Logo of aemPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalAEM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1985 Apr; 49(4): 975–980.
PMCID: PMC238480

Photoreactivation of UV-irradiated Legionella pneumophila and other Legionella species.


Shortwave UV light was assessed as a feasible modality for the control of Legionnaires disease bacterium in water. The results of this study show that Legionella pneumophila and six other Legionella species are very sensitive to low doses of UV. However, all Legionella species tested effectively countered the germicidal effect of UV when subsequently exposed to photoreactiving light.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Antopol SC, Ellner PD. Susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila to ultraviolet radiation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1979 Aug;38(2):347–348. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Baine WB, Rasheed JK. Aromatic substrate specificity of browning by cultures of the Legionnaires' disease bacterium. Ann Intern Med. 1979 Apr;90(4):619–620. [PubMed]
  • Bartlett CL. Sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease in Great Britain. Ann Intern Med. 1979 Apr;90(4):592–595. [PubMed]
  • Brenner DJ, Steigerwalt AG, McDade JE. Classification of the Legionnaires' disease bacterium: Legionella pneumophila, genus novum, species nova, of the family Legionellaceae, familia nova. Ann Intern Med. 1979 Apr;90(4):656–658. [PubMed]
  • Carson LA, Petersen NJ. Photoreactivation of Pseudomonas cepacia after ultraviolet exposure: a potential source of contamination in ultraviolet-treated waters. J Clin Microbiol. 1975 May;1(5):462–464. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cherry WB, Gorman GW, Orrison LH, Moss CW, Steigerwalt AG, Wilkinson HW, Johnson SE, McKinney RM, Brenner DJ. Legionella jordanis: a new species of Legionella isolated from water and sewage. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Feb;15(2):290–297. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cordes LG, Wiesenthal AM, Gorman GW, Phair JP, Sommers HM, Brown A, Yu VL, Magnussen MH, Meyer RD, Wolf JS, et al. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hospital shower heads. Ann Intern Med. 1981 Feb;94(2):195–197. [PubMed]
  • de Freitas JL, Borst J, Meenhorst PL. Easy visualisation of Legionella pneumophila by "half-a-gram" stain procedure. Lancet. 1979 Feb 3;1(8110):270–271. [PubMed]
  • Dondero TJ, Jr, Rendtorff RC, Mallison GF, Weeks RM, Levy JS, Wong EW, Schaffner W. An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a contaminated air-conditioning cooling tower. N Engl J Med. 1980 Feb 14;302(7):365–370. [PubMed]
  • Edelstein PH, Brenner DJ, Moss CW, Steigerwalt AG, Francis EM, George WL. Legionella wadsworthii species nova: a cause of human pneumonia. Ann Intern Med. 1982 Dec;97(6):809–813. [PubMed]
  • Feeley JC, Gibson RJ, Gorman GW, Langford NC, Rasheed JK, Mackel DC, Baine WB. Charcoal-yeast extract agar: primary isolation medium for Legionella pneumophila. J Clin Microbiol. 1979 Oct;10(4):437–441. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fliermans CB, Cherry WB, Orrison LH, Smith SJ, Tison DL, Pope DH. Ecological distribution of Legionella pneumophila. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1981 Jan;41(1):9–16. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fliermans CB, Cherry WB, Orrison LH, Thacker L. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from nonepidemic-related aquatic habitats. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1979 Jun;37(6):1239–1242. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fraser DW. Legionnaires' disease: four summers' harvest. Am J Med. 1980 Jan;68(1):1–2. [PubMed]
  • Fraser DW, Tsai TR, Orenstein W, Parkin WE, Beecham HJ, Sharrar RG, Harris J, Mallison GF, Martin SM, McDade JE, et al. Legionnaires' disease: description of an epidemic of pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1977 Dec 1;297(22):1189–1197. [PubMed]
  • Glick TH, Gregg MB, Berman B, Mallison G, Rhodes WW, Jr, Kassanoff I. Pontiac fever. An epidemic of unknown etiology in a health department: I. Clinical and epidemiologic aspects. Am J Epidemiol. 1978 Feb;107(2):149–160. [PubMed]
  • Gorman GW, Yu VL, Brown A, Hall JA, Martin WT, Bibb WF, Morris GK, Magnussen MH, Fraser DW. Isolation of Pittsburgh pneumonia agent from nebulizers used in respiratory therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Oct;93(4):572–573. [PubMed]
  • Gregory DW, Schaffner W, Alford RH, Kaiser AB, McGee ZA. Sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease: the expanding clinical spectrum. Ann Intern Med. 1979 Apr;90(4):518–521. [PubMed]
  • Gump DW, Frank RO, Winn WC, Jr, Foster RS, Jr, Broome CV, Cherry WB. Legionnaires' disease in patients with associated serious disease. Ann Intern Med. 1979 Apr;90(4):538–542. [PubMed]
  • Haley CE, Cohen ML, Halter J, Meyer RD. Nosocomial Legionnaires' disease: a continuing common-source epidemic at Wadsworth Medical Center. Ann Intern Med. 1979 Apr;90(4):583–586. [PubMed]
  • Harm W. Biological determination of the germicidal activity of sunlight. Radiat Res. 1969 Oct;40(1):63–69. [PubMed]
  • JAGGER J. Photoreactivation. Bacteriol Rev. 1958 Jun;22(2):99–142. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kirby BD, Snyder KM, Meyer RD, Finegold SM. Legionnaires' disease: report of sixty-five nosocomially acquired cases of review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1980 May;59(3):188–205. [PubMed]
  • Kuchta JM, States SJ, McNamara AM, Wadowsky RM, Yee RB. Susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila to chlorine in tap water. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1983 Nov;46(5):1134–1139. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mayock PP, Bader PI. Case report. Legionnaires' disease. A review of clinical aspects of 18 sporadic cases. Am J Med Sci. 1979 Mar-Apr;277(2):215–222. [PubMed]
  • Orrison LH, Cherry WB, Tyndall RL, Fliermans CB, Gough SB, Lambert MA, McDougal LK, Bibb WF, Brenner DJ. Legionella oakridgensis: unusual new species isolated from cooling tower water. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1983 Feb;45(2):536–545. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Plouffe JF, Webster LR, Hackman B. Relationship between colonization of hospital building with Legionella pneumophila and hot water temperatures. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1983 Sep;46(3):769–770. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ristroph JD, Hedlund KW, Allen RG. Liquid medium for growth of Legionella pneumophila. J Clin Microbiol. 1980 Jan;11(1):19–21. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Skaliy P, Thompson TA, Gorman GW, Morris GK, McEachern HV, Mackel DC. Laboratory studies of disinfectants against Legionella pneumophila. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1980 Oct;40(4):697–700. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stout J, Yu VL, Vickers RM, Zuravleff J, Best M, Brown A, Yee RB, Wadowsky R. Ubiquitousness of Legionella pneumophila in the water supply of a hospital with endemic Legionnaires' disease. N Engl J Med. 1982 Feb 25;306(8):466–468. [PubMed]
  • Tison DL, Pope DH, Cherry WB, Fliermans CB. Growth of Legionella pneumophila in association with blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). Appl Environ Microbiol. 1980 Feb;39(2):456–459. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tobin JO, Beare J, Dunnill MS, Fisher-Hoch S, French M, Mitchell RG, Morris PJ, Muers MF. Legionnaires' disease in a transplant unit: isolation of the causative agent from shower baths. Lancet. 1980 Jul 19;2(8186):118–121. [PubMed]
  • Wadowsky RM, Yee RB, Mezmar L, Wing EJ, Dowling JN. Hot water systems as sources of Legionella pneumophila in hospital and nonhospital plumbing fixtures. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1982 May;43(5):1104–1110. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Witkin EM. Inherited Differences in Sensitivity to Radiation in Escherichia Coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1946 Mar;32(3):59–68. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Applied and Environmental Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem chemical substance records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records.

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...