Logo of brjcancerBJC HomepageBJC Advance online publicationBJC Current IssueSubmitting an article to BJCWeb feeds
Br J Cancer. 2001 Aug; 85(3): 422–427.
PMCID: PMC2364069

CGH analysis of ductal carcinoma of the breast with basaloid/myoepithelial cell differentiation


2–18% of ductal carcinoma-No Special Type (NST) are reported to express basal cell keratin 14 and such tumours may have a different metastatic pattern and prognosis. We performed immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins 19 (luminal) and 14 (basal) on 92 ductal carcinoma-NST. Those tumours showing CK14 expression were further characterized by immunohistochemistry for myoepithelial cell phenotype and analysed by comparative genomic hybridization. The 7 cases of ductal carcinoma-NST exhibiting a basal cell phenotype were all grade III tumours and showed a molecular cytogenetic profile similar to more conventional myoepithelial cell carcinomas. Therefore it appears that grade III invasive ductal carcinomas contain a subset of tumours with specific morphological and cytogenetic characteristics, and probably prognosis for the patient. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Keywords: CGH, myoepithelial, ductal carcinoma, breast, keratin 14, basal cells

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (655K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Accurso A, Donofrio V, Insabato L, Mosella G. Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast. A case report. Tumori. 1990 Dec 31;76(6):606–610. [PubMed]
  • Barnes DM, Harris WH, Smith P, Millis RR, Rubens RD. Immunohistochemical determination of oestrogen receptor: comparison of different methods of assessment of staining and correlation with clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. Br J Cancer. 1996 Nov;74(9):1445–1451. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Buerger H, Otterbach F, Simon R, Schäfer KL, Poremba C, Diallo R, Brinkschmidt C, Dockhorn-Dworniczak B, Boecker W. Different genetic pathways in the evolution of invasive breast cancer are associated with distinct morphological subtypes. J Pathol. 1999 Dec;189(4):521–526. [PubMed]
  • Dairkee SH, Puett L, Hackett AJ. Expression of basal and luminal epithelium-specific keratins in normal, benign, and malignant breast tissue. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1988 Jul 6;80(9):691–695. [PubMed]
  • Damiani S, Riccioni L, Pasquinelli G, Eusebi V. Poorly differentiated myoepithelial cell rich carcinoma of the breast. Histopathology. 1997 Jun;30(6):542–548. [PubMed]
  • Desautels JE. Malignant myoepithelioma of the breast: a case report. Can Assoc Radiol J. 1990 Dec;41(6):387–388. [PubMed]
  • Ellis IO, Dowsett M, Bartlett J, Walker R, Cooke T, Gullick W, Gusterson B, Mallon E, Lee PB. Recommendations for HER2 testing in the UK. J Clin Pathol. 2000 Dec;53(12):890–892. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Erlandson RA, Rosen PP. Infiltrating myoepithelioma of the breast. Am J Surg Pathol. 1982 Dec;6(8):785–793. [PubMed]
  • Eusebi V, Casadei GP, Bussolati G, Azzopardi JG. Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast with a distinctive type of apocrine adenosis. Histopathology. 1987 Mar;11(3):305–315. [PubMed]
  • Foschini MP, Eusebi V. Carcinomas of the breast showing myoepithelial cell differentiation. A review of the literature. Virchows Arch. 1998 Apr;432(4):303–310. [PubMed]
  • Foschini Maria P, Scarpellini Francesca, Gown Allen M, Eusebi Vincenzo. Differential Expression of Myoepithelial Markers in Salivary, Sweat and Mammary Glands. Int J Surg Pathol. 2000 Jan;8(1):29–37. [PubMed]
  • Gould VE, Koukoulis GK, Jansson DS, Nagle RB, Franke WW, Moll R. Coexpression patterns of vimentin and glial filament protein with cytokeratins in the normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic breast. Am J Pathol. 1990 Nov;137(5):1143–1155. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Guelstein VI, Tchypysheva TA, Ermilova VD, Litvinova LV, Troyanovsky SM, Bannikov GA. Monoclonal antibody mapping of keratins 8 and 17 and of vimentin in normal human mammary gland, benign tumors, dysplasias and breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 1988 Aug 15;42(2):147–153. [PubMed]
  • Gusterson BA, Warburton MJ, Mitchell D, Ellison M, Neville AM, Rudland PS. Distribution of myoepithelial cells and basement membrane proteins in the normal breast and in benign and malignant breast diseases. Cancer Res. 1982 Nov;42(11):4763–4770. [PubMed]
  • Jóhannsson OT, Idvall I, Anderson C, Borg A, Barkardóttir RB, Egilsson V, Olsson H. Tumour biological features of BRCA1-induced breast and ovarian cancer. Eur J Cancer. 1997 Mar;33(3):362–371. [PubMed]
  • Jones C, Foschini MP, Chaggar R, Lu YJ, Wells D, Shipley JM, Eusebi V, Lakhani SR. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast. Lab Invest. 2000 Jun;80(6):831–836. [PubMed]
  • Lakhani SR, O'Hare MJ, Monaghan P, Winehouse J, Gazet JC, Sloane JP. Malignant myoepithelioma (myoepithelial carcinoma) of the breast: a detailed cytokeratin study. J Clin Pathol. 1995 Feb;48(2):164–167. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lakhani SR, Chaggar R, Davies S, Jones C, Collins N, Odel C, Stratton MR, O'Hare MJ. Genetic alterations in 'normal' luminal and myoepithelial cells of the breast. J Pathol. 1999 Dec;189(4):496–503. [PubMed]
  • Malzahn K, Mitze M, Thoenes M, Moll R. Biological and prognostic significance of stratified epithelial cytokeratins in infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas. Virchows Arch. 1998 Aug;433(2):119–129. [PubMed]
  • Nagle RB, Böcker W, Davis JR, Heid HW, Kaufmann M, Lucas DO, Jarasch ED. Characterization of breast carcinomas by two monoclonal antibodies distinguishing myoepithelial from luminal epithelial cells. J Histochem Cytochem. 1986 Jul;34(7):869–881. [PubMed]
  • Nishizaki T, DeVries S, Chew K, Goodson WH, 3rd, Ljung BM, Thor A, Waldman FM. Genetic alterations in primary breast cancers and their metastases: direct comparison using modified comparative genomic hybridization. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1997 Aug;19(4):267–272. [PubMed]
  • Perou CM, Sørlie T, Eisen MB, van de Rijn M, Jeffrey SS, Rees CA, Pollack JR, Ross DT, Johnsen H, Akslen LA, et al. Molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature. 2000 Aug 17;406(6797):747–752. [PubMed]
  • Roylance R, Gorman P, Harris W, Liebmann R, Barnes D, Hanby A, Sheer D. Comparative genomic hybridization of breast tumors stratified by histological grade reveals new insights into the biological progression of breast cancer. Cancer Res. 1999 Apr 1;59(7):1433–1436. [PubMed]
  • Schwendel A, Richard F, Langreck H, Kaufmann O, Lage H, Winzer KJ, Petersen I, Dietel M. Chromosome alterations in breast carcinomas: frequent involvement of DNA losses including chromosomes 4q and 21q. Br J Cancer. 1998 Sep;78(6):806–811. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shiraishi T, Nakayama T, Fukutome K, Watanabe M, Murata T. Malignant myoepithelioma of the breast metastasizing to the jaw. Virchows Arch. 1999 Nov;435(5):520–523. [PubMed]
  • Tavassoli FA. Myoepithelial lesions of the breast. Myoepitheliosis, adenomyoepithelioma, and myoepithelial carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 1991 Jun;15(6):554–568. [PubMed]
  • Thorner PS, Kahn HJ, Baumal R, Lee K, Moffatt W. Malignant myoepithelioma of the breast. An immunohistochemical study by light and electron microscopy. Cancer. 1986 Feb 15;57(4):745–750. [PubMed]
  • Tirkkonen M, Tanner M, Karhu R, Kallioniemi A, Isola J, Kallioniemi OP. Molecular cytogenetics of primary breast cancer by CGH. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1998 Mar;21(3):177–184. [PubMed]
  • Tsuda H, Takarabe T, Hasegawa T, Murata T, Hirohashi S. Myoepithelial differentiation in high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas with large central acellular zones. Hum Pathol. 1999 Oct;30(10):1134–1139. [PubMed]
  • Tsuda H, Takarabe T, Hasegawa F, Fukutomi T, Hirohashi S. Large, central acellular zones indicating myoepithelial tumor differentiation in high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas as markers of predisposition to lung and brain metastases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000 Feb;24(2):197–202. [PubMed]
  • Wells D, Sherlock JK, Handyside AH, Delhanty JD. Detailed chromosomal and molecular genetic analysis of single cells by whole genome amplification and comparative genomic hybridisation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999 Feb 15;27(4):1214–1218. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wetzels RH, Kuijpers HJ, Lane EB, Leigh IM, Troyanovsky SM, Holland R, van Haelst UJ, Ramaekers FC. Basal cell-specific and hyperproliferation-related keratins in human breast cancer. Am J Pathol. 1991 Mar;138(3):751–763. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from British Journal of Cancer are provided here courtesy of Cancer Research UK


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem chemical substance records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records.

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...