• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jvirolPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJV ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Virol. Aug 1993; 67(8): 5056–5061.
PMCID: PMC237897

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein is an oligomeric type I integral membrane protein.

Abstract

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein is a 16-kDa phosphoprotein which enhances the efficiency of virion production and induces rapid degradation of CD4, the cellular receptor for human immunodeficiency virus. The topology of membrane-inserted Vpu was investigated by using in vitro-synthesized Vpu cotranslationally inserted into canine microsomal membranes. Proteolytic digestion and immunoprecipitation studies revealed that Vpu was a type I integral membrane protein, with the hydrophilic domain projecting from the cytoplasmic membrane face. In addition, several high-molecular-weight proteins containing Vpu were identified by chemical cross-linking. Such complexes also formed when wild-type Vpu and a Tat-Vpu fusion protein were coexpressed. Subsequent analysis by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that these high-molecular-weight complexes consisted of homo-oligomers of Vpu. These findings indicate that Vpu is a type I integral membrane protein capable of multimerization.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Chou PY, Fasman GD. Prediction of protein conformation. Biochemistry. 1974 Jan 15;13(2):222–245. [PubMed]
  • Gaedigk-Nitschko K, Ding MX, Levy MA, Schlesinger MJ. Site-directed mutations in the Sindbis virus 6K protein reveal sites for fatty acylation and the underacylated protein affects virus release and virion structure. Virology. 1990 Mar;175(1):282–291. [PubMed]
  • Goldstein DJ, Kulke R, Dimaio D, Schlegel R. A glutamine residue in the membrane-associating domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E5 oncoprotein mediates its binding to a transmembrane component of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. J Virol. 1992 Jan;66(1):405–413. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Haeuptle MT, Flint N, Gough NM, Dobberstein B. A tripartite structure of the signals that determine protein insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. J Cell Biol. 1989 Apr;108(4):1227–1236. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hiebert SW, Paterson RG, Lamb RA. Identification and predicted sequence of a previously unrecognized small hydrophobic protein, SH, of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5. J Virol. 1985 Sep;55(3):744–751. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hiebert SW, Richardson CD, Lamb RA. Cell surface expression and orientation in membranes of the 44-amino-acid SH protein of simian virus 5. J Virol. 1988 Jul;62(7):2347–2357. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • High S, Flint N, Dobberstein B. Requirements for the membrane insertion of signal-anchor type proteins. J Cell Biol. 1991 Apr;113(1):25–34. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • High S, Tanner MJ. Human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoprotein beta. The cDNA sequence suggests the absence of a cleaved N-terminal signal sequence. Biochem J. 1987 Apr 1;243(1):277–280. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Horwitz BH, Burkhardt AL, Schlegel R, DiMaio D. 44-amino-acid E5 transforming protein of bovine papillomavirus requires a hydrophobic core and specific carboxyl-terminal amino acids. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Oct;8(10):4071–4078. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Klimkait T, Strebel K, Hoggan MD, Martin MA, Orenstein JM. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific protein vpu is required for efficient virus maturation and release. J Virol. 1990 Feb;64(2):621–629. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morozov SY, Miroshnichenko NA, Solovyev AG, Zelenina DA, Fedorkin ON, Lukasheva LI, Grachev SA, Chernov BK. In vitro membrane binding of the translation products of the carlavirus 7-kDa protein genes. Virology. 1991 Aug;183(2):782–785. [PubMed]
  • Pinto LH, Holsinger LJ, Lamb RA. Influenza virus M2 protein has ion channel activity. Cell. 1992 May 1;69(3):517–528. [PubMed]
  • Reiss P, Lange JM, de Ronde A, de Wolf F, Dekker J, Danner SA, Debouck C, Goudsmit J. Antibody response to viral proteins U (vpu) and R (vpr) in HIV-1-infected individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1990;3(2):115–122. [PubMed]
  • Remaut E, Stanssens P, Fiers W. Plasmid vectors for high-efficiency expression controlled by the PL promoter of coliphage lambda. Gene. 1981 Oct;15(1):81–93. [PubMed]
  • Rice CM, Strauss JH. Nucleotide sequence of the 26S mRNA of Sindbis virus and deduced sequence of the encoded virus structural proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Apr;78(4):2062–2066. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sato T, Sakaguchi M, Mihara K, Omura T. The amino-terminal structures that determine topological orientation of cytochrome P-450 in microsomal membrane. EMBO J. 1990 Aug;9(8):2391–2397. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Strebel K, Beck E, Strohmaier K, Schaller H. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins. J Virol. 1986 Mar;57(3):983–991. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Strebel K, Daugherty D, Clouse K, Cohen D, Folks T, Martin MA. The HIV 'A' (sor) gene product is essential for virus infectivity. Nature. 1987 Aug 20;328(6132):728–730. [PubMed]
  • Strebel K, Klimkait T, Maldarelli F, Martin MA. Molecular and biochemical analyses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpu protein. J Virol. 1989 Sep;63(9):3784–3791. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Strebel K, Klimkait T, Martin MA. A novel gene of HIV-1, vpu, and its 16-kilodalton product. Science. 1988 Sep 2;241(4870):1221–1223. [PubMed]
  • Sugrue RJ, Hay AJ. Structural characteristics of the M2 protein of influenza A viruses: evidence that it forms a tetrameric channel. Virology. 1991 Feb;180(2):617–624. [PubMed]
  • Tifft CJ, Proia RL, Camerini-Otero RD. The folding and cell surface expression of CD4 requires glycosylation. J Biol Chem. 1992 Feb 15;267(5):3268–3273. [PubMed]
  • Tung FY, Abraham S, Sethna M, Hung SL, Sethna P, Hogue BG, Brian DA. The 9-kDa hydrophobic protein encoded at the 3' end of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus genome is membrane-associated. Virology. 1992 Feb;186(2):676–683. [PubMed]
  • Walter P, Blobel G. Preparation of microsomal membranes for cotranslational protein translocation. Methods Enzymol. 1983;96:84–93. [PubMed]
  • Willey RL, Maldarelli F, Martin MA, Strebel K. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein regulates the formation of intracellular gp160-CD4 complexes. J Virol. 1992 Jan;66(1):226–234. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Willey RL, Maldarelli F, Martin MA, Strebel K. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein induces rapid degradation of CD4. J Virol. 1992 Dec;66(12):7193–7200. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yao XJ, Göttlinger H, Haseltine WA, Cohen EA. Envelope glycoprotein and CD4 independence of vpu-facilitated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid export. J Virol. 1992 Aug;66(8):5119–5126. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zebedee SL, Lamb RA. Influenza A virus M2 protein: monoclonal antibody restriction of virus growth and detection of M2 in virions. J Virol. 1988 Aug;62(8):2762–2772. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Virology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...