WEBB M. Effects of magnesium on cellular division in bacteria. Science. 1953 Nov 20;118(3073):607–611. [PubMed]
  • Williams FD, Schwarzhoff RH. Nature of the swarming phenomenon in Proteus. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1978;32:101–122. [PubMed]
  • Willis RC, Woolfolk CA. Asparagine utilization in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1974 Apr;118(1):231–241. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Woldringh CL. Morphological analysis of nuclear separation and cell division during the life cycle of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1976 Jan;125(1):248–257. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Woolfolk CA. Metabolism of N-methylpurines by a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated by enrichment on caffeine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. J Bacteriol. 1975 Sep;123(3):1088–1106. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Woolfolk CA, Downard JS. Distribution of xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase specificity types among bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1977 Jun;130(3):1175–1191. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Applied and Environmental Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...