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J Virol. Jan 1993; 67(1): 530–542.
PMCID: PMC237390

Evidence from the anti-idiotypic network that the acetylcholine receptor is a rabies virus receptor.

Abstract

We have developed idiotype-anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies that provide evidence for rabies virus binding to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Hybridoma cell lines 7.12 and 7.25 resulted after fusion of NS-1 myeloma cells with spleen cells from a BALB/c mouse immunized with rabies virus strain CVS. Antibody 7.12 reacted with viral glycoprotein and neutralized virus infectivity in vivo. It also neutralized infectivity in vitro when PC12 cells, which express neuronal AChR, but not CER cells or neuroblastoma cells (clone N18), which have no AChR, were used. Antibody 7.25 reacted with nucleocapsid protein. Anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody B9 was produced from fusion of NS-1 cells with spleen cells from a mouse immunized with 7.12 Fab. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoprecipitation, B9 reacted with 7.12, polyclonal rabies virus immune dog serum, and purified AChR. The binding of B9 to 7.12 and immune dog serum was inhibited by AChR. B9 also inhibited the binding of 7.12 to rabies virus both in vitro and in vivo. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed that B9 reacted at neuromuscular junctions of mouse tissue. B9 also reacted in indirect immunofluorescence with distinct neurons in mouse and monkey brain tissue as well as with PC12 cells. B9 staining of neuronal elements in brain tissue of rabies virus-infected mice was greatly reduced. Rabies virus inhibited the binding of B9 to PC12 cells. Mice immunized with B9 developed low-titer rabies virus-neutralizing antibody. These mice were protected from lethal intramuscular rabies virus challenge. In contrast, anti-idiotypic antibody raised against nucleocapsid antibody 7.25 did not react with AChR.

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